Anda di halaman 1dari 11

Product Manual: Lithium-ion Cells Battery Design Guide

1 INTRODUCTION
This design guide describes the measures necessary for the design and manufacture of safe, high performance batteries, using AGM lithium-ion cells. Before attempting any activity using AGM cells, it is essential that the Safety and Handling section of this manual is thoroughly read and understood. Failure to follow the guidelines contained in this design guide could lead to the design and production of a battery that is not safe. This in turn could cause cells to be overcharged or shortcircuited, which could result in heating, venting, fire or explosion. Note that voltage and current values given in this document relate to individual cells and should be read to mean voltage per series cell and current per parallel cell in a battery pack. Any specific parameters given are for AGM lithium-ion cells only.

2 PRELIMINARY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


2.1 DETERMINING THE NUMBER OF SERIES CELLS

It is important to first calculate if the system voltage requirements can be met with a lithium-ion battery. The voltage range of the host equipment will determine the number of series cells required in a battery pack. The maximum operating voltage of the host equipment will usually determine the maximum number of series cells in a battery pack. DETERMINING THE NUMBER OF PARALLEL CELLS

2.2

The number of parallel cells required in a battery pack is primarily determined by the battery capacity and discharge rate required. Divide the required battery capacity by the cell capacity and round up to the nearest whole number. For continuous discharge above the C rate, or pulse currents above the 2C rate, further parallel cells must be considered.

Page 1 of 11

November 2003

This information has been exclusively prepared for the purposes of general information and illustration only and should under no circumstances be referred to and / or used for any other purpose. No warranty, undertaking or guarantee (implied or express) is given by AGM Batteries Ltd in regard to the content / accuracy of this information or fitness for any purpose of the products identified on this sheet.

Product Manual: Lithium-ion Cells Battery Design Guide

2.3

PHYSICAL SPACE REQUIREMENTS

Once the number of series and parallel cells has been determined, it is necessary to consider how they can be arranged to fit into the physical space available. 2.4 Can the cells be arranged to fit in the space available? What arrangement of cells gives the neatest interconnections and wiring? Is there adequate space for the protection circuitry and for the battery connectors? SMART BATTERY FEATURES

Does the user require additional Smart Battery features, such as: 2.5 A fuel gauge to provide a visual display of remaining battery capacity. SMBus data communication. COMPLIANCE TO RELEVANT STANDARDS AND REGULATIONS

All batteries containing AGM cells must meet or exceed all applicable standards and regulations, including: UN Transportation. Relevant National and International regulations. Performance and safety requirements as defined in customer specifications or purchase orders.

Page 2 of 11

November 2003

This information has been exclusively prepared for the purposes of general information and illustration only and should under no circumstances be referred to and / or used for any other purpose. No warranty, undertaking or guarantee (implied or express) is given by AGM Batteries Ltd in regard to the content / accuracy of this information or fitness for any purpose of the products identified on this sheet.

Product Manual: Lithium-ion Cells Battery Design Guide

3 GUIDELINES FOR BATTERY DESIGN AND ASSEMBLY


3.1 STACK ASSEMBLY

The most common method of battery assembly is to create a cell stack, which is an assembly of cells, mechanically held together and then electrically connected by lengths of tab material welded to between the cell terminals. THE CELL STACK For this type of construction: Do ensure that the cell stack is constructed in such a way that vibration or shock will not strain the electrical connections to the cells. Do consider using hot melt glue for holding the cells in the cell stack. Do use additional insulation, such as glass cloth tape, to prevent adjacent cells from touching. Do make sure that the insulating sleeve of the cell is not damaged during stack manufacture. Do prevent potential short-circuits by careful battery design and the use of insulating materials between touching, or nearly touching, electrical parts. Do consider how vibration, shock, mechanical and thermal stresses on the battery could damage internal connections or components or compromise the insulation between electrical parts. Do not obstruct or cover the safety vent holes in the positive terminal of the cell.

Figure 1: Cell stack showing insulation and hot melt glue

Page 3 of 11

November 2003

This information has been exclusively prepared for the purposes of general information and illustration only and should under no circumstances be referred to and / or used for any other purpose. No warranty, undertaking or guarantee (implied or express) is given by AGM Batteries Ltd in regard to the content / accuracy of this information or fitness for any purpose of the products identified on this sheet.

