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ME5362-Content-r3.

doc[TSL-book] 01 August 2006

Advanced Fluid Transients Computation and Modelling


Core Module for MSc Specialisations/Majors in "Computation & Modelling" and Offshore Oil & Gas Technology(New)

ME5362

by Assoc. Prof. Lee Thong See


Chairman, Mechanical Engineering Graduate Programmes (MGP) Office Manager, Master of Science (Mechanical Engineering) Programme
Formerly, Vice Dean [Academic Affairs,1996-1999], Faculty of Engineering, NUS BE(Hons.I), PhD(UNSW), MIEAust, CPEng, MRINA, CEng, SrMAIAA, MASME, MEESS, MIES, MSAE.

Deputy Head [Academics] & Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering


National University of Singapore Singapore 119260 Telephone : (65) 6874 2156; Fax: (65) 6779 1459; Office:EA-07-21 E-mail: mpeleets@nus.edu.sg

Lecture Schedules Total Teaching Weeks: Thirteen (13) weeks


(a) Lectures & Tutorials: 11 weeks; (b) Lab Experiment: 1 week; (c) Revision, AVA presentation of field studies and others: 1 week

Term Paper No.1: State-of-the Art Literature Survey Term Paper No.2: Open-End Experiment on Unsteady Flow System Term Paper No. 3: Investigation of Selected Special Topics in Fluid Transients Term Paper No. 4: Pressure Surge Protection & Analysis of a Complex Fluid System

CA/Term Paper (50%)

Individual reports to be submitted Examination Format Closed Book/ Four(4) Questions/ Answer All
August 2006 Singapore

ME5362 Advanced Fluid Transients Computation and Modelling UNSTEADY FLOW SYSTEM ANALYSIS

COURSE OBJECTIVE
Unsteady flow situations are very often encountered in many engineering applications. Examples of these include the operation of water pumping stations and the water distribution net-work; oil refineries and their delivery systems; pulsatile flow in arteries; storage and delivery of energy in pressurized gas systems etc. In this part of the course, methods of analysis for unsteady flow in typical fluid systems will be discussed and applied to industrial problems. The causes and methods of prevention of extreme positive and negative pressure surges in unsteady flow systems will be presented. Analysis of the operations of fluid machinery components (pressure vessels, surge tanks, air valves, pumps, check valves, pipeline, pipe branches, topography of distribution net-work, air entrainment effects etc) in fluid system and design to avoid bad unsteady transient flows in fluid systems are all considered. Computer methods will be used exclusively for the analysis and design. Where feasible, field and experimental evidence of the accuracy of the methods are included.

Advanced Fluid Transients Computation and Modelling


COURSE CONTENT Modular Credits=4.0; Work Load=2.5L:0.5T;0.5Lab;3Proj/TP;3Self] In this module students will learn to model, compute and analyse the fluid transient behaviour of complex systems. It covers the differential equation approach for the computation and modelling of the transient fluid flow for systems with multiple and non-pipe elements, fluid machines, two-phase flows and devices for controlling extreme transients. This module is intended for graduate students and engineers interested in the modelling, computation and analysis of fluid transient phenomena in complex systems. TEXT BOOKS Compiled Lecture Notes + Sample Problems T.S. Lee, "Fluid Transients & Fluid Modeling in Complex Systems", August 2006 Volume I: Fundamental Topics [Selected Sections] Volume II: Advanced & Applied Topics [All Sections] Volume III: Research & Special Topics [Selected Sections] Volume IV: Pressure Surge Computer Programmes [Reference only] Main References (1) E. Benjamin Wylie and Victor L Streeter, Fluid Transients in Systems, Prantice Hall, 1993 (2) A.R.D. Thorley, Fluid Transients in Systems, D & L George Ltd, London, 2001 (3) J.A. Fox, Hydraulic Analysis of Unsteady Flows Macmillan Press. London. 1984 Other References (4) M.Hanif Chaudhry, Applied Hydraulic Transient Van Nostrad Rainhold Co. Inc.

