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MAY 2010

1. INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 1.1 Integrated Sold Waste Management System Overview 1.1.1 Characteristics of Integrated Waste Management 1.1.2 Efficiency of Solid Waste Management System 1.2 Determination of the Laws, Regulations and Strategies Regarding Waste Management 1.3 Population Estimates and Municipal Solid Waste Production Estimates 1.4 Collection and Transport of Wastes 1.4.1 Collection of Wastes 1.4.2 Separate Collection of Wastes at Source 1.4.3 Separation/Sorting 1.4.4 Solid Waste Collection Vehicles 1.5 Transport and Transfer of Wastes 1.5.1 Transfer Stations Non-compressive Systems Compressive Systems 1.5.2 Transfer Stations in Istanbul 1.5.3 Collection and Transportation Optimization 1.6 Solid Waste Disposal 1.6.1 Landfilling Landfill Site Selection Preliminary Studies for the Landfill Site Environmental Impact Assessment for Landfill Site Proper areas for Landfill Site Lands improper for Landfill Site Projecting Landfill Site Construction of Landfill Sites 1.7 Composting 1.7.1 Compost Applications in Istanbul 2.MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES IN LAHORE 2.1 General 2.2. Legislation on Solid Waste Management 4 4 6 7 9 11 12 12 17 20 21 21 21 22 24 25 26 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 38 39 42 42 44

2.2.1 General structure of solid waste management 44 2.2.3 Population Projection of Lahore 45 2.2.4 Estimations And Regional Distribution Of Lahore Mucipal Solid Waste Production 46 2.2.5 Future waste quantity 49 2.2.6 Collecting of Solid Wastes 50 City Cleaning 53 Liquidation of Waste Materials 54 2.2.7 The Planned Landfill Site 58 2.2.8 Medical Waste Management in Lahore 59 2.2.9 Construction and Demolition Waste Management in Lahore 59 2.2.10 Financing of the Solid Waste Management 59 3. LAHORE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT DETECTION AND RECOMMENDATION 4. THE FILE SCOPE OF LAHORE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT CONSULTANCY SERVICE 4.1 Planing Works 4.2 Projecting Works 4.3 Consultancy Services During Construction


69 69 74 76


1.1 Integrated Solid Waste Management System Overview
Fast population increase, urbanization and industrialization cause a significant increase both in waste quantities and waste types. Considering the targets and restrictions established by regulations today with such an increase in waste types, it is a fact that local managements may not disregard especially municipal solid waste management. A single approach is not sufficient for complete solution of waste problem which has a pressure on environment and increases each passing day. However, it is possible to provide an effective waste management by combination of all methods. This approach which is accepted internationally caused adoption of Integrated Waste Management approach. Waste Management is a method of management including the processes of minimization of domestic, medical, hazardous and nonhazardous wastes, collection at source, intermediate storage, build of waste transfer stations if required, transport of wastes, recycling, disposal, operation of disposal and recycling plants, closing, after-closig maintenance, monitoring-control. Current national and international legislations govern management of wastes without causing any adverse effect on environment and intend to prepare and apply related policies, principles and programs. Today, waste policy involves manufacturer responsibility, prevention, reduction, reuse, recycle, reduction of waste volume and less waste storage according to order of significance. This management hierarchy which is adopted in the world is the basis of integrated waste management and its adoption is possible by establishing an integrated system in waste management. Basis of integrated waste management is to establish main principles of regional integrated solid waste management to achieve stipulated goals of the process from formation of waste to its disposal considering national and international directives. Undoubtedly, the most significant step in creation of Integrated Waste Management Plan is identification of characterization of waste and calculation of possible waste quantity based on future population projection. Monitoring characterization graphic and quantity changes of municipal solid waste on a seasonal basis and preparation of regional waste intensity map constitutes the most significant denominator in selection of system and technology. Another important part of the system is to establish recycling principles and establish a collection and transport system appropriate for the region. Preparation of source separate collection plan and

programs and determination of training and implementation policies are significant steps in achievement of the goals. To sum up, it is obligatory to have a better understanding of components of an integrated solid waste management including all stages from occurrence of waste to final disposal and their interactions with each other. An effective waste management includes six main components including: Waste generation, Classification at source, storage, sorting and processing, Collection, Transport and transfer, Separation, processing and recycling, Final disposal.

These factors and their interactions are presented in Figure 1.1 Each of these factors must be considered independently. As seen in Figure 1.1, this flow diagram includes the levels following occurrence of waste. This approach is the classical approach. Such technologies producing less waste at the stages of generation and consumption are developed and implemented. Management flow diagram is shown in Figure 1.2 from production to final disposal.

Waste generation

Classification, Storage and Processing at source Collection Transport and Transfer Final Disposal Separation, Processing and Recycling

Figure 1.1 Classical Management Diagram of Solid Waste

1.1.1 Characteristics of Integrated Waste Management

A productive and integrated solid waste management system must have the following characteristics as a minimum. 1. It must be an integrated system: Solid waste management must be planned to include all materials forming composition of the solid waste generation in a centre of population and production sources. 2. It must create economic value: Economic values which may be derived from solid waste system are inputs from recycleable materials, compost and obtainable biogas (landfill siteand anaerobic compost). Income to be derived from them is closely related to market conditions and cost of investment to be made. Therefore, economic analysis must be made very effectively at the planning stage. 3. It must be flexible: Solid waste management system must be flexible enough to adapt at a certain level towards any possible changes in environment, space and waste characteristics over time. 4. Regional planning must be prepared: Volume of Waste to be collected ensures high efficiency of planning. Waste generation volume depends on population primarily. Therefore, larger regional plannings must be implemented other than city plannings. Some researchers recommend a population connected to an integrated administration to be more than 500.000 persons. (White, 1995)

Energy flow


Substance flow



Solid waste Multiple material Separation at source Recycled material

Recycled material Classification Combustible part Recycled energy Biogas Thermal Transformation Biogasification Biodegradable part (Recycled material)



Resid ue

Composting Compost

Compost Landfill

Figure 1.2 Integrated waste management flow diagram

1.1.2 Efficiency of Solid Waste Management System

Efficiency of a solid waste system is determined in two ways including financial and material recycling. In financial determination, it is necessary to consider the expenses met by the income derived from the system. A higher percentage of meeting expenses implies higher system efficiency. Income derived from the system includes the fees received in consideration of the services offered with recycled materials and energy sales. Material recycling percentage is calculated by three different methods. Material recycling percentage (% : Recycled waste quantity/ Total waste quantity Total recycling percentage (%): Recycled material + compost / Total waste quantity Those directed to out of the storage regularly (%) : Quantity of Waste stored regularly/ Total waste quantity

Less quantity of waste coming to storage regularly in the system shows higher quantity of waste recycled. Optimum solution involves maximization of material recycle and financial gain together.

1.2 Determination of the Laws, Regulations and Strategies Regarding Waste Management
Current national and international legislations govern management of wastes without causing any adverse effect on environment and intend to prepare and apply related policies, principles and programs. Today, waste policy involves manufacturer responsibility, prevention, reduction, reuse, recycle, reduction of waste volume and less waste storage according to order of significance. Current legal infrastructure must also form a basis for controllable management of wastes adaptable to the integrated system. It is essential to form the laws and regulations prepared to support integrated waste management, allocate tasks, authorities and responsibilities, establish middle and long term strategy and targets and apply legal sanctions in the event of breach of these regulations.

Currently, solid waste management in Turkey is governed by the Environment Law Ref. No. 2872 and the regulations which came into force in accordance with this Law are given below; Regulation on Control of Solid Wastes (1991) Regulation on Protection of Air Quality (1986) Regulation on Control of Medical Wastes (1993) Regulation on Control of Hazardous Wastes (1995) Regulation on Control of Water Pollution (2004) Packaging Waste Control Regulation (2004) Regulation on Control of Waste Battery and Accummulators (2004) Regulation on Control of Soil Pollution (2004) Excavation Soil,Construction and Demolation Waste Regulation (2004) Regulation on Control of Vegetable Oil Waste (2005) Regulation on Control of Rubbers completed their Life (2006) Regulation on Control of Waste Oils (2008) Regulation on Waste Management General Guidelines (2008) Regulation on Control of Vehicles completed their Life (2009) Directive on Landfill of Waste (2010)

Regulation on Control of Solid Wastes (14.3.1991-20814) It covers the principles regarding collection, transport, recycle, assessment, disposal of, and rendering harmless, household wastes taken from homes in residential areas, green wastes from park, garden and green areas, large solid wastes, industrial and commercial wastes having nature of household wastes which are not hazardous, purification sludges obtained (thrown) from wastewater treatment plants and .Industrial wastewater treatment plant sludges not falling in hazardous waste class.

Regulation on Control of Hazardous Wastes (14.03.2005-25755) It aims at ensuring management of hazardous wastes from production to final disposal consistent with the environment. It covers any prohibitions, limitations and obligations, measures to be taken and audits to be performed, applicable legal technical responsibilities regarding collection of hazardous wastes, intermediate storage in the plant, transportation, recycle, final disposal, import and export.

Regulation on Control of Medical Wastes (22.07.2005-25883) It includes the principles regarding medical wastes produced from operations of medical organizations and separate collection of these wastes in the place of production, their temporary storage, transport and disposal.

Regulation on Control of Packaging Wastes (24.06. 2007-26562) It covers all packages made from plastic, metal, glass, paper-board, composite and similar materials offered on the market in the country and wastes of these packages, whether or not they are home, industrial, commercial and site wastes.

