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Shore (Durometer) hardness test

Shore hardness is a measure of the resistance of a material to penetration of a spring loaded needle-like indenter. Hardness of Polymers (rubbers, plastics) is usually measured by Shore scales. Shore A scale is used for testing soft Elastomers (rubbers) and other soft polymers. Hardness of hard elastomers and most other polymer materials (Thermoplastics, Thermosets) is measured by Shore D scale. Shore hardness is tested with an instrument called Durometer. Durometer utilizes an indenter loaded by a calibrated spring. The measured hardness is determined by the penetration depth of the indenter under the load.Two different indenter shapes (see the picture below) and two different spring loads are used for two Shore scales (A and D). The loading forces of Shore A: 1.812 lb (822 g), Shore D: 10 lb (4536 g). Shore hardness value may vary in the range from 0 to 100. Maximum penetration for each scale is 0.097-0.1 inch (2.52.54 mm). This value corresponds to minimum Shore hardness: 0. Maximum hardness value 100 corresponds to zero penetration.

Durometer hardness conversion Shore A 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Shore D 6 7 8 10 12 14 16 19 22 25 29 33 39 46 58

Rubber hardness and applications Hardness 30 Shore A 35 Shore A 40 Shore A 50 Shore A 55 Shore A 60 Shore A 65 Shore A 70 Shore A 75 Shore A 80 Shore A 85 Shore A 90 Shore A 95 Shore A 60 Shore D 70 Shore D 80 Shore D Application Art gum erasers Rubber bands Can tester pads Rubber stamps Pencil erasers Screen wiper blades Automotive tires Shoe heels Abrasive handling pads Shoe soles Tap washers Typewriter rollers Fork lift solid tires Golf ball Metal forming wiper dies Paper-making rolls

Iron-carbon phase diagram


Iron-carbon phase diagram describes the iron-carbon system of alloys containing up to 6.67% of carbon, discloses the phases compositions and their transformations occurring with the alloys during their cooling or heating. Carbon content 6.67% corresponds to the fixed composition of the iron carbide Fe3C. The diagram is presented in the picture:

The following phases are involved in the transformation, occurring with iron-carbon alloys:

L - Liquid solution of carbon in iron; -ferrite Solid solution of carbon in iron.

Maximum concentration of carbon in -ferrite is 0.09% at 2719 F (1493C) temperature of the peritectic transformation. The crystal structure of -ferrite is BCC (cubic body centered).

Austenite interstitial solid solution of carbon in -iron.

Austenite has FCC (cubic face centered) crystal structure, permitting high solubility of carbon up to 2.06% at 2097 F (1147 C).

Austenite does not exist below 1333 F (723C) and maximum carbon concentration at this temperature is 0.83%.

-ferrite solid solution of carbon in -iron.

-ferrite has BCC crystal structure and low solubility of carbon up to 0.025% at 1333 F (723C). -ferrite exists at room temperature.

Cementite iron carbide, intermetallic compound, having fixed composition Fe3C.

Cementite is a hard and brittle substance, influencing on the properties of steels and cast irons. The following phase transformations occur with iron-carbon alloys: Alloys, containing up to 0.51% of carbon, start solidification with formation of crystals of -ferrite. Carbon content in -ferrite increases up to 0.09% in course solidification, and at 2719 F (1493C) remaining liquid phase and -ferrite perform peritectic transformation, resulting in formation of austenite. Alloys, containing carbon more than 0.51%, but less than 2.06%, form primary austenite crystals in the beginning of solidification and when the temperature reaches the curve ACM primary cementite stars to form. Iron-carbon alloys, containing up to 2.06% of carbon, are called steels. Alloys, containing from 2.06 to 6.67% of carbon, experience eutectic transformation at 2097 F (1147 C). The eutectic concentration of carbon is 4.3%. In practice only hypoeutectic alloys are used. These alloys (carbon content from 2.06% to 4.3%) are called cast irons. When temperature of an alloy from this range reaches 2097 F (1147 C), it contains primary austenite crystals and some amount of the liquid phase. The latter decomposes by eutectic mechanism to a fine mixture of austenite and cementite, called ledeburite. All iron-carbon alloys (steels and cast irons) experience eutectoid transformation at 1333 F (723C). The eutectoid concentration of carbon is 0.83%. When the temperature of an alloy reaches 1333 F (733C), austenite transforms to pearlite (fine ferrite-cementite structure, forming as a result of decomposition of austenite at slow cooling conditions). Critical temperatures

Upper critical temperature (point) A3 is the temperature, below which ferrite starts to form as a result of ejection from austenite in the hypoeutectoid alloys. Upper critical temperature (point) ACM is the temperature, below which cementite starts to form as a result of ejection from austenite in the hypereutectoid alloys.