Product Manual: Lithium-ion Cells Battery Design Guide

MAKING CONNECTIONS TO CELLS It is important that connections to the cells are permanent, low resistance, strong, durable and that no damage is caused to the cell due to excess heat when making the connections. When making connections to cells: Do spot weld nickel or nickel plated steel tab material to the cell terminals using appropriate resistance welding equipment. Do not use spring contacts for connecting to cells. Do not attempt to solder a connection directly to the cell. Do use insulation on the tab material and provide additional insulation where a tab is in close proximity to other cells or components which are at a different potential. Do not cause excessive heating of the cell, or insulating materials, when soldering to the welded tabs. Do not use a cell if it appears damaged in any way. Do not make a connection to any part of the cell other than the positive terminal or the negative end of the cell. Do not modify the cell in any way. Do prevent potential short-circuits by careful battery design and the use of insulating materials between touching, or nearly touching, electrical parts. Do consider how vibration, shock, mechanical and thermal stresses on the battery could damage internal connections or components or compromise the insulation between electrical parts. Do not obstruct or cover the safety vent holes in the positive terminal of the cell.

CELL SELECTION All cells within a battery pack should be of the same type, of a similar age and at similar states of charge. For all cells within a battery pack: Do not mix cells from different manufacturers. Do make sure that all cells have the same part number. Do use cells of a similar age (manufactured within a 1 month period). Do use cells that are at similar states of charge (OCV range is less than 100mV). Do not mix used and unused cells. Do not use cells that look unusual or damaged in any way.

Page 4 of 11

November 2003

This information has been exclusively prepared for the purposes of general information and illustration only and should under no circumstances be referred to and / or used for any other purpose. No warranty, undertaking or guarantee (implied or express) is given by AGM Batteries Ltd in regard to the content / accuracy of this information or fitness for any purpose of the products identified on this sheet.

Product Manual: Lithium-ion Cells Battery Design Guide

PARALLEL CELL CONFIGURATIONS Cells may be connected directly in parallel to create effectively one large capacity cell. When connecting cells in parallel: Do use cells that meet the above selection criteria. Do use a fuse or positive temperature coefficient (PTC) device in series with each parallel cell. Do connect the fuse or PTC directly to the positive terminals of the cells. Do connect cells in parallel before connecting in series.

SERIES CELL CONFIGURATIONS Cells that meet the above selection criteria can be connected in series to create a higher voltage battery. When connecting cells in series: 3.2 Do use cells that meet the above selection criteria. Do not connect cells in series before parallel connections have been made. Do ensure that every series element contains the same number of cells. FITTING THE PROTECTION CIRCUITRY

During battery production, all protection circuitry must be tested to verify that all of the circuit features are working correctly, before and after the circuitry is connected to the cell stack. Do test every protection circuit for functionality, before and after the circuitry is connected to the cell stack. Do ensure that connections to the protection circuit are made in the correct order (Some circuits can be damaged if a specified sequence is not followed). Do use conformal coating on the protection circuit if the battery may be used in conditions where moisture could enter, or condensation could form, in the battery.

For battery designs where the protection circuitry is located directly on the cell stack: Do ensure that adequate mechanical protection and electrical insulation is provided between the cell stack and the protection circuit. Do prevent potential short-circuits, by careful battery design and the use of insulating materials between touching, or nearly touching, electrical parts.

Page 5 of 11

November 2003

This information has been exclusively prepared for the purposes of general information and illustration only and should under no circumstances be referred to and / or used for any other purpose. No warranty, undertaking or guarantee (implied or express) is given by AGM Batteries Ltd in regard to the content / accuracy of this information or fitness for any purpose of the products identified on this sheet.

Product Manual: Lithium-ion Cells Battery Design Guide

Do consider how vibration, shock, mechanical and thermal stresses on the battery could damage internal connections or components or compromise the insulation between electrical parts. MAIN OUTPUT CIRCUIT FUSE

3.3

In addition to the electronic protection against over current, and any fuses fitted between parallel cells, all battery packs must have a fuse or PTC device in the main output circuit as a final safety measure. For all batteries: 3.4 Always fit an appropriately rated fuse or PTC device in the main output circuit. SELECTING BATTERY TERMINALS AND CONNECTORS

When selecting or designing battery terminals and connectors: Do use a design that prevents or at least minimises the possibility of the battery being accidentally short-circuited when it is not connected to the host equipment or charger. Do use a design that prevents the battery pack from being connected to the host equipment or charger such that the polarity would be reversed. BATTERY SEALING

3.5

If a hermetically sealed battery is required, then it is important to ensure that a pressure vessel is not created which could become a hazard during misuse or abuse conditions. For all hermetically sealed batteries: Do incorporate a suitable pressure relief / vent mechanism into the case. Do not design a battery which prevents safe cell venting.

