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Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances

Review Problems
3-107 A smoking lounge that can accommodate 15 smokers is considered. The required minimum flow
rate of air that needs to be supplied to the lounge and the diameter of the duct are to be determined.
Assumptions Infiltration of air into the smoking lounge is negligible.
Properties The minimum fresh air requirements for a smoking lounge is given to be 30 L/s per person.
Analysis The required minimum flow rate of air that needs
to be supplied to the lounge is determined directly from

( V V
air air per person
No. of persons)
= (30 L / s person)(15 persons) = 450 L / s =

0.45 m / s
3
The volume flow rate of fresh air can be expressed as

( / ) V A D V V
2
4
Solving for the diameter D and substituting,
m 0.268
V

m/s) (8
) /s m 45 . 0 ( 4 4
3

V
D

Therefore, the diameter of the fresh air duct should be at least 26.8 cm
if the velocity of air is not to exceed 8 m/s.
3-108 The minimum fresh air requirements of a residential building is specified to be 0.35 air changes
per hour. The size of the fan that needs to be installed and the diameter of the duct are to be determined.

Analysis The volume of the building and the required minimum volume flow rate of fresh air are
L/min 3150

L/h 189,000 h / m 189 ) /h 35 . 0 )( m 540 ( ACH
m 540 ) m m)(200 7 . 2 (
3 3
room
3 2
room
V V
V

The volume flow rate of fresh air can be expressed as

( / ) V A D V V
2
4
Solving for the diameter D and substituting,
m 0.106
V

m/s) (6
) /s m 3600 / 189 ( 4 4
3

V
D

Therefore, the diameter of the fresh air duct should be at least 10.6 cm
if the velocity of air is not to exceed 6 m/s.
3-35
Smoking Lounge
15 smokers
30 L/s person
House
200 m
2
0.35 ACH
Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-109 The pressure in an automobile tire increases during a trip while its volume remains constant. The
percent increase in the absolute temperature of the air in the tire is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The volume of the tire remains constant. 2 Air is an ideal gas.
Properties The local atmospheric pressure is 90 kPa.
Analysis The absolute pressures in the tire before and after the trip are
P P P
P P P
1
2
200 90 290
220 90 310
+ +
+ +
gage,1 atm
gage,2 atm
kPa
kPa
Noting that air is an ideal gas and the volume is constant, the ratio of
absolute temperatures after and before the trip are
PV
T
P V
T
T
T
P
P
1 1
1
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
=
310 kPa
290 kPa
=1.069
Therefore, the absolute temperature of air in the tire will increase by 6.9% during this trip.
3-36
TIRE
200 kPa
0.022 m
3
Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-110 A hot air balloon with 3 people in its cage is hanging still in the air. The average temperature of
the air in the balloon for two environment temperatures is to be determined.
Assumptions Air is an ideal gas.
Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.287 kPa.m
3
/kg.K.
Analysis The buoyancy force acting on the balloon is
N 44,700
m/s kg 1
N 1
) m )(4189 m/s )(9.8 kg/m (1.089
kg/m 1.089
K) K)(288 /kg m kPa (0.287
kPa 90
m 4189 /3 m) (10 4 3 / 4
2
3 2 3
balloon air cool
3
3
air cool
3 3 3
balloon

,
`

.
|

gV F
RT
P
r V
B

The vertical force balance on the balloon gives
g m m m
W W W F
B
) (
p e o p l e c a g e a i r h o t
p e o p l e c a g e a i r h o t
+ +
+ +
Substituting,

,
`

.
|

+ +
2
2
air hot
m/s kg 1
N 1
) m/s kg)(9.8 195 kg 80 ( N 44,700 m
which gives
kg 4287
air hot
m
Therefore, the average temperature of the air in the balloon is
T
PV
mR