Regulation on Control of Waste Oils (30.07.2008-26952) Its aim is to ensure management of waste oils from their production to final disposal consistent with the environment. This Regulation covers any prohibitions, limitations and obligations regarding any measures to be taken and audits to be performed regarding production, temporary storage, collection, transport, treatment, disposal, import, export and transit of the waste oils in category I, II and III stated in Annex-1.

Regulation on Control of Waste Battery and Accumulators (31.08.2004-25569) It regulates any prohibitions, limitations and obligations for their import, export and transit, any measures to be taken, audits to be performed and imposed responsibilities regarding labeling

and marking battery and accumulator products, reducing harmful material volume in their production, separate collection, transport, disposal of their wastes after use independent from home and other wastes.

Regulation on Control of Vegetable Oil Waste (19.04.2005-25791) It regulates any prohibitions, limitations and obligations, measures to be taken, audits to be performed, imposed legal and penal responsibilities regarding collection, temporary storage, transport, recycle, disposal, trade, import, export and transit.

Regulation on Waste Management General Guidelines (05.07.2008-26927) This Regulation is intended to establish general principles concerning management of wastes from their production to disposal without any damages to the environment and human health. In this scope, main rules of this Regulation covers pollution and importation prohibition, creation of waste management plans, obligation to obtain license, issue of liability insurance, meeting disposal costs and annex of the Regulation includes a list of wastes consistent with European Union identifying hazardous and nonhazardous wastes.

1.3 Population Estimates and Municipal Solid Waste Production Estimates

One of the most important parameters of solid waste management is characterization of the waste and its quantitative distribution to years in the middle and long term. When waste inventory is taken, population and future changes in population, estimates on waste quantity to be produced per person accoding to the factors showing country welfare level must be known well.


1.4 Collection and Transport of Wastes

1.4.1 Collection of Wastes
Solid waste management is an integrated system consisting of collection, transport, disposal and final removal of wastes. Collection and transport of wastes represent approximately 80% of total cost in such places where landfill siteis applied for disposal. This percentage varies according to disposal method. The way to reduce cost of solid waste management system is directly related to minizing collection and transport cost. On the other hand, the public sees only this part of the system and consider success of solid waste management directly with success of this system. Collection is the most hard and costly factor of solid waste management. Collection system must be consistent with the procedure applied in temporary storage of wastes at source. In the world, there are different types of collection systems depending on development, regional and geographical position and city planning understanding. We may group them as follows in general; a- Unsystematic collection b- Collection by discharging waste container c- Replacement Collection d- Collection with Bags a- Unsystematic Collections In unsystematic collection, containers used for wastes do not subject to a standard. In this case, home habitant fill their wastes in such bags, tins and similar structures they provide themselves and leave them in a place or roadsides. Although such collections are seen advantageous in terms of low cost and ease of organization for local managements, remaining wastes open and collection of them by hand constitute a threat for the public health. Waste liquids leaked from bags may produce a malodor in the environment and may also give rise to serious insect problems. In addition, wastes which are accumulated at different points of the city may spoil city aesthetic beyond city planning understanding.


b- Collection by discharging waste container The method which is most commonly used in collection of solid wastes is discharhing full solid waste containers in the collection vehicle. Efficiency of this process is directly related to the containers for temporary storage of wastes and characteristics of collection vehicles. Standard nature of waste collection containers simplifies harmony with collection vehicles and provides quality and operational facility. Thus, it helps in reduction of collection cost. Advantages of this system are flexibility, easeness for personnel, a hygienic environment and low operating cost. Its disadvantages are area need and high initial investment costs. In this system, home habitants discharge their wastes in standard containers. Waste containers are collected and discharged by the relevant personnel in waste collection trucks on certain days and times of the week. After completion of transfer to waste collection truck, the container is put again in that place. In such systems, top of containers are closed. Thus, dissemination of malodors to the environment and generation of insects are prevented. There are many container models used in this system. Containers have models with different volumes from 35lt to 5m3 depending on the place and generated waste quantity. Waste storage containers may be made from metal or plastic. Galvanized sheet is commonly used as metal. In such applications, stainless steel material may also be used. Containers may be made from plastic up to 1100lt. The most important drawback of plastic containers is being non-resistant against heat. Rather, it is more resistant against chemical and biochemical reactions. Containers used for ash collection must not be plastic against risk of burning.



Table 1.1. Areas of use of containers for waste collection by their sizes

Name Dustbin

Volume 35-50 liters


80-120 liters


120 390 liters

Large Container 0,75 1,7 m3

Large Container 2,5 5 m3

Area of use Detached house/Flat Boxes used for different waste types in case of separate collection at source Detached house/flats with a few persons living Office and small-sized commercial enterprises Housing estates Office and small-sized commercial enterprises Housing Estates Public Use on Street Commercial and Industrial areas Large Administrations, Hotels Hospitals (for home wastes) Bazaar Places Housing Estates Public Use on Street Commercial and Industrial areas Large Administrations, Hotels Hospitals (for home wastes) Bazaar Places


Replacing empty container with full container

This method is commonly used if big volume waste collection containers are used. When waste containers are filled, empty ones are put near them and full container is taken in the process of collection. It is more appropriate to use this kind of containers in such places where large amounts of wastes are produced. Minimum size of containers used for waste collection by replacing with empty one is 5m3. This volume may incrase up to 40m3. There are also compressive types of these containers.


d- Collection with One-Way Bags In this method, wastes are filled by home habitant in such waste bags at standard length and they are left in certain places or street on day and time of collection. Dustmen load the bags in collection vehicles by hand. It would be useful to limit maximum capacity of waste bags at (110) lt in practice in order to limit the wastes to be lifted by dustmen. As stated above, waste bags are manufactured from plastic (polyethilen) in general and from paper (rarely) and left in dust with the wastes in them. Cost of waste bags is higher than boxes in the long term. Boxes are collected 1-2 times a week in general, whereas waste bags may be collected 2-3 times or more frequently depending on their volumes.


1.4.2 Separate Collection of Wastes at Source

Separate collection at source is required for efficient recycling of the materials with economic value among solid wastes. Two collection methods are given in below; Bring Back Center,

Curbside collection

Method of delivery by consumers is a passive method in terms of collector and is based on activity of the consumer mostly. People take their wastes to the collection bins or Bring Back Center. Consumers perform this work voluntarily, in consideration of a fee, sertain facilities or exemptions. Efficiency of this method is directly related to environment conscious of persons. Deposit system is also a kind of Bring Back Center method. On deposit system, the person failing in delivering the package is imposed an indirect penalty equal to deposit sum. In this procedure, recycleable wastes which may be collected separately at source are taken to packaging waste collection centers in certain places of the location and put into appropriate containers. Number, size and color of containers are determined according to number, nature and quantity. Their access must be easy and must be clean and easy to enter and exit in order to increase efficiency of packaging waste collection centers.


Curbside method which is an active system in terms of collector, wastes stored separately are collected by the local management or authorized entity. Vehicles used in separate collection are generally non-compressive and multi-section vehicles. This work requires dedicated private vehicles and personel. Separate collection at source is more common than delivery by the consumer. In this method, citizens store their wastes in specified number of containers. In general practice, wastes are stored in three containers. Paper-board wastes are collected in the first container, other package wastes are collected in the second container and other wastes are collected in the third container. Separately stored wastes are collected in certain periods. Collection period is 1 or 2 weeks. Container properties and colors must be identified based on quantity of wastes to be collected in case of separate collection at source and number of containers for collection. If all recycleable wastes are collected in a single container separately, this container must have cover. If paper and board are collected in separate containers, it is sufficient that only these containers must be covered. Region and time of separate collection must be notified to the citizen beforehand.


Table 1.2 Comparison of methods of delivery by consumer and collection from consumer Delivery by Consumer Recycleable materials are taken from place of production to the collection points by producers Separated by the producer Separation (central treatment is optional) Mixed or separated materials Joint Collection from Consumer Recycleable materials are collected from producers (home, site) Separated by the producer (separation at source or central separation is possible) Mixed or separated materials Individual (may be separate partner or apartment) NA


Collected materials Collection containers Consumer access need Collection access need


Low Low High



Collected volume

(depending on intensity of collection (subject to good organization) area) Low (separate collection) Low (separation at source) High (mixed collection)

Pollution level High (mixed collection)


1.4.3 Separation/Sorting
Materials collected for the purpose of recycling must be separated in such form and case required by the recycling method selected. Separation may be grouped in the following manner: separation at source separation during collection separation at the centre

Separation at source is made to increase efficiency of separation in Collection-sorting Facility and render it economic. In this application, wastes are accumulated and collected in separate containers at source. In separation during collection, wastes are collected in a clearer manner than separation at the centre but this application is considerably rare due to time spent for separation and necessary labor.


Sorting at the centre is applied for material recycle from the wastes collected mixed and sorting the materials collected separately. Efficiency of sorting mixed wastes at the centre is very low. However, central system application is very common for sorting wastes collected separately at source.

1.4.4 Solid Waste Collection Vehicles

Solid waste collection vehicles may be classified as follows in terms of waste storage; Compressive vehicles Non-compressive vehicles -Mechanical compressive vehicles -Hydraulic compressive vehicles Vehicles may be classified as follows in terms of loading method; Back loaded vehicles Front loaded vehicles Side loaded vehicles In general, compressive vehicles are used in collection of mixed collected wastes. Collection of mixed wastes by non-compressive vehicles is rarely encountered in practice. However, it may be used in such streets where motor vehicles may not be driven and in small settlements. Vehicle type most commonly used today is hydraulic compressive vehicles. Operation of them are easier than mechanical compressive vehicles. The most significant advantage of mechanical compressive vehicles is partial degaradation of wastes. There are vehicles collecting both package wastes and kitchen wastes separately in such places shifted to separate collection at source.

