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David Barnard, History Lecturer at David Barnard, 1 year ago


History of Nursing - Intro, Pre Christan Era - Presentation Transcript

1. I am starting a new career What do I know about its antecedents? 2. What are the issues in Nursing? What are the various routes of educational preparation for a career in Nursing? How has Nursing changed with the changes in the Health Care Delivery system? Is Nursing a vocation or a profession ? What resulted in Nursing offering the opportunities and challenges today? Who are those who made significant contributions to Nursing? Here lies the future of my education and my profession 3. HISTORY OF NURSING 4. HISTORY, in its broadest sense, is the totality of all past events, although a more realistic definition would limit it to the known past . 5. OBJECTIVES Summarize the health care practices & developments of early civilizations Analyze how the 3 historical images of the nurse influenced the development of nursing as a profession Examine the Dark Age of Nursing on the development of nursing profession Discuss the contributions of Florence Nightingale and its development Examine the impact of war on the development of nursing Education Discuss the early development of nursing schools Delineate the characteristics of early nursing programme Identify the first organizations created by and for nurses and discuss their purposes 6. DISCUSSION Pre Christian Era Early Christian Era (1 AD 500 AD)

Medieval Era (500 AD 1500 AD) Modern Era (1500 1800 AD) Modern Nursing Nursing Today 7. I PRE-CHRISTIAN ERA Influence of ancient cultural practices on health care (The folk image of the nurse) 8. EVOLUTION OF NURSING As an instinctive response to the desire to keep healthy, the sick The first nurse the first mother Responsibility nurturing children, care of the elderly and the sick Education Through trial & error and information sharing, intuition Religions fatalistic in their outlook on illness Superstition & magic 9. PRIMITIVE SOCIETIES Nomadic Solidarity for mutual protection Belief in the power of Gods/ evil spirits Black and white magic Ingenious techniques of health practices Med & Surg treatments Massage, fomentation, trephining, bone setting, amputation, hot and cold baths. 10. EGYPTIAN CIVILIZATION By river Nile. Healthiest & most advanced Priest physicians - Belief in evil spirits Imhotep A surgeon, architect, priest, scribe, magician) A system of community planning (hygiene, sanitation, embalming, dentistry) Records preserved in papyrus (diseases, drugs, birth control) Women assisted priest- physician as priestess/ midwives/ wet-nurses Dissection forbidden.

Hence no further progress 11. GREEK CIVILIZATION Apollo (son of God) God of health Asculapus (son of Apollo) God of healing Epigone (Asculapus wife) The soother Hygeia (daughter of Apollo) Goddess of health Temples became social, intellectual and medical centers 400 BC Hippocrates Father of medicine - Brought out medicine from magic to science - Stressed on equilibrium of body, mind & environment - Diagnosis, fresh air, cleanliness, fresh air, music & work - Hippocratic oath Aristotle differentiated arteries from vein 12. ROMAN CIVILIZATION Medical advances borrowed from Greece after they conquered it Clung to superstitions Had good hygiene and sanitation Made drainage systems, drinking water aqueducts, public baths, hospitals (for soldiers and slaves) Men & women of good character did nursing Two classes Patricians - Plebicians 13. CHINESE CIVILIZATION By the Yellow river Confucius Patriarchal role Importance to rule of etiquette Value of family as a unit Women inferior to men Yang & Yin Active (male) & passive (female) force 2000 BC Dissection done, circulation, pulse, elaborate materia medica, importance to hygiene Rule of physical exam Look, listen, ask and feel

Baths to reduce fever, blood- letting for evil spirits 1000 BC - Sen Lung (Father of medicine), used veg and animal drugs, vaccination, physiotherapy, treated syphilis and gonorrhea 1200 BC - Liver diet for anemia, Seaweed for thyroid disorders Lay people still believed in evil spirits entering into care givers Hence nursing was impossible 14. HEBREW CIVILIZATION Moses A divinely motivated servant of God Mosaic code- Isolation, hygiene, rest & sleep, hrs of work, disposal of excreta, disinfection, regulations to check animals before slaughtering/ eating Bible Do not eat meat past the 3 rd day King gave health power to priest physician Priest physician took the role of health inspector Houses of Hospitality the fore runners of inns, hotels, hospitals. 15. INDIAN CIVILIZATION First civilizations were highly developed 1500 BC - Vedic age. Brahmanism/ Hinduism (worship of eternal spirit Brahma) with sub castes Ayurveda (Veda of longevity) explains hygiene, disease prevention, major/ minor surgery, childrens disease, inoculation, materia medica, disease of CNS & GUS 1400 BC- Sushruta- Father of Surgery in India. Charaka wrote Internal medicine ..>>>> 16. ..INDIAN CIVILIZATION.. 500 BC Siddhartha Gautama discarded caste system. Hygiene, sanitation, care of women and children, disease prevention. King Ashoka (272 236 BC) - Public hospitals with male nurses and some older women, hospitals for animals. Universities (monasteries) of Taxila & Nalanda (Bihar) Nurses should have 3 qualities high standards, skills and trustworthiness 17. INDIAN CIVILIZATION 1 AD Superstition & magic replaced by more up-to-date practice. But medicine remained in the hands of priest physician, who refused to touch blood and pathological tissue 1000 AD- Brahmin influences gained strength and re-established itself. Buddhism declined. Brahmins were priest physicians

Rigid Hindu caste system. No dissection. Superstition and magic replaced practice of medicine 1200 AD Mohammedans invaded- Accelerated the decline of medicine Nimmirobins + Follow 3446 views, 2 favs, 2 embeds more Need to understand the roots of nursing, and its development from primitive ages through the various civilizations


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