(90 kPa)(4189 m )
(4287 kg)(0.287 kPa m / kg K)
3
3
306.5 K
Repeating the solution above for an atmospheric air temperature of 30C
gives 323.6 K for the average air temperature in the balloon.
3-37
Hot air balloon
D = 20 m
mcage = 80 kg
Patm = 90 kPa
T = 15C
Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-111 Problem 3-110 is to be reconsidered. The effect of the environment temperature on the
average air temperature in the balloon when the balloon is suspended in the air is to be investigated
as the environment temperature varies from -10C to 30C. The average air temperature in the
balloon is to be plotted versus the environment temperature.
"Given Data:"
"gas---heated air inside balloon"
g=9.807"[m/s^2]"
d_balloon=20"[m]"
m_cage = 80 "[kg]"
m_1person=65"[kg]"
NoPeople = 6
{T_atm_Celsius = 15"[C]"}
T_atm =T_atm_Celsius+273"[K]"
P_atm = 90 "[kPa]"
R=0.287"[kJ/kg-K]"
P_gas = P_atm"[kPa]"
T_gas_Celsius=T_gas - 273"[C]"
"Calculated values:"
P_atm= rho_atm*R*T_atm "rho_atm = density of air outside balloon"
P_gas= rho_gas*R*T_gas "rho_gas = density of gas inside balloon"
r_balloon=d_balloon/2"[m]"
V_balloon=4*pi*r_balloon^3/3"[m^3]"
m_people=NoPeople*m_1person"[kg]"
m_gas=rho_gas*V_balloon"[kg]"
m_total=m_gas+m_people+m_cage"[kg]"
"The total weight of balloon, people, and cage is:"
W_total=m_total*g"[N]"
"The buoyancy force acting on the balloon, F_b, is equal to the weight of the air
displaced by the balloon."
F_b=rho_atm*V_balloon*g"[N]"
"From the free body diagram of the balloon, the balancing vertical forces must
equal the product of the total mass and the vertical acceleration:"
F_b- W_total=m_total*a_up
a_up = 0 "[m/s^2]" "The balloon is hanging still in the air"
Tatm,Celcius
[C]
Tgas,Celcius [C]
-10 17.32
-5 23.42
0 29.55
5 35.71
10 41.89
15 48.09
20 54.31
25 60.57
30 66.84
3-38
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
T
atm,Celsius
[C]
T
g
a
s
,
C
e
l
s
i
u
s

[
C
]
Number of People
3
6
T
g
a
s
,
C
e
l
s
i
u
s

[
C
]
9
T
g
a
s
,
C
e
l
s
i
u
s

[
C
]

Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-112 A hot air balloon with 2 people in its cage is about to take off. The average temperature of the air
in the balloon for two environment temperatures is to be determined.
Assumptions Air is an ideal gas.
Properties The gas constant of air is R = 0.287 kPa.m
3
/kg.K.
Analysis The buoyancy force acting on the balloon is
N 34,029
m/s kg 1
N 1
) m )(3054 m/s )(9.8 kg/m (1.137
kg/m 1.137
K) K)(285 /kg m kPa (0.287
kPa 93
m 3054 /3 m) (9 4 3 / 4
2
3 2 3
balloon air cool
3
3
air cool
3 3 3
balloon

,
`

.
|

gV F
RT
P
r V
B

The vertical force balance on the balloon gives
g m m m
W W W F
B
) (
p e o p l e c a g e a i r h o t
p e o p l e c a g e a i r h o t
+ +
+ +
Substituting,

,
`

.
|

+ +
2
2
air hot
m/s kg 1
N 1
) m/s kg)(9.8 140 kg 120 ( N 34,029 m
which gives
kg 3212
air hot
m
Therefore, the average temperature of the air in the balloon is
T
PV
mR

(93 kPa)(3054 m )
(3212 kg)(0.287 kPa m / kg K)
3
3
308 K
Repeating the solution above for an atmospheric air temperature of 25C
gives 323 K for the average air temperature in the balloon.
3-39
Hot air balloon
D = 18 m
mcage = 120 kg
Patm = 93 kPa
T = 12C
Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-113E Water in a pressure cooker boils at 260F. The absolute pressure in the pressure cooker is to be
determined.
Analysis The absolute pressure in the pressure cooker is the saturation pressure
that corresponds to the boiling temperature,
psia 35.42
F 260 @ sat