1.5 Transport and Transfer of Wastes

Wastes are transported either by collection vehicles or transferred to collection vehicles at transfer stations. Aim of shipment render logistics of solid waste chain more efficient in general.

1.5.1 Transfer Stations

Centres where solid wastes are transferred from collection vehicles to transport vehicles are called as transfer stations. Transport distance of solid wastes extends due to excessive


expansion of cities and disposal plants being out of city. Therefore, transfer of wastes to larger vehicles rather than driving to disposal area by each waste collection vehicle reduces both transport expenses and traffic load in the city. Many criteria must be considered in selection of location, capacity and model of transfer stations including regional waste intensity, distance to disposal area, models of collection and transport vehicles. In determination of transport vehicles, there are two significant ctiteria. They are limits of load carriage on highways and limitations in discharge. Selection of type of transfer station is mainly based on type of transport vehicle. Transfer centers are classified in different ways depending on loading method and existence of compression. Model of transfer centre mainly depends on transport vehicle and compression. Non-compressive Systems In non-compressive systems, wastes are discharged from collection vehicles to transport vehicles, directly or indirectly, in transfer centres and are transported without compression. In this system, wastes are discharged from the top in the container or trailer located under a ramp in general. Transfer process is realized in closed volumes to prevent disturbance to the environment in terms of dust, appearance etc. In general, fixed or moving boxes are used. Containers may be manufactured in such volumes up to 30 45 m3. Non-compressive transfer centres are divided into two.

a-Directly Loaded Non-Compressive Transfer Centres

In directly loaded transfer centres, wastes brought by collection vehicles are discharged in transport vehicles directly. Load parts of transport vehicles may be fixed or moving. Advantages and disadvantages of directly loaded transfer center are presented below; Advantages Operating interruption is seen rarely due to lack of hydraulic equipment. It facilitates management of wastes. Its construction cost is low. Order of use of transport vehicles is easy. More loadings are made than compressive trailer.


Disadvantages Larger trailers are needed compared to compressive stations. Direct discharge of heavy materials on the trailer may cause damage to the trailer. It reduced the area required for recycleable materials. There may not be sufficient waiting hours and environment for direct discharge in peak hours. Moving boxes are more commonly used in directly loaded transfer centres. Steel containers at 11-45 m3 capacity are used as moving boxes. Containers filled with wastes are transferred to a truck with a moving chassis. The truck taking full container leaves an empty container instead of that container it took. These containers transport without compression in general without exceeding legal transport weight. Metal cover, grate or fabric cover are used to prevent distribution of wastes around. This system is economic in terms of initial investment cost. When waste volume increases, it is possible to add container.

b- Indirectly Loaded Non-Compressive Transfer Centres In indirectly loaded transfer centres, waste is discharged in a hole of on a platform, then it is loaded on trailer by the equipment used for waste loading. Fixed or moving boxes may also be used here. Advantages and disadvantages of this system are presented below; Advantages Safe and effective waste storage area is provided. Compressed waste is crushed by bulldozer in the hole or on platform. Top loaded trailer is cheaper than the compressive trailer. Peak loadings may be administered easily. Operating order of transfer vehicles is easy. Simplicty of equipment and operation minimizes interruption of station.


Recycleable materials may be allowed. Disadvantages: Initial investment cost for equipment and structure is higher than other alternatives. Need for working area is high. Larger trailer is needed compared to compressive stations. Compressive Systems

In compressive transfer centres, wastes discharged in transport box are compressed. Boxes and compression equipment may be fixed or moving. Boxes may be positioned vertically or horizontally in the centre. Advantages and disadvantages of compressive stations are given in below; Advantages: Smaller trailer is used than non-compressive stations. Loading volume may be increased in light trailer. Some compressors may be installed for lower level trailer and desired capacity. Controlled and uniform loading is possible, transport work may be performed by a small transfer trailer. There is a lower possibility of disturbance to the environment in terms of odour, dust, flying paper etc. Fire risk is less. Disadvantages: Investment cost is high. Operating expense is high. If compression system fails, vehicles will have to wait to discharge wastes and this will cause delay in the system. If compressor is brokendown, there is no other way to load on the trailer. Weight of the system giving the waste out and supports reduce legal loading limit. Compactor capacity may not be sufficient for peak hours.

Compressive systems may also involve direct loading or indirect loaded. In indirect loading, the waste discharged from collection vehicles to the hole or on the area is filled in the transport vehicle later on. Advantages and disadvantages of indirect loading are given below;


Advantages: It provides waste storage area in Waste Hole peak hours. It increases the locations allocated for recycled materials. It includes all advantages in compressive stations. Disadvantages Initial investment cost of waste hole equipment is high. It includes all disadvantages in compressive stations.

1.5.2 Transfer Stations in Istanbul

In Istanbul, nearly 14.000 ton home wastes are collected by 39 municipalities by about 10-15 m3 vehicles and taken to total 7 solid waste transfer stations belonging to Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality including Baruthane, Yenibosna, Halkali, Silivri in the European


Side and Hekimbasi, Kucukbakkalkoy, Aydinli in the Asian Side. Wastes are transferred to 45-50 m3 vehicles in these stations and taken to 2 Solid Waste Landfill siteagain belonging to IMM for disposal including Odayeri in the European Side and Komuruoda in the Asian Side. Thus, fuel, labort and time savings are ensured by transporting them by lower number of vehicles and also solid wastes taken from districts to transfer stations are transported to landfill sitein less trips so that city traffic load may be reduced.

Table 1.3 Capacities and Average Operating Loads of Transfer Stations in Istanbul DAILY Solid Waste Transfer Centres Baruthane Halkali Yenibosna Aydinli Hekimbasi Kucukbakkalkoy Silivri Planning capacity 750 Ton/Day 1.500 Ton/ Day 1.500 Ton/ Day 1.500 Ton/ Day 1.500 Ton/ Day 750 Ton/ Day 500 Ton/ Day Maximum Capacity 1.500 Ton/ Day 2.500 Ton/ Day 2.500 Ton/ Day 2.500 Ton/ Day 2.500 Ton/ Day 1.500 Ton/ Day 1.600 Ton/ Day Actual Capacity 2.183 3.157 2.959 1.493 1.679 1030 174 Number of Vehicles arrived 449 352 405 191 238 173 26 Number of silos filled 109 158 99 75 84 52 9

1.5.3 Collection and Transportation Optimization

As stated before, the biggest share in the cost of municipal solid waste management belongs to collection and transport systems and they may be optimized by using different models. The most common one of them is micro-route study. Today, optimization systems operating with GIS system have been developed as well.

In the solid waste collection and transport optimization study conducted in Istanbul Kagithane district in 2008, a saving at 53% has been ensured in number of employees and 32% saving has been ensured in number of vehicles considering only collection frequencies without making micro-route calculation and without increasing number of containers. Vehicle fullness percentages increased from 54% to 97%. As a result, it is found that it is possible to save total service costs by 47% by a simple method only reducing weekly collection frequency.



Solid Waste Disposal

1.6.1 Landfilling
Landfilling is storage of solid wastes on a ground to prevent environmental problems. It is necessary to consider engineering principles in design of a landfill site. An environmental risk assessment must be performed and concluded in selection of landfill site. In design of landfill site, parts of project and plans which must be prepared include access roads, soil movements, preparation of field, compilation and treatment of leachate, the landfill gas collection and processing, landfill base, main building and auxiliary buildings. Landfill Site Selection Selection of storage fields is subject to rules of the Regulation on Landfill in force in Turkey. According to this regulation; Landfill Site built for domestic wastes and industrial solid wastes on home nature and treatment sludges may not be constructed in such places with a distance to the closest settlement less than 250 meters. In location selection for landfill site, it is necessary to consider whether landfill site affects air access safety, distance to forest areas, planting areas, such areas under protection for special purposes including protection of wild life and vegetation cover, condition of underground and surface water sources and protection basins in the region, underground water level and underground water flow directions, topographic, geological, geo-morphological, geotechnical and hydro-geological condition of the field, flood, landslip, snowslide, erosion and high earthquake risk, prevailing wind direction and rain condition, natural or cultural heritage condition. In addition, the field may not contain pipelines used for transfer of fuel, gas and drinkingpotable water, high tension lines and the area selected is processed in the relevant plans following completion of the process of environmental impact assessment performed for the field. Preliminary Studies for the Landfill Site Within the scope of pre-studies for landfill site various parameters should be considered, proper landfill site should be chosen, alternative sites should be examined by the group (from occupation group such as environmental engineer, civil engineer, geology, geophysicist), 1/1000 map of sites should be drawn and EIA report should be prepared.

