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Manajemen Kebutuhan Transportasi (Transport Demand Management)

Manajemen kebutuhan transportasi merupakan serangkaian strategi yang mempunyai tujuan untuk merubah kebiasaan melakukan perjalanan (bagaimana, kapan dan dimana masyarakat melakukan perjalanan) dalam kaitannya untuk meningkatkan efisiensi sistem transportasi dan mencapai tujuan perencanaan spesifik. Strategi TDM saat ini mulai luas penggunaannya untuk memecahkan berbagai masalah. Seseorang dapat melakukan belasan perjalanan lebih dari rumah setiap minggunya- untuk kepentingan bekerja, berbelanja, berbagai kegiatan sosial dan rekreasi. Banyak dari perjalanan ini sangat fleksibel dalam kaitannya dengan waktu, moda perjalanan serta tujuan perjalan itu sendiri. Sebagai contoh, banyak komuter akan beragam dalam memilih waktu dan bagaimana mereka pergi untuk bekerja atau sekolah. Sama halnya dengan kegiatan memenuhi kebutuhan hidup (belanja) yang dapat dilakukan dalam bermacam cara seperti berjalan atau bersepeda pasar lokal, memakai mobil pribadi menuju pusat perbelanjaan di pusat kota ataupun melakukan perjalanan ke berbagai tempat tujuan dengan menggunakan bermacam mode kendaraan bermotor. Aktivitas rekreasi juga mempunyai bermacam pilihan perjalanan seperti menggunakan kan kendaraan pribadi untuk berlatih di fitness centre dsb. Banyak faktor yang akan mempengaruhi pilihan masyarakat dalam melakukan perjalanan diantaranya termasuk kenyamanan dan keamanan berbagai jenis moda perjalanan (seperti kenyamanan fasilitas pejalan kaki, keamana di angkutan umum), biaya (ongkos angkutan umum, biaya parkir), faktor guna lahan (ketersediaan sarana pendikdikan, pusat perbelanjaan di lingkungan permukiman). Strategi-strategi manajemen kebutuhan transportasi akan mempengaruhi faktor-faktor tersebut untuk mendorong pola perjalanan yang lebih efisien, seperti perubahan atau pergantian dari periode sibuk ke periode tidak sibuk (offpeak) , perubahan dari kendaraan pribadi ke berbagai alternatif moda, dari tujuan yang tersebar ke tujuan perjalanan yang lebih dekat.Terdapat sejumlah strategi dari manajemen kebutuhan transportasi yang menggunakan berbagai pendekatan untuk mempengaruhi keputusan dan perilaku dalam melakukan perjalanan. Beberapa strategi mempunyai tujuan untuk meningkatkan pilihan transportasi yang ada, beberapa strategi menyediakan insentif untuk merubah moda yang dipakai, waktu atau tujuan; sementara strategi lain meningkatkan aksesibilitas guna lahan; strategi lainnya menitikberatkan pada reformasi kebijakan transportasi dan program-program baru sebagai dasar dalam penerapan TDM. Beberapa lingkup MKT diantaranya termasuk : y y y y y y Peningkatkan perencanaan elemen-elemen infrastuktur transportasi yang berbasiskan pejalan kaki, seperti penyebrangan jalan, jalur pejalan kaki dll. Peningkatan infrastruktur transportasi umum, seperti Sarana Angkutan Umum Massal (SAUM), prioritisasi angkutan umum (busway) Fasilitas dan lingkungan yang ramah sepeda (bicycle-friendly). Subsidi ongkos angkutan umum bagi pekerja Flexible working hour bagi pekerja, untuk mengurangi kemacetan pada jam-jam sibuk Biaya penggunaan jalan saat jam-jam sibuk (road pricing)