ME5362

ME5362 Advanced Fluid Transients Computation and Modelling LECTURE NOTES


Text: T.S. Lee, "Fluid Transients & Fluid Modeling in Complex Systems", Volume I, II, III & IV, August 2006

(1)

Review of Fluid Transient Theory, Computation & Modelling


(2)

Failure of Transient Fluid Systems Transients Caused by Operation of Fluid Machinery & Industrial Methods of Controlling Excessive Transients
(3)

Design of Complex Fluid Systems [Includes Slides Presentation]


(4)

Modelling of Air Entrainment in Complex Fluid Systems


(5)

Modelling of Various Types of Air Vessels with Inflow/ Outflow Control


(6)

Modelling of Air Valves with Inflow/ Outflow Control


(7)

Modelling of Booster Pumping System with Multi-pump Operations


(8)

Modelling of Four Quadrants Pump Operations


(9)

Modelling of Fluid Transients with Various Fluid Systems' Material


(10)

Concluding Remarks Field Measurements, Modelling & Computational of Fluid Transients [Slides Presentation]

ME5362 Advanced Fluid Transients Computation and Modelling References


E. Benjamin Wylie and Victor L Streeter, Fluid Transients in Systems, Prantice Hall, 1993 J.A. Fox, Hydraulic Analysis of Unsteady Flows, Macmillan Press, London 1984 M.Hanif Chaudhry, Applied Hydraulic Transient, Van Nostrad Rainhold Co. Inc. New York, 1987 T.S.Lee, "Fluid Transients & Fluid Modelling in Complex Systems", Volume I, II, III & IV, August 2006 Sweeney, C.E., Elder, R.A. & Hay, D. (1982), "Pump Sump Design Experience : Summary", ASCE Journal of Hydraulics, Vol. HY3., March 1982. Pp.361-377.

Review of Related Publications


T.S.Lee and K.M.Teo, "Hydraulic modelling of pump-sumps in sewerage pumping installations", Proceedings of Second International Conference on PUMPS, VALVES, PIPES & PIPELINE, FILTRATION & WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES, July 1994, Singapore. pp.163-170. T.S. Lee, "Numerical Computation of Fluids Pressure Transient in Pumping Installations with Air Entrainment", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol.12, pp.747-763, May 1991. T.S.Lee, "Numerical Modelling and Computation of Fluid Pressure Transients with Air Entrainment in Pumping Installations", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol.19, No.2, pp.89-103, July 1994. T.S.Lee, "Numerical Studies on Effects of Check Valve Performance on Pressure Surges During Pump Trip in Pumping System with Air Entrainment", International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Volume 21, No.4, pp.337-348, 30 August 1995. T.S.Lee and S. Pejovic, "Air Influence on Similarity of Hydraulic Transients and Vibrations". ASME Journal of Fluid Engineering, Vol.118, No.4, pp.706-709, December 1996. T.S.Lee, A Numerical Method for the Computation of the Effects of Air Vessel on the Pressure Surges in Pumping Systems with Air Entrainment, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol.28, pp.703-718, September 1998. T.S.Lee and L.C. Leow, Numerical study on the effects of air valve characteristics on pressure surges during pumping trip in pumping systems with air entrainment, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol.29, pp.645-655, April 1999. T.S.Lee, Air Influence on Hydraulic Transients of Fluid Systems with Air Valves, ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol.121, pp.646-650, September 1999. T.S.Lee, Effects of Air Entrainment on the Ability of Air Vessels in the Pressure Surge Protection, ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, Vol.122, September 2000, pp.499-504. T.S.Lee and Leow L.C., Numerical Study on Effects of Check Valve Closure Flow Conditions on Pressure Surges in Pumping Station with Air Entrainment, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids. Vol.35, March 2001, pp.117-124. TS Lee and K.L. Ngoh, A Numerical Method for the Computation of Air Entrainment Effects on the Performance of Pumping Systems with Weir Discharge Chamber". ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, December 2002, Vol.124, pp.1034-1043