27 Environmental Impact Assessment for Landfill Site Environmental impact assessment for landfilling is the process that significant impacts of a certain project or development on the environment are determined. The aim of EIA is to determine all negative environmental impacts in advance, to take necessary actions and protect environment values against economic policies. For this purpose as a result of activities intended to be performed, all negative impacts to be caused by institution, organization and enterprises for the environment are considered and a EIA report indicating how the impacts to cause environment pollution will make harmless and measures to be taken in this regard. Proper lands for Landfill Site

Lands considered for regular storing are arid, salty, drought, desert and low-productive lands, soils yielding very few products, mineral without water, Stone, sand, gravel and clay mines, deposit lands on which construction cannot be done after operating mineral mines, slopes (slope inclination should not be more than 1/3), empty areas between connection locations of big transportation roads, places not threatening in terms of pollution of underground water, arid, inefficient for planting at the sea side, areas outside of overflow sites, areas being at least 250 m distance to the houses, at 3 km distance to the airport and farther should be preferred. A regular storing site chosen wrong will increase the waste handling, site development, site operating and environmental protection costs. Lands improper for Landfill Site When regular storing site is chosen, the internal side of basins that potable water is supplied or to be supplied, areas with flood and overflow danger, areas with landslide, soil sliding and snow slip dangers, areas with undesired geological characteristics such as fault line, soil types such as hollow, high organic substance, consistently frozen areas, marshes, ponding areas, reeds, underground water layers supplying regions, areas being close to the underground water level to the surface, regions with physical restrictions such as very inclined lands, the area where protecting the nature process is carried out, locations for picnic area for the public, areas under the dominating winds of inhabited regions passing storing sites and areas close to the houses as 250 m and 3000 m to the airports should not be chosen.

28 Projecting Landfill Site The site location determination, environmental impact assessment and ground investigation studies have been completed is projected. Projecting landfill sites is planned considering parameters such as optimum use of existing area, slope stabilities and future operating facility. Building and structures in a landfill site consist of following units. Storing site Truck scale and truck scale building Administrative building Workshop building Security building Water tank Transformer and generator building Wheel washing unit Cesspool Approaching and in site roads Wire fence Architectural projects Static projects Reinfor EIA projects Mechanic projects Electricity projects Of the all structures are prepared for planning regular storing site and existing buildings. Construction of Landfill Sites To prevent the leakage in soil layer under the regular storing sites, a layer made with the combination of a few materials and low-permeable material is placed on the base of site. Tightness layer serves as the barrier retaining the water seepage and directing to the collecting system. Moreover, it functions as a part of gas control system and cover layer to reduce the percolation. The most important problem about the tightness layers is that it increases permeability in the long term.


Composition of Landfill Base

For the purpose of control of waste water seepage being the most risky parameter for the environment of the storing site, storage base is made impermeable and water seepage is removed with proper drain system before leaking the underground. Engineering practices consist of the building a base cover to be placed in all areas where the waste will be drained off. The composition of landfill base changes depending on the type of waste to be stored. It is indicated in the regulations on regular storing of wastes in Turkey that a direct drainage layer is fabricated without an additional impermeable material in the areas with 1 x 10-9 permeability and having 1 m clay thickness. If there is no impermeable material with this quantity and characteristics, 50 cm in thickness mineral impermeability layer should be formed and geomembrane or geotextile material should be laid on this layer. Following impermeability of the site, HDPE holed pipes chosen in diameter according to project are installed on the warehouse base in herringbone form. After installation of pipes and necessary connections, the top of site is covered with 50 cm river gravel and made ready for waste layout. For the purpose of removal water seepage collected from the site, a water seepage collection pool is formed outside the site and drainage is ensured.

50 cm gravel layer Geotextile Geomembrane 25 cm clay layer 25 cm clay layer



After the base impermeability has been ensured, maximum 50 m impact radius gas flues need to be installed in the landfill site. Passive control of methane gas to cause poisoning and explosion diffusing the environment as a result of decomposition of organic material without air in the warehouse mass microbiologically is ensured in this way. Gas flues can be fabricated vertically or horizontally.

Placement of wastes Various methods are applied for disposal of solid wastes by landfilling. One of the methods is chosen based on topography of the site, the source of surface and underground water. Widely used methods are ditch method, area method and cell method. Ditch method: since very little waste will be stored in the areas where the level of underground water is high and excavation in the volume of waste to be filled will be performed it is not very economical method. Area method: forms excessive water seepage if it is applied in natural pits. Moreover, since the control is very difficult for operating, it is not a preferred method. In cell method: solid wastes are stored in areas prepared in advance. Especially in recent years use of cell method has become widespread since it is economic and safe. Filling wastes via cell method The widespread technique for waste filling with celling method is pushing the wastes upwards the filling slope (ramp method) and laying out as it is seen in figure 1.3. This filling method will ensure the compaction of wastes as good as possible.


Figure 1.3 Pushing Wastes Upwards The Embankment Slope And Laying Out However, waste contents in our country are not suitable for pushing upwards the embankment slope and laying out. Since organic waste rate and water content of our waste are high, it prevents engineering machines to lay out wastes upwards the ramp. Therefore, this method is applied as laying out downwards the embankment slope not upwards in our country.
Laying out the wastes downward the embankment slope is shown in Figure 1.4 Of course this brings some essential costs. Since filling wastes in cells downwards the slope, discharging the wastes will be performed over the landfill site by the vehicle. This situation causes road in the site and platform requirements.

Figure 1.4. Laying out the waste by pushing downwards the embankment slope


Formation of cells For the waste storing works to be performed within certain borders, wastes will be stored in a series of waste cell borders of which have been determined. This method will ensure the efficient use of mobile equipment and soil cover and efficient management of waste shipment traffic. Sizes of cells should be in the way that it will ensure the surface area to be minimum level based on waste quantities coming to the site. Temporary banquet should be built at the lower part of cells to collect the water seepage.

Laying out the first waste to be stored in the cell base The thickness of the first waste layer to be laid out on the whole of first part of cell area base cover of which has been laid out should be maximum 2 meters. There should not be big mass objects, long wooden pieces, pipes and similar sharp materials to damage the water seepage collecting system and lower base cover in the first water layer. Wastes coming to the site should be examined and only wastes being proper for use as the first waste embankment on the cell base should be allowed. While the wastes are unloaded, base cover chosen and compacted should not be damaged. Base cover may not compact the first waste layer very much for the system to protect the integrity. Since wastes will be laid out downwards, working of caterpillars on the base tightness of which has been ensured directly will be prevented and so base composition will not be damaged. The first waste layer embankment is seen in Figure 1.5


Figure 1.5 The first layer embankment section at the first level ** Notes : Embankment cells should be in size to enable that surface area that wastes are discharged to be at minimum level based on daily waste quantity estimations. When the layer cover is laid on all excavation area and all base cover is laid on all slopes and a new banquet is built, intercepting to be removed should be laid farther than the banquet. LIFT is the daily cover and waste layer laid on the surface where the works are performed in solid waste embankment area every day. The condition of LIFT laid on the ground of solid waste embankment area after 6 days is seen in the figure.

Additional waste layers After laying out the first waste layer of the completed part of cell base, additional waste layers will be laid on this layers. First of all, waste is discharged on the platform made over the slope. Wastes are laid in vertical/horizontal rate 1/3 or 1/4 depending on waste contents in 50-60 cm layers via dozers and wastes laid are compacted with steel cylinder compactors. Following each laying process, compaction must be definitely performed. Compactors should be used as they will break down the waste and compacted with optimum intensity. Below mentioned purposes should be followed while compacting the wastes: Intensity of waste is increased as much as possible and existing empty areas are used optimally. Minimizing the daily cover requirement.


Reducing problems to occur the insect, mosquito and pest invasion Accelerating anaerobic activities and achieving waste stability Laying and compacting the wastes continue until the layer thickness reaches to about 5 m thickness. Solid waste embankment process via celling method is shown in Figure 4 in details.

Covering wastes All of solid waste surfaces should be covered with 15 cm soil layer to prevent problems arising from drifting flying objects by wind, odor, carrier animals, rodents and insects. When wastes reach to planned cell height, 15 cm additional soil cover should be laid to form an intermediary cover. The intermediary cover will be 30 cm in thickness and will be laid on areas where no waste will be discharged for one month. When determining the size of daily cells, minimum level of surface area that the waste covers will contribute to less daily cover and so economic benefit. The leveling of intermediary cover should be done to prevent leakage and erosions. Additional cover will be applied on all waste storing areas covers of which are cracked, worn or there is no smooth inclination periodically. Daily cover implementation can be applied very practically in the sites where there is no night work and storing is done only during the day. However, it is very difficult to implement in the storing areas based on the principle of 24-hour working and 3 shifts.

Final cover When the waste height reaches to the maximum height stated in the operating plan, 30 cm intermediary cover should be laid on the waste. Upper inclinations of this layer will be between 5% and 15%. When design leveling is performed, 60 cm clay layer is laid. The permeability of clay layer should be 1x10-8 or less. The clay should be covered with vegetative soil in adequate thickness (1,5-2 m) and quality to allow formation of green areas. Advantages of the cover Preventing spreading of wastes to fly under wind Controlling and reducing the odor Preventing microbe carrying by the carrier animals


Preventing sorting in uncontrolled way Reducing reproduction of mosquitoes Preventing uncontrolled warehouse gas leakages Since the contact of waste layers with the air is prevented, acceleration in anaerobic activities and short time for stabilization of wastes

Road and platform building Since filling the wastes in the cell from upward to downward of the inclination, the vehicles will discharge the wastes to the cell over the storing site. Roads should be built in the site to allow vehicles to reach the region. Unloading platform in the sizes to respond the vehicle intensity for waste discharging of the vehicles should be built. Since road and platforms will be built over the solid waste embankment area, thick soil layer and big crushed Stones should be used. Maximum care should be shown for road in the site and platforms building to allow heavy tonnage vehicles to unload easily under any kinds of weather conditions. Road and platform sections shown in Figure 6 should be implemented in the storing areas where heavy-tonnage vehicle intensity is high.