Page 6 of 11

November 2003

This information has been exclusively prepared for the purposes of general information and illustration only and should under no circumstances be referred to and / or used for any other purpose. No warranty, undertaking or guarantee (implied or express) is given by AGM Batteries Ltd in regard to the content / accuracy of this information or fitness for any purpose of the products identified on this sheet.

Product Manual: Lithium-ion Cells Battery Design Guide

3.6

BATTERY FOAMING

It is often considered desirable to fill a finished battery with expanding foam, to provide additional mechanical robustness and protection. If filling with expanding foam is required, then: Do not allow the foam to enter or obstruct the safety vent holes in the positive terminal of the cell. Do not overfill with foam. Do not use a potting compound, unless only partially filling to provide mechanical stability and never around the positive end of the cell. Do not allow the foam or potting compound to block or restrict the cell safety vent or the battery pressure relief / vent mechanism.

4 ELECTRONIC PROTECTION CIRCUIT REQUIREMENTS


In addition to the inherent safety features of AGM lithium-ion cells, electronic protection circuitry is necessary in the battery. This should facilitate the supply to the customer of a battery that is totally safe in all likely abuse conditions, and where possible, retains functionality following abuse. 4.1 CELL VOLTAGE LIMITS

Lithium-ion cells must always be operated within strict voltage limits to prevent damaging and irreversible changes to the cells chemistry. Figure 2 illustrates typical voltage limits for lithium-ion cells. There is no desirable over-charge region, but practical limits on electronic circuitry mean that some toleration of this condition must be allowed. Note that AGM ICR3xxxxK2 cell variants, which have integral over-voltage protection against over-charge, require more stringent control of over-voltage by the battery protection circuitry which must be designed to always operate before the in-cell protection. Contact AGM for further details.

Page 7 of 11

November 2003

This information has been exclusively prepared for the purposes of general information and illustration only and should under no circumstances be referred to and / or used for any other purpose. No warranty, undertaking or guarantee (implied or express) is given by AGM Batteries Ltd in regard to the content / accuracy of this information or fitness for any purpose of the products identified on this sheet.

Product Manual: Lithium-ion Cells Battery Design Guide

4.4V 4.3V 4.2V 4.1V

Unusable Region (>4.40V) Over-charge Protection (4.30V to 4.40V) End-of-Charge (4.15V to 4.25V)

Normal Operating Region (2.50V to 4.20V) 3.0V 2.5V 2.4V 2.0V Unusable Region (<2.00V)

End of Discharge (2.50V to 3.00V) Over-discharge Protection (2.00V - 2.45V)

Figure 2: Typical lithium-ion cell voltage limits

4.2

PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS

It is essential that the protection circuitry is an integral part of the battery, since abuse is most likely to happen when it is not connected to the specified host equipment or charger. MINIMUM PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS The minimum electronic protection features required in a battery are: Individual cell voltage monitoring. Prevention of over-charge, of any single cell. Prevention of over-discharge, of any single cell. o After activation, the quiescent current drain from the protection circuitry should be as low as possible to minimise further discharging. Prevention of over-current.

NEVER, UNDER ANY CIRCUMSTANCES, PRODUCE BATTERIES THAT DO NOT INCORPORATE THESE MINIMUM PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS.

Page 8 of 11

November 2003

This information has been exclusively prepared for the purposes of general information and illustration only and should under no circumstances be referred to and / or used for any other purpose. No warranty, undertaking or guarantee (implied or express) is given by AGM Batteries Ltd in regard to the content / accuracy of this information or fitness for any purpose of the products identified on this sheet.

Product Manual: Lithium-ion Cells Battery Design Guide

KEY ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS The electronics to provide these minimum protection features will normally feature the following key elements: Protection IC, monitoring all cell voltages and the current shunt voltage. MOSFET switch, controlled by the protection IC. Current shunt.