P P
3-114 The refrigerant in a rigid tank is allowed to cool. The pressure at which the refrigerant starts
condensing is to be determined, and the process is to be shown on a P-v diagram.
Analysis This is a constant volume process (v = V/m = constant), and the specific
volume is determined to be
v
V
m
0.07 m
1 kg
0.07 m / kg
3
3
When the refrigerant starts condensing, the tank will contain saturated vapor only.
Thus,
v v
g 2
0.07 m / kg
3
The pressure at this point is the pressure that corresponds to this vg value,
MPa 0.29
/kg m 0.07 @ sat
2
3
g
v
P P
3-40
P
v
2
1
R-134a
400 kPa
H2O
250F
Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-115 The rigid tank contains saturated liquid-vapor mixture of water. The mixture is heated until it
exists in a single phase. For a given tank volume, it is to be determined if the final phase is a liquid or a
vapor.
Analysis This is a constant volume process (v = V/m = constant), and thus
the final specific volume will be equal to the initial specific volume,
v v
2 1

The critical specific volume of water is 0.003155 m

3
/kg. Thus if the
final specific volume is smaller than this value, the water will exist
as a liquid, otherwise as a vapor.
V L
V
m
cr
< 4 v v
0.004 m
2 kg
0.002 m / kg
3
3
. Thus, liquid.
V L v
V
m
cr
> 400
0.4 m
2 kg
0.2 m / kg
3
3
v . Thus, vapor.
3-116 Superheated refrigerant-134a is cooled at constant pressure until it exists as a compressed liquid.
The changes in total volume and internal energy are to be determined, and the process is to be shown on
a T-v diagram.
Analysis The refrigerant is a superheated vapor at the initial state and a compressed liquid at the final
state. From Tables A-13 and A-11,
/ k g m 0 . 0 0 0 8 1 5 7 v
k J / k g 7 6 . 8 0
C 2 0
M P a 0 . 8
/ k g m 0 . 0 2 6 9 1 v
k J / k g 2 5 2 . 1 3
C 4 0
M P a 0 . 8
3
C 2 0 @
2
C 2 0 @
2
2
2
3
1
1
1
1

'

'

f
f
v
u u
T
P
u
T
P
Thus,
3
m 0.261 /kg m 0.02691) 157 kg)(0.0008 (10
3
1 2
) v m(v V
and
kJ 1753.3 kJ/kg 252.13) kg)(76.80 (10 ) (
1 2
u u m U
3-41
H
2
O
V = 4L
m = 2 kg
T = 50C
R-134a
40C
0.8 MPa
T
v
2
1
Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-117 Two rigid tanks that contain hydrogen at two different states are connected to each other. Now a
valve is opened, and the two gases are allowed to mix while achieving thermal equilibrium with the
surroundings. The final pressure in the tanks is to be determined.
Analysis Let's call the first and the second tanks A and B. Treating H2 as an ideal gas, the total volume
and the total mass of H2 are
kg 0.308 0.060 0.248
kg 0.060
K) K)(303 /kg m kPa (4.124
) m kPa)(0.5 (150
kg 0.248
K) K)(293 /kg m kPa (4.124
) m kPa)(0.5 (600
m 1.0 0.5 0.5
3
3
1
1
3
3
1
1
3
+ +

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

+ +
B A
B
B
A
A
B A
m m m
RT
V P
m
RT
V P
m
V V V
Then the final pressure can be determined from
P
mRT
V

2
(0.308 kg)(4.124 kPa m / kg K)(288 K)
1.0 m
3
3
365.8 kPa
3-42
H
2
V=0.5 m
3
T=20C
P=600 kPa
H
2
V=0.5 m
3
T=30C
P=150 kPa

Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances

3-118 Problem 3-117 is reconsidered. The effect of the surroundings temperature on the final
equilibrium pressure in the tanks is to be investigated as the surroundings temperature varies from
-10C to 30C. The final pressure in the tanks is to be plotted versus the surroundings
temperature, and the results are to be discussed.
"Given Data"
V_A=0.5"[m^3]"
T_A=20"[C]"
P_A=600"[kPa]"
V_B=0.5"[m^3]"
T_B=30"[C]"
P_B=150"[kPa]"
{T_2=15"[C]"}
"Solution"
R=8.314/MOLARMASS(H2)"[kJ/kg-K]"
V_total=V_A+V_B
m_total=m_A+m_B
P_A*V_A=m_A*R*(T_A+273)
P_B*V_B=m_B*R*(T_B+273)
P_2*V_total=m_total*R*(T_2+273)
P2 [kPa] T2 [C]
334.4 -10
340.7 -5
347.1 0
353.5 5
359.8 10
366.2 15
372.5 20
378.9 25
385.2 30
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
330
340
350
360
370
380
390
T
2
[C]
P
2

[
k
P
a
]

3-43
Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-119 A large tank contains nitrogen at a specified temperature and pressure. Now some nitrogen is
allowed to escape, and the temperature and pressure of nitrogen drop to new values. The amount of
nitrogen that has escaped is to be determined.
Analysis Treating N2 as an ideal gas, the initial and the final masses in the tank are determined to be
m
PV
RT
m
P V
RT
1
1
1
2
2
2

(800 kPa)(20 m )
(0.2968 kPa m / kg K)(298 K)
180.9 kg
(600 kPa)(20 m )
(0.2968 kPa m / kg K)(293 K)
138.0 kg
3
3
3
3
Thus the amount of N2 that escaped is
m m m
1 2
180.9 138.0 42.9 kg
3-44
N
2
800 kPa
25C
20 m
3
Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-120 The temperature of steam in a tank at a specified state is to be determined using the ideal gas
relation, the generalized chart, and the steam tables.
Properties The gas constant, the critical pressure, and the critical temperature of water are, from Table A-
1,
R T P
cr cr
0.4615 kPa m / kg K 647.3 K 22.09 MPa
3
, ,
Analysis (a) From the ideal gas equation of state,
kPa 15,529

/kg m 0.02
K) K)(673 /kg m kPa (0.4615
v
3
3
RT
P
(b) From the compressibility chart (Fig. A-30a),
5 7 . 0
1 . 4 8
K ) K ) ( 6 4 7 . 3 / k g m k P a ( 0 . 4 6 1 5
k P a ) 0 / k g ) ( 2 2 , 0 9 m ( 0 . 0 2
/
v
0 4 0 . 1
K 6 4 7 . 3
K 6 7 3
3
3
a c t u a l

'

R
c r c r
R
c r
R
P
P R T
v
T
T
T
Thus,
P P P
R cr
0 57 22 090 . , 12,591 kPa
(c) From the superheated steam table (Table A-6),
k P a 1 2 , 5 0 0
/ k g m 0 . 0 2
C 4 0 0
3

'

P
v
T

3-121 One section of a tank is filled with saturated liquid R-134a while the other side is evacuated. The
partition is removed, and the temperature and pressure in the tank are measured. The volume of the tank
is to be determined.
Analysis The mass of the refrigerant contained in the tank is
m
V

1
1
v
0.01 m
0.0008454 m / kg
11.83 kg
3
3
since
v v
f 1

@0.8 MPa
3
0.0008454 m / kg
At the final state (Table A-13),
/ k g m 0 . 1 1 6 2 5
C 2 5
k P a 2 0 0
3
2
2
2