Figure 1.6 The Platform Section Some points are important for road and platform construction in the site. First of all, you should not forget that the region of the road is not a stabilized ground, there are continuously aerobic and anaerobic activities and therefore there will be local collapse and deformations. Firstly the road route fit for site operating plan should be determined. The road route should be chosen at the side of storing site over the slope. Road levels should be chosen as the maximum embankment level of embankment cells coinciding with the routes. The inclination of the road to be built on the storing site should not be more than 7%. After determining the


route and level, wastes such as debris, construction wastes coming to the storing area should be used in road route. The level and inclination of the road is adjusted by use of these materials. If there is no sufficient debris and construction waste, soil is laid and compacted. Then quarry Stone and crushed Stone shown in figure 6 are laid and compacted. Roads in the site should be maintained consistently. After the construction of roads in the site, discharging platform in the size to respond the vehicle density should be built. Discharging platforms should be efficient for entry-exit of vehicles, waste unloading and maneuvering. If there are heavy-tonnage vehicles, the platform section should be as in Figure 1.6. However if vehicle entry-exist is rare and tonnages are light, less quarry Stone may be used.

1.7 Composting
Composting is the process of decomposition and stabilization of organic matters under controlled environmental conditions biologically. Composting being a natural process consists of degradation of organic matter. During the composting process, organic matter is decomposed fast and than slowly until a stabile organic mass is formed. Organic matters decomposing slowly are stabilized and matured following the second stage. Maturity of compost is the most important parameter determining the usability of the compost as improving in the site. Composting process is an ideal alternative for disposal of solid wastes and there are different models of it used in the world. They are divided in two groups as open and closed systems generally and also they are divided among themselves as operating conditions, machines and equipment used. The main 6 systems used widespread are as follows.


Passive or composting in open stack, Composting a transferred stack by turning inside out and mixing via loader caterpillar, Composting in transfer stack done by special transfer machines, Composting in ventilated static stack by holed pipes, Composting in reactors, Garden type compost All of these methods are used successfully and widespread. The first three methods are applied in open air. Ventilated static stack and reactor type systems are covered with a unit generally so humidity, odor control and refinement is carried out easily.

1.7.1 Compost Applications in Istanbul

About 14.000 tones waste are disposed of in Istanbul daily as being 9.500 tones in European side and 4.500 tones in Asia side. Other than these, average 700 tones wastes are accepted at Kemerburgaz compost plant daily and turned into compost product. IBB Compost Plant located in Istanbul Kisirmandira (Kemerburgaz) has been operating since 2001 and the plant was established in EKA/Day operating for 1000 tones per day in 2 shifts treatment capacity at the first stage. When double collecting was applied in medium-term, aerobic biological treatment of 500 t/day domestic waste (EKA) collected mixed and 500 tons/day domestic organic solid waste (EKOA) has been foreseen. Aerobic composting process implemented in the plant is a fast composting technique known as tunnel composting. The plant consists of following units. Waste acceptance and interim storing Pre-conditioning Main decomposition Sorting Final conditioning Preparation, storing and sales of recycle materials Compost store and marketing Dirty air collection and cleaning Waste water collecting and treatment

Control measurement and automation Vehicles and containers

Domestic solid wastes coming from markets, bazaar and similar areas rich in organic wastes are taken to pre-sorting unit. Wastes remaining on 80 mm sieve during pre-treatment are delivered to manual sorting (Recycling) unit. Undersize particle is delivered to compost reactor after breaking down the iron particles in magnetic separator. Wastes composted at the end of 8-week aerobic fermentation in tunnel compost reactor are sieved with 15 mm sieve and sent to be used as daily cover layer in domestic solid waste storing area as roughly composted on the sieve. Undersize particles are stored as the compost product. Flow diagram of IBB Kemerburgaz Compost plant is shown in Figure 1.7. Fast fermentation in the first 3 weeks is performed in compost reactor. Positive ventilation upwards from the base is applied during this period. As of the second week, humidification is performed during transfer. Fermentation process is carried out for 5 weeks with negative ventilation (absorbing the air in the stack and from the base). Dirty air arising during the composting is purified in bio-filter during composting and odor emissions are taken under the control. Water seepages are collected in a tank and then sent to Water seepage treatment plant established in Odayeri regular storing area provided to be carried with tankers. IBB Ksrmandra composting plant accept average 700 t/day domestic solid waste per day and 400 t/day partial fermentation is done and 300 t/day part is subject to treatment at manual sorting unit and package wastes recycling process is carried out.


Figure 1.7 IBB Kemerburgaz Compost Plant



2.1 General
Lahore is the capital city of Punjab and one of the most important cities of Pakistan. The city is bounded by Sheikhupura region in the North and west, Wagag region in the east and Kasur region in the South and Ravi River streams in the North. The area of Lahore is 1.772 km2 and this area covers 0,86% of Punjab state. In Figure 2.1, the location of city to Turkey is shown and in figure 2.2 the location of Lahore on Pakistan and Punjab is shown.

Figure 2.1 The location of Lahore city to Turkey

Figure 2.2 The location of Lahore on Pakistan and Punjab


Lahore has the most developing economy among other cities of Pakistan. The economic power of Lahore arises from its being one of the most crowded cities of Pakistan. It has significant contributions to gross domestic product (GDP) of Pakistan. As of 2005, parity of purchasing power (PP) and gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated as 28 billion $ with average 5,9% growth rate. GDP estimated for Lahore in 2020 is 67 billion $. The summer is very hot and winter is mild in Lahore. Its climate is monsoon and humid tropical with dust storm. The months that temperature increases to 40-48 in Lahore are May, June and July and the weather is very hot in these months. Monsoon season starts with rain from the end of June to August. December, January and February are the coldest months. Temperature decreases to -1 in these months. The highest temperature of the city is 48.3 degrees according to records of 6 June 1921 and 9 June 2007. The graphics for rain, sun light and temperature are shown in figure 2.3.

Figure 2.3 Average max. and min. temperatures in C and precipitation totals in mm for Lahore Its administrative organization was changed in 2001 following the publishing of local administration regulations of Lahore and Lahore recognized itself as city district goverment Lahore (CDGL). The city was divided in 9 regions with the regulations. The names of these regions are as follows; 1. Shalimar town, 2. Wagah town,
3. Saint Bhatti town, 4. Data Ganj Baksh town, 43

5. Ravi town, 6. Gulberg town, 7. Samanabad town, 8. Iqbal town, 9. Nishtar town

2.2. Legislation on Solid Waste Management

Pakistan PEPA Law called Solid waste management by laws 2005 was enacted on 02.07.2005 in Lahore affiliated to Penjab state on solid waste management. According to the law, all materials occurring as a result of activities of man and animal and not desired are characterized as solid waste and Lahore region government (CDGL) was hold responsible for cleaning of streets and protecting health of people in its authority borders.

2.2.1 General structure of solid waste management

Based on information obtained with meetings hold, 9 regions are administered by region administrators however, regions administrators do not have any responsibility for solid waste management and all works in waste management are performed by units affiliated to the central government centrally.


2.2.3 Population Projection of Lahore

The population of Lahore being the capital city of Punjab is about 9.000.000 as of 2010. while about 85% of population lives in the city, about 15% lives in rural areas. Population change in the future is shown in the table below based on data acquired in Lahore.
1998 Population in the city Rural population Total population 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025

5.818.000 7.011.000 8.010.000 501.000 1.029.000 1.538.000

9.151.000 10.455.000 11.945.000 2.190.000 3.014.000 4.052.000

6.319.000 8.040.000 9.548.000 11.341.000 13.469.000 15.997.000


Population Growth of Lahore

Urban Population

Rural Population


2.2.4 Estimations And Regional Distribution Of Lahore Mucipal Solid Waste Production
The waste quantity per person in Lahore is 0,65 kg/day and 5500-6000 tones wastes occur per day. According to reports, waste quantity in 9 regions of Lahore as of 2008 is shown in Table. If population growth rate is assumed fixed for each region, estimated waste quantity for 2010 from the regions is shown in the same table.

Estimated population 2008 Ravi Shalimar Wahga Aziz Bhatti Data Ganj Baksh Samanabad Gulberg Iqbal Nishtar 1.124.944 909.155 707.395 732.332

Waste quantity 731 591 460 476

Estimated population distribution 2010 1.227.798 992.279 772.072 799.289

Waste quantity 798 645 502 520

1.106.874 1.151.215 851.709 1.108.379 1.056.154 8.748.157

719 748 554 720 687 5686

1.208.075 1.256.470 929.581 1.209.718 1.152.718 9.548.000

785 817 604 786 749 6206


As a result of calculations with general acceptance to see the regional status, it is seen that there is more serious waste intensity in the North-west of the city.

Regional waste quantity

There are many factors for mapping the real solid waste on the region basis such as population to development percentage. However, this report was not examined in details. When general solid waste characterization of Lahore was examined in the reports, it was seen that it consists of 30% organic matters, 27% inert matters such as debris and excavation, 7,5% textile, 6% plastic, 1% glass, 2,7% paper- cardboard, 24,6% wood, bone.


It is seen in field study in Mehmood Booti storing site that incoming waste characterization is as follows.