Lower critical temperature (point) A1 is the temperature of the austenite-to-pearlite eutectoid transformation. Below this temperature austenite does not exist. Magnetic transformation temperature A2 is the temperature below which -ferrite is ferromagnetic.

Phase compositions of the iron-carbon alloys at room temperature

Hypoeutectoid steels (carbon content from 0 to 0.83%) consist of primary (proeutectoid) ferrite (according to the curve A3) and pearlite. Eutectoid steel (carbon content 0.83%) entirely consists of pearlite. Hypereutectoid steels (carbon content from 0.83 to 2.06%) consist of primary (proeutectoid)cementite (according to the curve ACM) and pearlite. Cast irons (carbon content from 2.06% to 4.3%) consist of proeutectoid cementite C2 ejected from austenite according to the curve ACM , pearlite and transformed ledeburite (ledeburite in which austenite transformed to pearlite).

Stainless steel AISI 304


AISI 304 Chemical composition: C=0.08%max, Mn=2%max, Cr=19%, Ni=9.5% Property Value in metric unit Value in US unit Density 7.9 *10 kg/m 493 lb/ft Modulus of elasticity 193 GPa 28000 ksi Thermal expansion (20 C) 17.2*10-6 C 9.5*10-6 in/(in* F) Specific heat capacity 502 J/(kg*K) 0.12 BTU/(lb*F) Thermal conductivity 16.2 W/(m*K) 112 BTU*in/(hr*ft*F) -7 -5 Electric resistivity 7.2*10 Ohm*m 7.2*10 Ohm*cm Tensile strength (annealed) 586 MPa 85000 psi Yield strength (annealed) 241 MPa 35000 psi Elongation (annealed) 55 % 55 % Hardness (annealed) 80 RB 80 RB Tensile strength (1/2 hard) 1100 MPa 160000 psi Yield strength (1/2 hard) 760 MPa 110000 psi Elongation (1/2 hard) 10 % 10 % Hardness (1/2 hard) 35 RC 35 RC

Stainless steel AISI 316

AISI 316 Chemical composition: C=0.08%max, Mn=2%max, Cr=17%, Ni=12%, Mo=2.5% Property Value in metric unit Value in US unit Density 8.0 *10 kg/m 499 lb/ft Modulus of elasticity 193 GPa 28000 ksi -6 Thermal expansion (20 C) 15.9*10 C 8.8*10-6 in/(in* F) Specific heat capacity 502 J/(kg*K) 0.12 BTU/(lb*F) Thermal conductivity 16.2 W/(m*K) 112 BTU*in/(hr*ft*F) -7 -5 Electric resistivity 7.4*10 Ohm*m 7.4*10 Ohm*cm Tensile strength (annealed) 586 MPa 85000 psi Yield strength (annealed) 241 MPa 35000 psi Elongation (annealed) 55 % 55 % Hardness (annealed) 80 RB 80 RB Tensile strength (cold drawn) 620 MPa 89900 psi Yield strength (cold drawn) 415 MPa 60200 psi Elongation (cold drawn) 45 % 45 % Hardness (cold drawn) 91 RB 91 RB

Stainless steel AISI 410


AISI 410 Chemical composition: C=0.15%max, Mn=1%max, Cr=12.5% Property Value in metric unit Value in US unit Density 7.7 *10 kg/m 481 lb/ft Modulus of elasticity 200 GPa 29000 ksi -6 Thermal expansion (20 C) 9.9*10 C 5.5*10-6 in/(in* F) Specific heat capacity 460 J/(kg*K) 0.11 BTU/(lb*F) Thermal conductivity 24.9 W/(m*K) 173 BTU*in/(hr*ft*F) Electric resistivity 5.7*10-7 Ohm*m 5.7*10-5 Ohm*cm Tensile strength (annealed) 520 MPa 75400 psi Yield strength (annealed) 275 MPa 40000 psi Elongation (annealed) 30 % 30 % Hardness (annealed) 82 RB 82 RB Tensile strength (cold drawn) 834 MPa 121000 psi Yield strength (cold drawn) 721 MPa 105000 psi Elongation (cold drawn) 21 % 21 % Hardness (cold drawn) 24 RC 24 RC Classification of steels by composition

Carbon steels

Low carbon steels (C < 0.25%); Medium carbon steels (C =0.25% to 0.55%); High carbon steels (C > 0.55%).