The selection of the MOSFET switch is critical, as failure of this component will often be unrevealed and would render all electronic protection functions ineffective. In particular, the MOSFET must be chosen such that even with the maximum possible current flow due to a short circuit, the MOSFET remains well within its safe operating area. There are a number of commercially available protection ICs (Integrated Circuits) that simplify the design of Lithium-ion protection electronics. MAIN OUTPUT FUSE OR PTC DEVICE In addition to the electronic protection against over current, and any fuses fitted between parallel cells, all battery packs must have a fuse or PTC device in the main output circuit as a final safety measure. Always fit an appropriately rated fuse or PTC device in the main output circuit.

OPTIONAL ELECTRONICS FEATURES Some additional electronic features that should be considered are: 4.3 Cell balancing circuitry (strongly recommended for maximum cycle life). Provision of a fuel gauge. Provision of SMBus communication. THERMAL MANAGEMENT

When a battery is required to deliver currents in excess of the C rate, or at elevated ambient temperatures, the thermal characteristics of the battery need to be considered. Factors to consider are: What is the internal battery temperature in worst-case conditions, i.e. maximum ambient temperature and maximum required discharge rate? How will this affect the cells or other components?

Page 9 of 11

November 2003

This information has been exclusively prepared for the purposes of general information and illustration only and should under no circumstances be referred to and / or used for any other purpose. No warranty, undertaking or guarantee (implied or express) is given by AGM Batteries Ltd in regard to the content / accuracy of this information or fitness for any purpose of the products identified on this sheet.

Product Manual: Lithium-ion Cells Battery Design Guide

Is it necessary to monitor the internal temperature of the battery or cell stack and shut down if the temperature becomes too high? Can the battery design be improved to help improve the thermal characteristics?

5 BATTERY CHARGING
5.1 METHOD

A lithium-ion battery must be charged using a specially designed, current and voltage limited, battery charger. Charging of lithium-ion cells is usually a two-stage process (CCCV), a constant current stage followed by a constant voltage stage. The charging process must always be terminated so that the cells are not subjected to continuous trickle or float charging. CONSTANT CURRENT STAGE During the first charging stage, the charger control circuit should limit the charge current to C/3 (1.73A for a 5.2Ah rated cell). Charge currents of up to 1C rate may be used, but cycle life performance will reduce as charge current increases. Recommended charge current limited to C/3. 1C maximum charge current per cell.

CONSTANT VOLTAGE STAGE During the second charging stage, the charger should control the voltage at 4.20V 0.05V per series cell. During this stage, the current will gradually decline as the charge level increases. Constant voltage of 4.2V 50mV per series cell. Current reduces as charge level increases.

CHARGE TERMINATION AGM recommends terminating the charge after a constant voltage stage of about 2 hours duration. There are two common methods for determining the end of charge for lithium-ion cells. Monitor the charge current during the constant voltage stage and terminate charging when this current has diminished to 1% of the 1C current per parallel cell (52mA for a 5.2Ah cell). Use a timer to terminate charging when either total charge time or time at constant voltage reaches a preset limit.

Page 10 of 11

November 2003

This information has been exclusively prepared for the purposes of general information and illustration only and should under no circumstances be referred to and / or used for any other purpose. No warranty, undertaking or guarantee (implied or express) is given by AGM Batteries Ltd in regard to the content / accuracy of this information or fitness for any purpose of the products identified on this sheet.

Product Manual: Lithium-ion Cells Battery Design Guide

AGM advocates a charger design that incorporates both of these techniques, such that charging is normally terminated by current sensing, but with a timer circuit providing an additional level of protection. TYPICAL CHARGE GRAPH

4 .5 C ur r ent 4 .0

2 .0

1 .5
C el l V o l t ag e

3 .5

1 .0
C har g e Level

3 .0

0 .5

2 .5

0 .0 0 1 2 3 4 5

Tim e / hours

Figure 3: Typical CCCV charge graph (C/3 + 2h)

Page 11 of 11

Current / A and Charge Level

Cell Voltage / V

November 2003

This information has been exclusively prepared for the purposes of general information and illustration only and should under no circumstances be referred to and / or used for any other purpose. No warranty, undertaking or guarantee (implied or express) is given by AGM Batteries Ltd in regard to the content / accuracy of this information or fitness for any purpose of the products identified on this sheet.