2.2.5 Future waste quantity

The future waste quantity calculation is made based on daily waste quantity per person changing depending on population and development. If we deal with the waste quantity of Lahore every 5 years per a person briefly, according to integrated solid waste plan conforming to EU environment legislation prepared for Istanbul 10% increase has been accepted in waste quantity for every 5 years per a person. It is seen that this value is 3,5% for India in reports. When we consider that Lahore is the capital city of Punjab and its structure developing, this quantity has been accepted as 6%. Based on this, waste quantity per a person of Lahore is shown in Table.
Years Estimated population Waste production per Estimated person quantity 0,65 0,69 0,73 0,77 0,82 6.206 7.825 9.832 12.317 15.580 waste

2010 2015 2020 2025 2030

9.548.000 11.341.000 13.469.000 15.997.000 18.999.481

Estimated waste quantity


2.2.6 Collecting of Solid Wastes

According to the information received, in Lahore, daily waste production amount per person is 0,65kg/ and every day, approximately 5.500-6000 tones of wastes are produced. Almost 70% of this amount is sent to dumping areas, while the rest of them is left to topographic holes inside the city, to waste areas, to streets and to railway lines. Collecting solid wastes in Lahore is fulfilled by primary and secondary articulation types. According to the information that was received by interviews, in almost 25% of the city, wastes are being collected with handcarts directly from doors of houses. Those wastes that are collected directly from thresholds of houses are later on being thrown either to fixed containers or to vehicles.


In waste collecting process, containers of 5m3 and 10m3 are being used. For this, there are 1200 containers, 125 container-carrier trucks of 5m3 containers, 35 container carrier trucks of 10m3 containers and 150 container carrier tractors. Those containers can be taken onto the vehicles and in this affair, loading-unloading process is used. The containers, are collected in various frequencies depending on the intensity of wastes and they are directly carried to the nearest dumping area. In Lahore, waste collection system by the help of containers, depending on the quarter of the city; that is, 80% of the wastes are being collected every day, 15% of them once in every 2 days, and the rest 5% of them is being collected once in every 45 days.

In Solid Waste management system, works an estimated number of 10.000 to 15.000 street collectors. Since those collectors do not work officially, their exact number is not known. Those people either from containers or from dumping areas select recoverable materials and send them to recycling facilities.

Primary collection method is observed especially in narrow streets and site areas, where vehicles can not enter. Collection of solid wastes and general cleaning service in the city is


being implemented by broom users and cleaning workers. Cleaning workers collect wastes with waste bins, hand carts and brooms and then, they take them to containers.

Those wastes that are collected with handcarts are unloaded to the nearest waste containers. Since height of those containers is too much to accurately unload the waste from handcarts, usually those wastes are scattered to streets, during this operation. Those wastes that are scattered to streets because of the mentioned problem, those streets are polluted and hence, many insects are produced in that environment. In almost 35 regions, surroundings of the containers have been encircled by high barriers, in order to prevent visual pollution, bad smells and health problems.

In Lahore, waste collection in the territories where housing complexes are located, is fulfilled by housing complexes administrations. Those wastes that are collected in those territories are being sent by vehicles to the nearest dumping areas. Since in Lahore there is no transfer station, almost all of those loaded machines are being sent to storage areas. This situation causes increase of transportation costs, volumes of the work, burdens of workers and traffic intensity.


Those vehicles used in carrying wastes are open-top vehicles and their top part is closed only by a web and this situation causes a serious bad smell and creation of flies in the city and on the other hand, it causes a great harm to esthetics of the city. City Cleaning In city cleaning and waste collection services work approximately 10.500 people and number of the employees that work in cleaning sector (except for the people who work as drivers, administrators or technical staff in this sector) is approximately 7.000. Those people has no health insurance and furthermore, they are infected by diseases such as Hepatitis B,C. Cleaning workers earn on average 95$.


Street sweeping is done either by mechanic devices or hand brooms. Currently in Lahore, exist 2 vacuum sweeping machines and 32 mechanic sweeping machines (working by being connected to tractors). In the negotiations, a demand for 20 more mechanic sweeping machines has been expressed. In the first day of the technical visit, in which machine maintenance workshops were visited, it was observed that, many of those machines are out of service due to the problems related with spare parts or service guarantee. It was also observed that, those machines, which could be repaired, are being repaired, while the others become junked. Liquidation of Waste Materials In Lahore, there are 3 dumping areas and one composting facility. One of those storage areas has official status, while the rest two are not official. In dumping areas, waste materials are scattered haphazardly, without using any technical methods. In storage areas, there is no control on leakage waters, gas, dust, noise and other environmental factors.


Mehmood Booti Dumping Site This storage area is very close to river Ravi and agricultural fields. The dumping area, which is located be the belt line of Lahore, has been operated by the municipality since 1997. It receives waste materials of neighboring settlements namely Data, Gullberg, Aziz Bahatti, Ravi and Wagha. The daily waste amount is between 1.000 1500 tones. Storage areas square is 320,207 m2. In that facility, except for a single weighing machine, there are no systems such as rain water drainage system, purification system, gas collector or barrier for leakage waters. According to the received information, on that area, thickness of wastes is on average approximately 7-10 meters. Amount of the waste materials is calculated on the weighing machine separately, in accordance with the regions they come from and the time that they are brought. In the vehicles that bring waste materials to the area, there are GPRS systems. To the drivers who bring waste materials, payment is made in accordance with the tonnage of the waste materials that they bring.


Saggian Dumping Site Although this area has no official status, here waste materials are brought by trucks, belonging to the municipality or to by private trucks. To this area, a daily amount of 1500 tones of waste is brought from 3 towns (Data, Ravi, Samanabad). The area, which has been operated since 1995, has a square of 25 ha.

Baggrian Dumping Site The area, square of which is 28ha, every day receives 700 tones of waste materials. This area has similar characteristics with the other two areas and here, waste materials are unloaded without any covering precaution. In the area, which also does not have an official status just like the Saggian area, no record is held for the waste materials that are brought every day. The


leakage water that is formed as a result of the rains, causes serious pollution on ground waters and on earth.

Composting Facility The composting facility that was opened in March 2006, is located in the Mehmoot Booti dumping area. It is the first composting facility of the country. Some of the waste materials that are brought to the storage area are brought to the compost facility and here, first of all they are subjected to recycling operation, and then, the organic part in the waste material is aerobically fermented by open window method. In the system, there are one first sieve, one turner, one last sieve and packaging systems. Diameter of the first sieve is 5 cm and the materials that remain on that sieve are sent to dumping area. The material that is sifted is layed out onto the heaps in the open air area and in definite times, they are mixed by the turner. According to the received information, fermentation periods of those heaps change from 45 days to 65 days. The composted production, fermentation of which is completed in the heaps, is subjected to a second sifting process and after this, they are sent to packaging system. The compost production is prepared in packages of 50 kg and those packages are sold to farmers 6,25 cent/kg, that is, a package of 50 kg is sold to farmers on average 3 $. Within the composting facility, there is a small laboratory. In this laboratory, parameters such as heath, Ph, humidity management, can be controlled. Nevertheless, heavy metal analysis, which is a critical parameter of the produced compost production, can not be held, in the current conditions. Lahore Composting facility, in order to make contribution to reducing greenhouse gas effect, has entered Carbon reduction market in conformity with the standards of the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), instead of sending wasted materials directly to the dumping area.


2.2.7 The Planned Landfill Site

On the second day of the technical visit, the place, to which landfill site of Lahore is designed to be constructed, was visited. This area is approximately 35 kilometers far away from the city center of Saha and it is located near the crossroads of Multan way and Sundar way. The area is said to be 500 meters away from settlement areas and its square is 952 Knal, i.e., 48 hectares. The area is planned to receive everyday on average 1.700 tones of waste materials. The area has a completely smooth structure. During the visit, it was told that, in 2-3 meters depth of the area, there is ground water.


2.2.8 Medical Waste Management in Lahore

In Lahore, there is no planned study concerning separately collecting medical waste materials in their sources, separately deliver them or separately liquidate them. According to the received information, in Lahore, medical waste materials are being liquidated by being burned in four burners.

2.2.9 Construction and Demolition Waste Management in Lahore

In the city, there is no study on Construction and Demolition Waste Management in Lahore.

2.2.10 Financing of the Solid Waste Material Management

According to the reports given, for solid waste materials management and for city cleaning in Lahore, annually an amount of, that is, 23.549.400 $ is spent. 60% of the wasted money is used in paying workers salaries. Cost Items
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Labor Costs Computer Equipments Transferring Plant and Machinery Fixtures and Furniture Repair and Maintenance Travel and Transportation Communication Infrastructure Housing General Expenses Support and Subsidize TOTAL

Annual (Rupi)

Monthly ($)
1.199.946 1.373 155.392 110.294 1.078 169.333 297.127 799 2.216 4.417 176.858 14.020 2.132.853

56,26% 0,06% 7,29% 5,17% 0,05% 7,94% 13,93% 0,04% 0,10% 0,21% 8,29% 0,66% 100,00%

1.223.945.306 1.400.000 158.500.000 112.500.000 1.100.000 172.720.000 303.070.000 815.000 2.260.000 4.505.000 180.395.000 14.300.000 2.175.510.306

1 2 Garbage Collection Tax Compost Selling TOTAL 122.000.000 3.992.187 125.992.187 119.608 3.914 123.522 96,83% 3,17% 100,00%

Annual Net Costs

(2,049,518,119) 2.009.331



In a metropolitan city like Lahore, population of which is great, integrated municipal solid waste planning bears serious risks and uncertain points, due to institutional, social, financial and urbanization problems. In order to keep those mentioned risks at the minimal level, it is of vital importance to establish a technically, economically and socially sustainable Solid Waste Management System. General principals of the system of a modern and sustainable municipal solid waste management system, have been summarized in below. However, preferential targets of Lahore in relation with the citys conditions and access to integrated waste management system have been presented below. According to this:

Establishing the legal and administrative structure in a way to support the Sustainable Solid Waste Management System.