Designation system: American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) together with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) have established fourdigit (with additional letter prefixes) designation system: SAE 1XXX First digit 1 indicates carbon steel (2-9 are used for alloy steels); Second digit indicates modification of the steel. 0 - Plain carbon, non-modified 1 - Resulfurized 2 - Resulfurized and rephosphorized 5 - Non-resulfurized, Mn over 1.0% Last two digits indicate carbon concentration in 0.01%. Example: SAE 1030 means non modified carbon steel, containing 0.30% of carbon. A letter prefix before the four-digit number indicates the steel making technology: A - Alloy, basic open hearth B - Carbon, acid Bessemer C - Carbon, basic open hearth D - Carbon, acid open hearth E - Electric furnace Example: AISI B1020 means non modified carbon steel, produced in acid Bessemer and containing 0.20% of carbon. Alloy steels

Low alloy steels (alloying elements 8%); High alloy steels (alloying elements > 8%).

According to the four-digit classification SAE-AISI system: First digit indicates the class of the alloy steel: 2- Nickel steels; 3- Nickel-chromium steels; 4- Molybdenum steels;

5- Chromium steels; 6- Chromium-vanadium steels; 7- Tungsten-chromium steels; 9- Silicon-manganese steels. Second digit indicates concentration of the major element in percents (1 means 1%). Last two digits indicate carbon concentration in 0,01%. Example: SAE 5130 means alloy chromium steel, containing 1% of chromium and 0.30% of carbon. to top Classification of steels by application Stainless steels: AISI has established three-digit system for the stainless steels: 2XX series chromium-nickel-manganese austenitic stainless steels; 3XX series chromium-nickel austenitic stainless steels; 4XX series chromium martensitic stainless steels or ferritic stainless steels; 5XX series low chromium martensitic stainless steels; Tool and die steels: Designation system of one-letter in combination with a number is accepted for tool steels. The letter means: W - Water hardened plain carbon tool steels; O - Oil hardening cold work alloy steels; A - Air hardening cold work alloy steels; D -Diffused hardening cold work alloy steels; S Shock resistant low carbon tool steels; T High speed tungsten tool steels; M - High speed molybdenum tool steels; H Hot work tool steels; P Plastic mold tool steels. Classification of cast irons

White cast irons - hard and brittle wear resistant cast irons consisting of pearlite and cementite. Grey cast irons - cast irons at slow cooling and consisting of ferrite and dispersed graphite flakes. Malleable cast irons - cast irons, produced by heat treatment of white cast irons and consisting of ferrite and particles of free graphite. Nodular (ductile) cast irons - grey cast iron in which Graphite particles are modified by magnesium added to the melt before casting. Nodular cast iron consists of spheroid nodular graphite particles in ferrite or pearlite matrix.

Hydraulic oil ISO 46


Hydraulic oil ISO 46 Mineral based hydraulic oil Property Value in metric unit Value in US unit Density at 60F (15.6C) 0.871 *10 kg/m 54.4 lb/ft Kinematic viscosity at 104F (40C) 46.3 cSt 46.3 cSt Kinematic viscosity at 212F (100C) 6.94 cSt 6.94 cSt Viscosity index 106 106 Flash point 220 C 428 F Pour Point -30 C -22 F Aniline Point 108 C 226 F Color max. 2.0 max. 2.0

Hydraulic oil ISO 68


Hydraulic oil ISO 68 Mineral based hydraulic oil Property Value in metric unit Value in US unit Density at 60F (15.6C) 0.880 *10 kg/m 54.9 lb/ft Kinematic viscosity at 104F (40C) 68.0 cSt 68.0 cSt Kinematic viscosity at 212F (100C) 10.2 cSt 10.2 cSt Viscosity index 135 135 Flash point 204 C 400 F Pour Point -40 C -40 F Aniline Point 88 C 190 F Color max.7.0 max.7.0