Pilihan strategi-strategi dalam manajemen kebutuhan transportasi ditampilkan pada tabel Strategi Peningkatan pemanfaatan aset Metode Penyebaran puncak lalu lintas Teknik Pentahapan Jam kerja Jamkerja Fleksible Perubahan hari kerja Pembedaan biaya parkir Pembedaan ketersediaan tempat parkir Ridesharing (Nebeng) Jemputan (Car-pooling) Prioritasi kendaran berokupansi tinggi (High Ocupancy Vehicle) Prioritas Parkir Park and Ride Pemilihan area lalu lintas Ijin area (Area Licences) Batasan akses Pengaturan lampu lalu lintas Pengurangan kapasitas Prioritas angkutan umum Batasan ruang parkir Control akses parkir Toll Biaya masuk area (area charging) Biaya kemacetan (congestion charging) Prioritas Jangka pendek Biaya masuk tinggi Penerapan pajak bahan bakar Penerapan pajak parkir Kota yang kompak Pengembangen kota yang efisien Kesadaran dan informasi masyarakat Substitusi kominikasi Pengembangan sistem transportasi

Peningkatan Okupansi Kendaraan

Batas Fisik

Pembatasan Area Pembatasan Ruas

Pembatasan Parkir Pengenaan biaya Biaya Jalan (Road Pricing)

Pembatasan Ruas Pembatasan Parkir Perubahan aspek sosial Bentuk Perkotaan Perilaku sosial Perubahan teknis

Sumber: Luk (1992) Langkah yang dapat

The may be several steps between a particular TDM policy or program, and its desired outcomes, as illustrated below. Although many TDM strategies have modest impacts, only affecting a few percent of total trips, their impacts are cumulative and synergistic (total impacts are larger than the sum of individual impacts). A comprehensive TDM program can often affect a significant portion of total travel and provide large total benefits. It is therefore important to plan and evaluate integrated TDM programs rather than individual strategies.

Langkah-langkah dalam penerapan manajemen kebutuhan transportasi

Reformasi Kebijakan dan Perencanaan


Pembiayaan lebih untuk alternatif moda Peningkatan dukungan untuk program MKT Merubah praktisi perencanaan guna lahan

Merubah opsi perjalanan and insentif


Meningkatkan prasarana pejalan kaki dan sepeda Meningkatkan pelayanan angkutan umum Pengembangan guna lahan yang kompak Meningkatkan biaya parkir dan penggunaan jalan Menurunkan ongkos angkutan umum

Perubahan Pola Perjalanan


Perubahan dalam waktu perjalanan, rute, moda, tujuan dan frekuensi

Hasil / Manfaat
Menurunkan kemacetan Penurunan angka kecelakaan Konservasi energi Penurunan emisi polusi dll

Table 1

TDM Strategies Described In This Encyclopedia Insentif


Biaya penggunaan jalan

Peningkatan opsi transportasi


Peningkatan pelayanan angkutan umumTransit

Manajemen Guna Lahan Smart growth New urbanism Location-efficient development


Manajemen PerparkiranParking

Program dan Kebijakan TDM Programs Commute trip reduction Campus transport management Freight transport management Tourist transport management TDM marketing Least-Cost planning

Road pricing

improvements
Pajak kendaraan progresive berdasarkan Peningkatan fasilitas kendaraan tidak bermotor jarak Distance-based (jalur sepeda, pejalan fees kaki)Nonmotorized

improvements
Program rideshare Rideshare

Commuter financial incentives


Biaya parkirParking

management
Pengembangan berbasis kendaraan umumTransit

programs
Jam kerja fleksibelFlextime

pricing Pay-as-you-drive vehicle insurance


Peningkatan pajak bahan bakarFuel tax increases Dukungan penggunaan kendaraan tidak bermotorNonmotorized

oriented development Car free planning

Car sharing Telework Taxi improvements Bike/transit integration Guaranteed ride home HOV Priority

Market reforms Traffic calming

encouragement

Why Manage Transportation Demand?


This section describes various reasons to implement TDM solutions. For more information see Why Manage Transportation Demand?

Multiple Benefits
By reducing total vehicle traffic and improving overall Accessibility, Transportation Demand Management provides multiple benefits, including those described in Table 2. Although not every TDM strategy achieves all of these benefits in every situation, most strategies help achieve most of these benefits in most situations.