TERM PAPER No.1 State-of-the-Art Literature Survey


[Report to be submitted: Week No.6; Page limit: 15] (a ) For various large pumping station pump sump operations, there are always the possibilities of severe adverse flow conditions such as air entrainment or formation of surface attached vortices and/or standing (submerged) vortices into the suction intake of the operating pumps above the specified Minimum Water Level of operations. Make a thorough survey on the State-of-the-Art of the Anti-air entrainment and AntiVortex devices/methods used in large water pumping installations. Describe and analyse the advantages and disadvantages of the various devices and methods used in the above pump and sump operations.. List the theoretical considerations and/or criteria necessary for the model study of the above problems and solutions. Attached one(1) selected papers that you have critically reviewed for the above. (b ) Make a thorough survey on the State-of-the-Art of the Pressure Surge Protection systems and devices used in large water pumping installations. Describe and analyse the advantages and disadvantages of the various systems and devices used in the above fluid system. Attached one(1) selected paper that you have critically reviewed for the above. (c ) Literature Survey on the State of the Art for Fluid Transient Modelling and Computational Methods Select five(5) recent [within the last three(3) years] Journal/ Conference papers for the discussion. Attached one(1) selected paper that you have critically reviewed for the above.

TERM PAPER No.2 Open Ended Experiments on Fluid Transients


[Report to be submitted: 2 weeks from date of Experiment; Page limit: 25]

"PRESSURE SURGES/ WATER HAMMER PHENOMENA IN FLUID SYSTEM"


1. PURPOSE OF EXPERIMENT To Investigate the Characteristics of Pressure Surges/ Water Hammer Phenomena in Fluid System under various Operating Conditions. [Locations : FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY/ Tel: 6874 2231; 6874 2232; Lab. Technologists: Mr Yap KS ; Mr James Ng] 2. FLOW SYSTEM

Investigate ONE(1) of the Following System Only.


Flow System (I) : Instantaneous Valve Closure with Pump, pipeline, control valve and reservoir. Flow System (II) : Constant Head Reservoir; Pipeline; Surge Tower; Quick Acting Valve Closure; Flow Control Valve. Flow System (III): In-line Check Valve Closure with Pumps, pipeline, control valve and reservoir. Flow System (IV): Multiple pumps in series/ parallel operations/ Failure with Check Valve Closure. Flow System (V): Pump Operations with Closure of Different Type of Check Valves. 3. METHOD OF INVESTIGATION Making use of available equipment and facilities in the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, NUS. 4. REPORT The Report Should Include the Following. Title Page

SUMMARY OF INVESTIGATION TABLE OF CONTENT INTRODUCTION and PURPOSE OF EXPERIMENT BASIC THEORY OF PRESSURE SURGES METHOD OF EXPERIMENT [Schematic of Test Set-Up; Equipment and Facilities Used; Method of Calibrations and Measurements; etc] RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS CONCLUDING REMARKS REFERENCES APPENDIX : Calibration Data; Experimental Results

TERM PAPER No.3 Investigate one of the following assigned Topics in Transient Flow
[Report to be submitted: Week No.10; Suggested at least six(6) cases to be considered for the topic assigned; Page limit: 25 pages; Report to include hard copy of one(1) reference paper cited] 01 ) Various Type of Vertical Air Vessels. 02 ) Various Type of Pipe Materials of the Fluid System 03 ) Various Type of Fluids [Oil & Gas etc.] 04 ) Topography [elevation profile] of the Fluid System 05 ) Various Type of Open Surge Tanks 06 ) Various Type of Check Valves 07 ) Various Type of Air Valves 08 ) Flywheels and their effects on the Fluid System 09 ) Various Type of Horizontal Air Vessels 10 ) Modelling of Different Type of Pump Characteristics 11 ) Pumps in four(4) Quadrant Operations 12 ) Fluid Transient-Air Entrainment (Variable Wave-speed) Models 13 ) Fluid Transient- Two-Phase Flow Models 14 ) Fluid Transient- Effects on Stand-pipe/ Discharge Chambers 15 ) Sump Model & Prototype - Investigation of Submerge Vortex & Swirl Angle 16 ) Sump Model & Prototype - Investigation of Surface Vortex