Introducing privatization process in regional structuring and solid waste materials management.


Including all of the waste materials in the city that can not be collected, into the system and thus, preventing uncontrolled garbage dumps.

Especially in the towns, where special site housing complexes are constructed by private contractors, introducing dual collection system.

In waste reduction, recycling and recovery activities, conducting training and awareness-raising studies.

Improving the waste material collection system on local and regional basis. Conducting optimization studies in waste material collection and delivery system, by taking into account current conditions.

Constructing transfer stations in at some points of the city, by considering optimization in collecting and delivery processes.

Rehabilitation of dumping areas. Biological transformation of biodegradable waste materials by composting and/or biomethane facilities.


Urban Solid Waste (USW) House, office, industry

Mixed Waste Material Seperating in its source ayrma Mixed USW Volumed Waste Material Kitchens, bathrooms waste materials and others k,banyo / Transfer Total ve dier atklar

Waste Boxes

Waste Collecting Centers(WCC)

Mixed USW Packaging Waste Selection for producing fuel from waste Selection in the MGT Compost (aerobical)

Biodegradable waste material (BGW) Biogasification (unaerobic)


Plastic, glass, metal, karton Burning or Gasification Energy

Remnant of Composting Ash





Establishing the legal and administrative structure in a way that it supports Sustainable Solid Waste Management System Having regard to the negotiations that have taken place and to obtained data, it is seen that, legal regulations concerning waste materials in Lahore currently do not support existence of an integrated solid waste management system. In order to comply with the principles, targets and aims that have been defined for establishing and managing a healthy and sustainable waste management system, it is of vital importance to have related legal regulations. In present time, in many developed countries, solid waste management is done separately for each type of waste materials. For this reason, for Lahore, in order to establish an integrated solid waste management system and in order to fill the legal gap, it is required to prepare legally binding regulations that define aims and processes for various types of waste materials and accurately classifies tasks and duties. Those laws and regulations should have adequate technical knowledge that defines how to conduct various kinds of affairs, the targets and strategies that will be defined should be practicable and achievable and responsibilities should be distributed be also considering existing regional and administrative conditions.

For this reason, related legal provisions of Turkish legal system may be step by step adapted to the region, having also considered Lahores current conditions. Within the consultancy service that will be given, a contribution can be made in forming legal framework having also considered Lahores current administrative and regional conditions. Introducing privatization in regional restructuring and solid waste management Lahore is divided into 9 administrative units. However, in solid waste materials management, no responsibility is given to those 9 units and all the related works are conducted from a single center.

This situation, that is, collection of all responsibilities in a single center on matters such as solid waste management and city cleaning, which are of vital interest for public health, will cause a great clumsiness to the administrative structure and at the same time, it will harden controlling process. A single solid waste management unit can not deal at the same time both with planning process and execution process. For these reasons, the affairs of waste


management and city cleaning should be divided into as much parts as possible and thus, regional duties should be distributed.

If the current administrative structure in those 9 regions does not enable to conduct cleaning affairs, then, until a convenient structure will be formed, the central government should call for tenders and it should have these affairs done by private sector. The units of the central government, in their turn, should confine their duties with planning and controlling; they should submit rest of the burden to private sector. Such a policy will enable central bureaucracy to get rid of clumsiness. Such a system will be much more rentable and practicable. In the specifications of those tenders, the affair should be defined and there should not be left any ambiguity in this question. Purchase, maintenance and repair works of the machines that will be used in those affairs should be completely left to the contractor. In the case that delays occur in completion process of the affair and in the case that the affair is not being conducted properly, deductions should be made from the progress payment of the related company from the beginning of the month and thus, the works should be taken under control.

If this recommended structure is adopted, then, the personnel of cleaning works should be transferred to the companies that will deal with cleaning works of a definite region, in accordance with the regions that those workers live. In such a way, cleaning workers will be able to be transferred to a more systematic structure, without being aggrieved.

Preventing uncontrolled garbage dumping by immediately including non collected solid wastes to the system and keeping records of data regularly Approximately 20%-25% of the total waste materials consists of the materials which con not be collected. It is necessary to include those materials to the collecting system and thus, to provide their liquidation. For this reason, it is necessary to fix the regions where garbage collecting system can not be implemented and to integrate them to the system by an appropriate model. Among the existing 3 dumping areas in Lahore, only in one of them weighing operation can be conducted, while there is no reliable data on the situation in the other 2. For the long term plans concerning Lahore and for a more successful operation of the system, it is necessary to


record all data about waste material management. Even if the areas will be operated by private companies, keeping a data base and recording statistical values on the data base should be done by the local administration, or by institutions which will be authorized by the local administration. Introducing Separately Collecting System in Waste at Source

In the housing complexes where waste collection is done at thresholds of houses, it is necessary to immediately introduce the system of separating at the source point and to double collection system which covers a definite portion of the population. For this purpose, awareraising campaigns should be introduced for housing complexes inhabitants, housing complexes administrators, students of schools and for those, who work in public institutions.

Improvement of solid waste collection system on local and regional levels Currently, all of the waste materials that are collected by primary and secondary collection systems are sent to dumping areas.

In Lahore, most of the waste materials are collected by container system. The big and opentop containers have volume either 5 m3 or 10m3. Those big and open-top containers are located very far away from each other. It has been observed that, if place of containers is far away from houses, people may cast their waste materials to any places. For this reason, containers should be located to places that are reachable to people and there should be little distance between those containers.

On the other hand, since height of those big containers from ground level is approximately 1,5 meters, waste materials are casted both by people and by first waste collectors not to the container, but somewhere around it. As a result, those leakage waters that leak from those waste materials cause pollution and bad smells. Besides, those waste materials that are casted around the containers are later on collected by workers again and this situation causes a second work burden for the workers, time lose and health problems. In current situation, because of the fact that the containers that are located in various places of the city are open-top, containers damage aesthetics of the city and smells create a hard


atmosphere for the people living nearby.

In addition, street waste collectors always look for

various materials inside those on-top containers. Because of the above mentioned factors, collection system should be established by considering waste material production capacity of regions or even quarters and by taking into consideration regional conditions, distances between containers, container volume calculations should be done and evaluations on necessity for additional containers should be made. In the current situation, for the containers that are used to collect waste materials some modification studies that could facilitate casting and collecting waste materials should be held in a way not to damage aesthetics of the environment.

Conducting optimization studies for waste collection and delivery system by also considering current conditions

Waste material collection and delivery costs form the greatest portion of waste material management costs. For this reason, it is necessary to model waste materials collection and delivery processes on regional basis and collection and carrying operations must be held in defined frequencies and defined routes.

Construction of transfer stations Those solid waste materials that are collected by primary and secondary collection are sent by vehicles to the nearest dumping areas. When all of the waste materials collecting vehicles enter traffic, the inner city traffic flow meets with a heavy burden and this situation also causes increase in transportation costs.

Instead of this system, transfer stations should be constructed to various points of the city, by also considering collection-delivery optimization and waste materials intensity.

Location options, types and modelling of transfer stations vary depending on factors such as waste materials intensity, distance to landfill site and vehicle type that is used in collection.


Within the consulting service, construction, mechanics and electricity projects for collectiondelivery optimization, transfer stations location definition and transfer station will be able to be prepared.

Construction of Landfill Site

It is very necessary to urgently open a landfill site for liquidation of the waste materials that are collected in the city. By taking into consideration local topography of the area on which ecological and ground preliminary studies should be held, the area should be used optimally and future parameters should be taken into consideration in planning process.

10 hectares of the total 48 hectares square of the planned landfill site in Sundar will be allocated for inner roads, administrative buildings and special places. In this situation, the rest 38 hectares will be adequate on average 5-6 years for this aim.

For this reason, in planning process, scenario of future expansion of the area or establishing a landfill in another point should also be taken into consideration. To the landfill sitewaste materials should be accepted under control. If this requirement is met, in future, in medium term, the gas of the area will be able to be used in obtaining energy.

The most two parameters in the landfill sites are storage gas and leakage water. In these areas, where predominantly organic waste materials will be buried, after some time methane gas starts to be formed and depending on amount and content of the waste materials in the storage, energy can be produced by LPG facilities. In a region such as Lahore, where energy problems usually emerge, such a system, i.e. producing energy from storage gas will be able to be used as an alternative renewable energy source.

Rehabilitation of Dumping Areas Lahore is a region where exist fertile lands and where there are intensive agricultural activities. For this reason, those solid waste materials those are unboundedly stored in storage areas pollute ground water reserves and form a serious threat for ecology. In the Mehmood Booti dumping area which was seen during the technical visit it was told that in current


conditions there is an approximate depth of waste materials of 8-10 meters. The exact depth is unknown. In addition to the harm that is caused by those areas to water reserves and environment directly or indirectly, the methane gas that is accumulated in relation with the height also causes a great risk. It is very often that the gas that has been accumulated in those areas explodes. For this reason, following the activisation of landfill site those dumping areas should be rearranged. If rearrangement of storage areas can not be implemented immediately, then, at least, with some definite interspaces, gas chimneys should be placed. Biological transformation of biodegradable waste materials by composting facilities or by biomethane facilities In Lahore, after efforts to collect waste materials separately in their sources will come to a level and especially after obtaining clean waste material, construction of a second composting facility should also be planned by also taking into consideration the current financial conditions. As is known, composting systems, besides their quality of landfilling, are more economic and ecological than thermal and biometer systems. A second composting facility will enable to reduce waste amount that is sent to landfill site and the damage that the waste materials cause in greenhouse effect.