'

v
T
P

Thus,
V V mv
tank
3
(11.83 kg)(0.11625 m / kg)
2 2
1.375 m
3
3-45
R-134a
P=0.8 MPa
V=0.01 m
3
Evacuated
H2O
0.02 m
3
/kg
400C
Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-46
Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-122 Problem 3-121 is reconsidered. The effect of the initial pressure of refrigerant-134 on the volume
of the tank is to be investigated as the initial pressure varies from 0.5 MPa to 1.5 MPa. The volume of the
tank is to be plotted versus the initial pressure, and the results are to be discussed.
"Given Data"
x_1=0.0
Vol_1=0.01"[m^3]"
P_1=800"[kPa]"
T_2=25"[C]"
P_2=200"[kPa]"
"Solution"
v_1=volume(R134a,P=P_1,x=x_1)
Vol_1=m*v_1
v_2=volume(R134a,P=P_2,T=T_2)
Vol_2=m*v_2
P1 [kPa] Vol2 [m
3
] m [kg]
500 1.443 12.41
600 1.418 12.2
700 1.396 12.01
800 1.375 11.83
900 1.355 11.66
1000 1.337 11.5
1100 1.319 11.35
1200 1.302 11.2
1300 1.285 11.06
1400 1.269 10.92
1500 1.253 10.78
500 700 900 1100 1300 1500
1.24
1.28
1.32
1.36
1.4
1.44
1.48
P
1
[kPa]
V
o
l
2

[
m
^
3
]

3-47
Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-123 A propane tank contains 5 L of liquid propane at the ambient temperature. Now a leak develops at
the top of the tank and propane starts to leak out. The temperature of propane when the pressure drops to
1 atm and the amount of heat transferred to the tank by the time the entire propane in the tank is
vaporized are to be determined.
Properties The properties of propane at 1 atm are Tsat = -42.1C, 581 kg / m
3
, and hfg = 427.8 kJ/kg
(Table A-3).
Analysis The temperature of propane when the pressure drops to 1 atm is simply the saturation pressure
at that temperature,
T T
sat @ atm 1
42.1 C
The initial mass of liquid propane is
m V (581 kg / m )(0.005 m ) 2.905 kg
3 3
The amount of heat absorbed is simply the total heat of vaporization,
Q mh
fg absorbed
(2.905 kg)(427.8 kJ / kg) 1243 kJ
3-124 An isobutane tank contains 5 L of liquid isobutane at the ambient temperature. Now a leak
develops at the top of the tank and isobutane starts to leak out. The temperature of isobutane when the
pressure drops to 1 atm and the amount of heat transferred to the tank by the time the entire isobutane in
the tank is vaporized are to be determined.
Properties The properties of isobutane at 1 atm are Tsat = -11.7C, 593 8 . kg / m
3
, and hfg = 367.1
kJ/kg (Table A-3).
Analysis The temperature of isobutane when the pressure drops to 1 atm is simply the saturation pressure
at that temperature,
T T
sat @ atm 1
11.7 C
The initial mass of liquid isobutane is
m V (593.8 kg / m )(0.005 m ) 2.969 kg
3 3
The amount of heat absorbed is simply the total heat of vaporization,
Q mh
fg absorbed
(2.969 kg)(367.1 kJ / kg) 1090 kJ
3-48
Isobutane
5 L
20C
Leak
Propane
5 L
20C
Leak
Chapter 3 Properties of Pure Substances
3-125 3-126 Design and Essay Problems
3-125 A claim that fruits and vegetables are cooled by 6C for each percentage point of weight loss as
moisture during vacuum cooling is to be evaluated.
Analysis Assuming the fruits and vegetables are cooled from 30C and 0C, the average heat of
vaporization can be taken to be 2466 kJ/kg, which is the value at 15C, and the specific heat of products
can be taken to be 4 kJ/kg.C. Then the vaporization of 0.01 kg water will lower the temperature of 1 kg
of produce by 24.66/4 = 6C. Therefore, the vacuum cooled products will lose 1 percent moisture for
each 6C drop in temperature. Thus the claim is reasonable.
3-126 It is helium.

3-49