TERM PAPER No.4 Pressure Surge Protection & Analysis of a Complex Fluid System
[Report to be submitted: Week No.13 Weeks; Page limit: 50 pages; Report to include hard copy of two(2) reference papers cited]
A pumping station is installed with three(3) large (655mm) pumps, each with a nominal pumping capacity of 700 l/s. The pumps are designed to deliver water to a downstream water treatment work via a 1050mm O.D. concrete-lined steel main. The pumping main runs along a route for which the elevation profile of the pipeline is shown in Figure 1. The performance characteristics for each of the pumps are shown in Figure 2. Details pertaining to the pipelines system and the operational relationships of the pumpsets and air valves are summarized under the technical data given in Table 1. The air flow characteristics of an air valve are depicted in Figure 3. (Alternatively, you may also used other commercially available air valves.) This fluid system analysis aims at suppressing the surge pressures (maximum allowable is 10 barg and minium allowable is -0.5 barg) occurring in the pumping main during normal pump operations and also following a power failure to the motors driving the pumps. The analysis should include the dynamic characteristics of the pump and motor units and the compatibility relationship with pressure surge effects. It should consist of the computer solution of the hydraulic transient characteristic equations and the homologous equations for flow rate and torque with appropriate boundary conditions. Each pump is assumed to be installed with a non-return reflux valve ( a commercially available reflux valve must be used ). Important surge suppression devices could be included as boundary conditions to the programmes. Where applicable, the analysis should include the effects of air entrainment (variable wave speed), variable unsteady friction factor, valve closure characteristics, air valves with outflow/ inflow control adaptors, surge chambers with accompanying polytropic expansion/ compression of air, pipeline of various materials and various topography of pipeline profiles. The following cases may be analysed on the 1050 mm O.D. main.: (i) Failure of one pump operating alone on the main. (ii) Failure of all three pumps simultaneously operating on the main. (iii) Failure of one pump when three pumps are operating on the main. On completion, the report should include at least the following items: (a) Introduction; (b) Scope of analysis; (c) List of assumptions; (d) Parameters used; (e) Basic equations and theory; (f) Numerical Methods used; (g) Graphical plots of surge pressures (local and overall) of the pumping main without and with the recommended surge pressure control devices; (h) Discussion of the results; (i) Recommendations; (j) References; (k) Specifications and installation drawings of the proposed surge control devices. Optional: Appendix I: Computer programme listing; Appendix II: Samples of output; Appendix III : Samples of Catalogs and Reference papers used. programme

ME5362 Advanced Fluid Transients Computation and Modelling

RELATED COURSE WORK AT NUS ME1000 : Water Hammer and Surge Tower Experiments ME3231 Compressible and Unsteady Flow Problem Formulations with Horizontal Pipeline ME4102 Mechanical System Design Flow Systems Analysis Without Computer Solutions ME4105 Projects in Unsteady System Flow Computation & Analysis with Simple Modelling of Transient Flows ME5301 Flow Systems Analysis Flow Systems Analysis With Computer Solutions + Advance Features [Core Module for Major in COMPUTATION & MODELLING"] ME5362 Advanced Fluid Transients Computation and Modelling Modelling of Fluid Transients Components & Methods of Computations [Core Module for Major in COMPUTATION & MODELLING"] ME5990 MSc Project Equivalent to four(4) Modules Major in "COMPUTATION & MODELLING" MEng/ PhD Projects Advance Unsteady Flow Analysis in Complex Systems with Air Entrainment and Modelling Professional Engineering Short Courses WaterHammer and Pressure Surges in Complex Fluid Systems [Accredited with 16 PDUs points by the Professional Engineering Board]