Table 2

Typical TDM Benefit

Benefit Congestion Reduction Road & Parking Savings Consumer Savings Transport Choice Road Safety Environmental Protection Efficient Land Use

Description Reduces traffic congestion delays and associated costs. Reduces road and parking facility costs. Helps consumers save money by reducing their need to own and operate motor vehicles. Improved travel options, particularly for non-drivers. Reduced crash risk Reduced air, noise and water pollution, wildlife crashes and other types of environmental damages. Supports strategic land use planning objectives, such as reduced sprawl, urban redevelopment and reduced habitat fragmentation. Improved local environmental quality and community cohesion. Supports a communitys economic objectives, such as increased productivity, employment, wealth, property values and tax revenues. Improved public fitness and health due to more physical activity, usually through increased daily walking and cycling.

Community Livability Economic development

Physical Fitness and Health

Most TDM strategies help achieve most of these benefits in most situations. Conventional transport planning that focuses on just a few impacts tends to undervalue TDM.

Most conventional transport improvement strategies only solve one or two problems, but due to Rebound effects (they stimulate additional vehicle travel) they exacerbate others. For example, widening roadways may reduce traffic congestion (at least for a while) but by generating additional vehicle travel it tends to increase problems such as downstream traffic and parking congestion, energy consumption and sprawl. Similarly, more efficient and alternative fuel vehicles may reduce energy problems and pollution emissions, but by reducing the per-mile cost of driving they tend to increase problems such as traffic and parking congestion, accidents and sprawl.

Conventional transport planning practices tend to focus on a limited set of impacts and so tend to undervalue TDM. For example, conventional planning often focuses on motor vehicle congestion, vehicle operating costs and accident rates, but ignores delays to pedestrians and cyclists, vehicle ownership costs, and physical fitness and public health impacts. Many of the methods used to measure transport system quality are biased in favor of automobile travel. For example, conventional planning often uses a congestion index (the ratio of actual vehicle traffic speeds to uncongested travel speeds) and motor vehicle crash rates per 100 million vehicle-miles to identify problem areas; indicators that focus on automobile travel conditions and ignore the costs of increased vehicle travel. For example, if vehicle travel increases 30% but traffic congestion delays and fatalities only increase 20%, the congestion index and crash rate values will decline, implying that travel has become easier and safer, although total delays and deaths actually increase. Conversely, they would consider harmful a TDM strategy that reduces vehicle travel by 30% if it only reduces congestion and accident costs by 20%. Transport planning must apply more Comprehensive Evaluation to determine the full benefits of TDM.

Cost Effective
When all impacts (benefits and costs) are considered, Transportation Demand Management strategies are often the most cost effective way to improve transportation. TDM can defer and reduce the need to expand roads and parking facilities, and provide other benefits such as reduced traffic accidents, energy conservation, and improved mobility for non-drivers.

Flexibility
TDM can provide flexible responses to many types of transportation problems, including those that are urgent, temporary, variable or unpredictable. TDM programs can be implemented quickly, and tailored to a particular situation and user group. Demand management avoids the

risk that a major capital investment will prove wasteful due to unforeseen changes in transportation needs.

Consumer Benefits
TDM can provide various consumers benefits. Many TDM strategies use positive incentives, they improve transportation options and provide financial rewards, and consumers benefit from reduced traffic congestion, parking problems, crash risk and pollution emissions.

Equity
TDM can help achieve Equity objectives. It can result in a fairer allocation of resources between different demographic and geographic groups. Many strategies directly benefit people who are economically, physically or socially disadvantaged by improving transportation options available to non-drivers.

Economic Justifications
Many Transportation Demand Management strategies reflect Market Principles. They correct existing market distortions, which increases economic efficiency, equity and consumer benefits. TDM supports economic development by increasing productivity and reducing external costs.

Sustainable Transportation
Transportation Demand Management can help create more Sustainable Transportation. TDM reflects sustainability principles of efficiency and integration, and can help achieve sustainability objectives including resource conservation, equity, environmental protection, efficient land use, and public involvement.