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Construction Equipment Selection of appropriate type, size and characteristics will increase job site productivity.

. It is therefore important for site managers and construction planners to be familiar with the characteristics of the major types of equipment most commonly used in construction

Types of Construction Equipment according to their function

Excavating

Loading & Lifting

Hauling (Transportation)

Compacting & grading

Drilling

Mixing & Paving

Construction Equipment Costs


Equipment Costs

Ownership costs

Operating costs

Depreciation Interest Taxes Insurance Storage License fee

Maintenance & repair Tires Fuel Services (filters, oil, grease,) Operator

Construction Equipment Costs


Ownership costs are incurred by the contractor whether the equipment is used or not. Operating costs are incurred by the contractor only when the equipment is used. Ownership costs generally decline with equipment age, because the rate of depreciation tends to be greater in the initial ownership period and declines with time. Operating costs tend to increase with equipment age because repair and maintenance costs tend to increase with equipment usage.

Excavating
An excavator is defined as a power-driven digging machine.

Types of excavators

Hydraulic shovels

Dragline

Hydraulic backhoe

Clamshell

Trenching excavators

Excavating An excavator consists of three major components: A carrier or mounting which provides mobility and stability for the machine. A revolving deck or turntable which contains the power and control units. A front end attachment which serves the special functions in an operation. There are two types of mounting: crawler mounting & wheel mounting. Crawler mounting is particularly suitable for crawling over relatively rugged (uneven and rough) surfaces at a job site. Wheel (truck) mounting provide greater mobility between job sites, but require better surfaces for their operation.

Excavating
Revolving deck containing control unit and engine

engine

Crawler mounting

Components of a Hydraulic Shovel

Excavating
Revolving deck containing control unit and engine

engine

Crawler mounting

Components of a Hydraulic Backhoe

Excavating

Revolving deck containing control unit and engine

Crawler mounting engine

Components of a Dragline

Excavating

Revolving deck containing control unit and engine

engine

Crawler mounting

Components of a Clamshell

Trenchers
Some of the types of trenching machines available include: chain trenchers, ladder trenchers, and wheel trenchers

Engine Chain

Chain trenches

Trenchers

Trenchers

Excavating wheel

Wheel trenches

Trenchless Excavation

Pipe jacking

Horizontal earth boring

Excavator
Micro-Excavator (PC01)
Used for excavating and leveling in very narrow locations in the site
Shovel

Leveling blade

Excavator
Small-sized Excavator (PC100)
Used for small excavation jobs

Excavator
Medium-sized Excavator (PC200)
Used for regular excavation jobs
Boom

Arm

Revolving deck containing the Engine and Driver Seat

Hydraulic jack

Bucket

Crawler mounting

Excavator
Large Excavator

Excavator
Super Large Excavator (PC8000)
Used for huge excavation jobs

Excavator
Super Large Excavator

Excavator
Muddy Soil Excavator
Used for excavating in river beds Equipped with special crawlers that prevents it from sinking on muddy surfaces

Excavator
Wheeled Excavator (PW128UU)
Does not require to be carried in a truck

Excavator
Crawler Attachments

Loading and Lifting


A loader is a machine with a bucket mounted on the front end. Loaders are used for: Loading trucks with soil loads. Backfilling. Stockpiling. Excavating soft to medium-hard materials (smaller depths compared with excavators). Tracked loaders have straight frame while wheel loaders have articulated frame with a pivot point between the front and rear axle which gives better mobility. Straight-frame loaders cost less to purchase and maintain, but the productivity of the articulated loader is greater for truck loading operations, because of its shorter turning radius.

Loader
Mini Wheel Loader (WA10)
For working in narrow locations in the site

Loader
Medium-sized Wheel Loader (WA150)
Control unit Engine

Bucket

There are different types of tires to be used depending on surfaces conditions

Loader
Super Large Wheel Loader (WA1200)
For loading big rocks onto dump trucks

Loader
Log Grapple Loader
Used for loading and unloading logs from trucks

Loader

Steel Chains are tied up to tires to be able to work on muddy and slippery surfaces

Loader

Track loaders

Bucket

tracks

Compact track loader

Loading and Lifting


Mobile cranes and tower cranes are used to lift loads to great heights and to facilitate the erection of steel building frames. Forklifts and lifts are used to lift small loads to short heights

Mobile crane
Small Mobile Crane (RT9100)

Capacity = 35 ton Max Height = 21 m

Mobile crane
Medium Mobile Crane (LTM1030)

Capacity = 100 ton Max Height = 47 m

Mobile crane
Large Mobile Crane (AC535)

Capacity = 190 ton Max Height = 65 m

Tower crane

Jib

Counterweight Control unit Tower

Foundation

Tower crane
Tower Crane Assembly The tower crane is transported to the construction site in parts. A foundation is constructed for the tower crane. Mobile cranes are used to assemble the different parts of the tower crane. Some cranes are self-erecting.

Tower crane

Preparing a tower foundation

Tower crane
Tower crane attachments

Forklift

Telescopic forklift

Forklifts are used to transport construction materials around the construction site and to load and unload trucks

Lift

Lifts are used for lifting labors & materials for exterior tasks (e.g. painting)

Hauling Trucks are used to transport material to and from the construction site. Dump trucks are used to transport earthwork to and from the construction site. Bulldozers and scrapers are used to transport earthwork within the construction site (for shorter distances compared to the dump trucks). Truck mixers are used to transport ready mix concrete from central batch plant to construction sites.