Preparation of IP1-Lahore solid waste management master plan The basic success of sustainable waste management is related to correct planning. For this reason, a solid waste master plan to be beneficial for at least 15 years should be prepared about waste management in Lahore firstly. The master plan to be prepared should be dealt with an approach covering municipal solid waste management, medical waste, packaging wastes, excavation, construction and debris wastes and treatment sludge. Work packages planned within the scope of this activity are as follows. Sub work packages 1. Existing situation determination 2. Lahore solid waste management legislation 3. Solid waste management policy of Lahore harmonized with Turkey 4. Population estimations 5. Solid waste production estimations 6. Collecting and transporting solid wastes 7. Municipal solid waste management scenarios 8. Technical data of the plants to be invested required by the scenarios 9. Determination of capacity and number of KKA collecting, processing and disposal facilities required 10. Cost analysis of scenarios recommended 11. KKA management implementation action plan for the scenario selected

Inter outputs 1. Lahore integrated solid waste management master plan

IP-1.1: Determination of solid waste characterization This activity is mainly performed to determine the waste amounts to be received by the storing area based on their types. This activity is a critical work required to be performed for


household waste management system. Sub work packages within the scope of activity are as follows. Sub work packages 1. Preliminary work Assessment methods: on seasonal basis, regional basis, socio-economic basis Determination of area for sample Determination of number of sampling Sample quantity Sampling period Determination of analysis method

2. Characterization 3. Evaluation of results Inter outputs 2: Winter solid waste characterization report 3: Summer solid waste characterization report

IP-1.2: Evaluation of Transport and Collection System For the purpose of assessment regional collecting and transporting system, determination of existing situation, collecting transporting distances, and location determination for transfer station if necessary and collecting transporting optimization works shall be executed. Sub work packages for his activity are as follows. Sub work packages 1. Existing situation determination 2. Assessment of regional- based collecting transporting system 3. Collecting-transporting optimization 4. Location determination for transfer station

Inter outputs

4: Regional-basis collecting transporting system evaluation report


IP-1.3: Medical waste management plan This activity covers the accumulating, collecting, transporting and disposing medical wastes in accordance with local legislation or an international legislation to be adapted. Sub work packages for the activity are as follows. Sub work packages 1. Legal situation analysis 2. Duties, authorities and responsibilities 3. Existing situation determination 4. Determination of waste quantity 5. Recommended collecting and transporting system 6. Cost analysis 7. Determination of collecting personnel and vehicle requirement 8. Determination of works for making widespread the project 9. Plan preparation Inter outputs 5: Medical waste implementation plan IP-1.4: Management Plan of Package Wastes Package wastes management and implementation plan shall be prepared for this activity. It is related to the operation of determining the characterization of solid waste. This activity shall be initiated upon determining characterization results for solid waste for 2 seasons (summer, winter). Implementation plan to be prepared shall be in accordance with local legislation or proper international legislation. Sub work packages of the activity are as follows. Sub work packages 1. Legal situation analysis: Packaging Waste Control Regulation 2. Duties, authorities and responsibilities 3. Existing situation determination: available practices 4. Collection of data 5. Determination of waste composition structure 6. Collecting and transportation system 7. Cost analysis


8. Economic assessment 9. Management of street collectors 10. Training and introduction 11. Preparation of management scenarios Inter outputs 6: Package wastes management plan IP-1.5: Preparation of Excavation Soil,Construction and Demolation Wastes Regulation management plan For this activity, road map shall be prepared for determination of excavation, building and debris residual amount to occur in the city, collecting, transporting, recovery and disposal. Sub work packages within the scope of this activity are as follows. Sub work packages 1. Legal situation analysis 2. Duties, authorities and responsibilities 3. Existing situation determination 4. Determination and method of waste quantity 5. Preparation of management scenarios 6. Determination of works for recovery 7. Cost analysis Inter outputs 7: Excavation, construction and debris wastes management plan IP-6: Preparation of treatment sludge management plan Quantities of treatment sludge and management shall be planned in this activity. 5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. Legal situation analysis Duties, authorities and responsibilities existing situation determination Determination and management of waste quantity Cost analysis

Inter outputs D5.7: Treatment sludge management plan


IP-1.7: Training Practical and theoretical training shall be provided to the staff of municipality on site or in Istanbul relating to the subject at the end of completing work packages management plans of which are ready based on work flow plan. Inter outputs 8: Integrated solid waste management training materials 9: Package wastes control and management training materials 10: Medical wastes control and management training materials 11: Occupational health and safety training materials Consultancy service items to be provided for municipality of Bodrum integrated waste management Ending Starting date IP date Name of the work package NO (month) (month) P0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 Preparation of Lahore integrated household waste management master plan Determination of waste characterization Preparation of medical waste management plan Preparation of package wastes management plan Preparation of debris and excavation wastes management plan Preparation of treatment sludge management plan Training

The time ranges expected for inter outputs details of which are stated above is presented in table.


Inter outputs

Output No

Definition of inter output Lahore integrated household waste management master plan Winter solid waste characterization Summer solid waste characterization Assessment of collecting transporting system Medical waste management plan Package wastes management plan Debris and excavation wastes management plan Treatment sludge management plan Integrated solid waste management materials Medical wastes training materials Package wastes training materials Occupational health and safety training materials

Time range expected

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12


IP2.1: Preparation of project and technical documents for construction of landfill site After the location determination and legal permit works of the solid waste regular storing site have been fulfilled by the administration, project works shall be performed by considering the optimum use of site determined, increasing storing volume and factors to ensure operating facility in the future. Following these works, technical documents required for the tender shall be prepared and submitted to the administration.


Preparation of technical documents for tender files 1. Landfill site project (architectural, reinforced concrete, static, Electricity, Mechanic projects) 2. Technical specifications 3. Discovery- bill of quantities-Percentage 4. Site lists (if necessary) Inter outputs 3: solid waste regular storing site projects 4: Technical documents for tender file IP-2.2: Preparation of projects of dumping area It is mandatory to improve these sites by taking under the control to eliminate the negative conditions caused by dumping areas. The existing site should be improved to minimize the environmental risks in accordance with the technique to eliminate negative affects on environment and human health. Protection of underground and surface water, management of water seepage and store gas is ensured with rehabilitation works. Rehabilitation projects and other technical document for tender shall be prepared within the scope of the rehabilitation of dumping area. Sub work packages planned within the scope of consultancy are as follows. Sub work packages 1. Evaluation of current situation Leachate management Condition of water protection sites Store gas management Rain water drainage

2. Rehabilitation project of dumping area Inter outputs 1: Rehabilitation project of dumping area 2: Preparation of technical documents for rehabilitation IP-2.3: Projects of transfer station Following location determination works, transfer stations planned for reducing the transportation costs and intercity traffic load should be projected. Projects of transfer stations to be built depending on regional waste intensity and vehicle type and other technical


documents for the tender shall be prepared. Sub work packages planned within the scope of consultancy service are as follows. Sub work packages 1. Transfer station (architectural, reinforced concrete, Static, Electricity, Mechanic projects) 2. Technical specifications 3. Discovery- bill of quantities- percentage 4. Site lists (if necessary) Inter outputs 3: Transfer station projects 4: Relevant technical documents


IP-3.1: Consultancy services during construction process for landfill area construction of which is in-progress It is providing consultancy service within the scope of control of construction works executed in landfill site. Within this context, inspection and control shall be performed based on all technical principles submitted as the tender document as technical and general specifications throughout the construction. Sub work packages 1. Inspection and controls of site within the scope of work Schedule 2. Periodical reporting and records Inter outputs 5: Reports and check lists IP3.2: Preparation of tender technical documents for operation of site and operation plan of landfill site Operation plan includes the activities of road map preparation required for the operating landfill site. Sub work packages within the scope of activity are as follows.


Sub work packages 1. Legal situation analysis and determination on site 2. Site selection existing infrastructure and permits 3. Site management 4. Maintenance schedules 5. Occupational health and safety regulations 6. Site conditions monitoring methods

Inter outputs 6: Landfill site operation plan Tender technical documents preparation works shall be executed for operating landfilling site construction of which will be completed in this activity. Preparation of tender technical documents consists of below mentioned sub work packages. Sub work packages 1. Preparation of documents required for operation tender files Technical specifications Discovery Bill of quantities Percentage Location lists (if necessary)

Inter outputs 7: Operation tender documents


SCOPE FILE FOR CONSULTANCY SERVICE Consultancy items IP.1 IP.1.1 IP.1.2 IP.1.3 IP.1.4 IP.1.5 IP.1.6 IP.1.7 Preparation of Lahore solid waste master plan Characterization works Assessment of collecting transporting system Preparation of medical waste management plan Preparation of package wastes management plan Preparation of excavation, construction and debris wastes management plan Preparation of treatment sludge management plan Training Budget

IP.2 IP.2.1 IP.2.2 IP.2.3

Projecting works Preparation of project and technical documents of landfill site construction Preparation of projects of dumping area rehabilitation Projects of transfer station

Consultancy service during construction IP.3.1 Consultancy service during construction process for the landfill site construction of which is in progress Preparation of tender technical documents for landfill site operating plan and operation of the site