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DESCRIPTIVE Surveys and fact-finding inquiries State of affairs as it exists No control over variables Discover causes APPLIED Finding

nding a solution for an immediate problem Not rigorous/ flexible in applicatons of the conditions ANALYTICAL Uses facts that are already available and analyze to make a critical evaluation FUNDAMENTAL (basic or pure) The main motivation is to expand man's knowledge Concerned with generalizations & formulation of theory Knowledge for knowledges sake; It is conducted to satisfy any curiosity QUANTITATIVE Systematic and empirical investigation of: Quantitave properties Phenomena Objective: To develop and employ mathematical models, theories and/or hypotheses pertaining to

QUALITATIVE to gather an in-depth understanding of human behavior the reasons that govern such behavior. investigates the why and how of decision making

smaller but focused samples are more often needed produce information only on the particular cases studied EMPIRICAL Relies on experience and observation alone, i.e., data based research Capable of being verified by observation or experiment Researcher has control over variables RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Behaviour and instruments used in constructing and selecting a technique (approaches used to gather datas) Used in research operations such as: Collection of datas Statistical processing and analysis (test) Evaluation of accuracy of the results BENEFITS OF RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Advancement of wealth of human knowledge Tools of the trade to carry out research Develops a critical and scientific attitude, disciplined thinking or a bent of mind to observe objectively Enriches practitioner and his practices Enables us to make intelligent decisions; Doing research is the best way to learn, to read and to think critically Research Methodology includes: Research design Subjects and area of the study Sampling method Research instruments

RESEARCH DESIGN "blueprint" for research dealing with at least four problems: what questions to study, what data are relevant, what data to
collect, and how to analyze the results. Research design can be divided into two:

Fixed- the design of the study is fixed before the main stage of data collection takes place; theorydriven

Flexible- allow for more freedom during the data collection; the variable of interest is not
quantitatively measurable, such as culture; theory might not be available before one starts the research.

Fixed designs Experimental - researcher actively tries to change the situation, circumstances or experience of
participants (manipulation), which leads to a change in behaviour of the participants of the study.

Non-experimental- almost the same as experimental research, the only difference is that nonexperimental research does not involve a manipulation of the situation, circumstances or experience of the participants.

Quasi experiment- the subjects to be observed are not randomly assigned to different groups in
order to measure outcomes but grouped according to a characteristic that they already possess.

Flexible designs Case study- one single unit is extensively studied. This case can be studied by a person,
organization or group.

Ethnographic study- involved with a group, organization, culture, or community Grounded theory study- emphasizing generation of theory from data in the process of conducting

SUBJECTS AND AREA OF THE STUDY It specifically states where the data is gathered and to whom it came from. Subjects are also called Respondents. SAMPLING METHOD Selection of a subset of individuals from within a population to yield some knowledge about the
whole population, especially for the purposes of making predictions based on statistical inference.

Types of Sampling:

Probability Sampling- every unit in the population has a chance (greater than zero) of being
selected in the sample, and this probability can be accurately determined

Non-probability Sampling- any sampling method where some elements of the population
have no chance of selection (undercovered); selection of elements based on assumptions regarding the population of interest, which forms the criteria for selection

Pure Random Sampling- all such subsets of the frame are given an equal probability Systematic Sampling- arranging all subsets into position then selecting elements at a regular

Stratified Sampling- population is grouped into strata in order to avoid the possibility of selecting
samples coming from same stratum.

Cluster Sampling- selecting respondents from certain areas only, or certain time-periods only Matched Random Sampling- assigning participants to groups in which pairs of participants
are first matched on some characteristic and then individually assigned randomly to groups

Quota Sampling- population is first segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups then judgment
is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion

Convenience Sampling- involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population which is
close to hand

Purposive Sampling- based on certain criteria laid down by the researcher