Bulldozer
A bulldozer (also known as dozers) is a machine that is equipped with a front-end blade. Dozers are used for pushing earth loads, creating stockpiles, backfilling trenches, and spreading materials. Small Bulldozer (D21A)

Control unit Engine

Blade

Crawler

Bulldozer
Medium Bulldozer (D65PX)

Bulldozer
Large Bulldozer (D155AX)
Pushes and gathers big rocks that are dug up from mountains. These rocks become gravel for building roads

Sharp rippers for digging up the ground and crushing rocks

Bulldozer
Super Large Bulldozers (D575A)
For large tasks. It has to be transported in parts to construction site.

Ripper

Bulldozer
Water Bulldozers (D155W)
Helpful in building harbors. It is controlled by a remote control.

Dump Truck
Trucks and haulers are pieces of construction equipment that are used to carry bulk construction materials such as earthwork, sand, gravel, rock, asphalt,etc Medium sized Dump Truck (HD255)
Driver seat Vessel for loading soil and rocks. It can be leaned all the way using hydraulic jacks for quick unload.

There are different types of tires depending on road characteristics

Dump Truck
Super large Dump Truck (HD930E)
For transporting big rocks and large loads

Dump Truck
Dump Truck with Crawler
For uneven roads or muddy surfaces

Scraper
A Scraper is a large bowl with a cutting edge front that is attached to a pulling machine. They scrape the surface by lowering the cutting edge into the soil and moving forward to fill the bowl. Once the bowl is loaded, its front apron is lowered, sealing the material in the bowl. The bowl is raised, and the scraper transports the loaded material to the dump location.

Scraper

A dozer push-loading a scraper

Scraper

Push-pull scrapers operate in pairs assisting each other in loading. The rear scraper pushes the lead scraper while it loads, then the lead scraper pulls the rear scraper while it loads. When both are loaded, they disconnect and travel independently.

Scraper

Mixer
Concrete Mixer
For transporting raw concrete to construction site

Conc. Pump
Concrete pump
For pumping raw concrete to high elevations

Conc. Pump

Compacting and Grading The function of compaction equipment is to produce higher density in soil mechanically. The degree of compaction that may be achieved depends on: The properties of soil Soil moisture content The thickness of the soil layer for compaction The method of compaction The function of grading equipment is to bring the earthwork to the desired shape and elevation.

Compactors
There are many types of soil compaction equipment. They can be grouped into the following four types: Pneumatic-tire. Smooth steel-drum. Tamping foot. Vibratory. The primary compacting methods are: Static weight (or pressure). Kneading (or rubbing). Vibration (or shaking). Impact (or sharp blow).

Compactors
A pneumatic-tire compactor uses static weight and kneading action of the tires for compaction and is effective with clay and granular soils. These compactors have an odd number of tires (commonly 7, 9, 11, or 13) so that the rear tires track over the spaces between the front tires.

Tire Roller (JV215)

Compactors
A smooth steel-drum compactor uses its static weight for compaction and is effective on all types of soils and asphalt.

Smooth steel-drum roller (JV80DW)

Compactors
A tamping foot compactor uses its static weight and kneading action for compaction and is effective on with clay and silty clay soils.

Compactors
A vibratory compactor uses its static weight, vibration, and impact to achieve compaction. These compactors are able to achieve deeper penetration than comparable static or non-vibratory compactors.

Vibratory tamping-foot compactor

Compactors
Hand operated compactors are used to compact in confined spaces Vibratory ram compactor Walk-behind vibratory steeldrum trench compactor

Vibratory plate compactor

Grader
A grader is a piece of equipment that has a long wheel base and a wide blade mounted midway between the front and the rear axle. Graders are used to grade and mold the surface of the ground to the desired shape and elevation.

Grading blade

Grader

Drilling
Rock excavation requires special equipment and methods. The degree of difficulty depends on physical characteristics of the rock type to be excavated. Major types of drilling equipment are percussion drills (striking), rotary drills, and rotary-percussion drills. drills rotarydrills A percussion drill penetrates and cuts rock by impact. Common types of percussion drills include a jackhammer which is hand-held and others which are mounted on a fixed frame or on a wagon or crawl for mobility. A rotary drill cuts by turning a bit against the rock surface. A rotary-percussion drill combines the two cutting movements to rotaryprovide a faster penetration in rock.

Drill
Jackhammer (BOSCH 11304)

Drill
Percussion Drill (DHT 300 SH)

This machine can drill holes of 160mm up to 54m in depth

Drill
Rotary Drill (DM45/LP)

This machine can drill holes of 200mm up to 115m in depth

Paving and Mixing Concrete mixers are used to mix Portland cement, sand, gravel and water for concrete structures. A paving mixer is machine used for spreading aggregates, concrete, or asphalt at any desired route along the roadway.

Paver
Aggregate Spreader (PS 4000)
Used for spreading aggregates for road base preparations

Receive aggregates by dump truck

Paver
Concrete Paver (GHP-2800)

One-lane width concrete paver

Paver
Asphalt Paver (Elite 8500)
One-lane width asphalt paver

Receive asphalt by dump truck

Blade for leveling asphalt surface

Mixer
Small Mixer

Large Mixer