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GAS RETICULATION SYSTEM Assoc. Prof. Engr. Dr. Rahmat Bin Mohsin Mohd. Dinie Muhaimin Samsudin
GAS RETICULATION SYSTEM Assoc. Prof. Engr. Dr. Rahmat Bin Mohsin Mohd. Dinie Muhaimin Samsudin

GAS RETICULATION

SYSTEM

GAS RETICULATION SYSTEM Assoc. Prof. Engr. Dr. Rahmat Bin Mohsin Mohd. Dinie Muhaimin Samsudin
Assoc. Prof. Engr. Dr. Rahmat Bin Mohsin Mohd. Dinie Muhaimin Samsudin
Assoc. Prof. Engr. Dr. Rahmat Bin Mohsin
Mohd. Dinie Muhaimin Samsudin
GAS RETICULATION SYSTEM Assoc. Prof. Engr. Dr. Rahmat Bin Mohsin Mohd. Dinie Muhaimin Samsudin
TYPE OF GAS PIPELINE SYSTEMS • Transmission • Is a line installed for the purposed
TYPE OF GAS PIPELINE SYSTEMS • Transmission • Is a line installed for the purposed

TYPE OF GAS PIPELINE SYSTEMS

Transmission

Is a line installed for the purposed of transmitting gas

from a source or sources of supply to one or more distribution centers or a pipe installed to

interconnected sources or supply.

Transmission lines differ from gas distribution line in

that they operate at higher pressure, are longer and

have greater distance between connection

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

2

• Distribution • Is a network of pipeline connecting the gas from supply sources to

Distribution

Is a network of pipeline connecting the gas from supply sources to the consumer premises.

Supply source are transmission line for

natural gas and bulk storage for liquefied

petroleum gas.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 4
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 4
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

4

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 5
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 5
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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GAS PIPE DESIGN COMPONENTS 1. Pipeline optimization 2. Selection and analysis of pipeline route 3.

GAS PIPE DESIGN COMPONENTS

1.

Pipeline optimization

2.

Selection and analysis of pipeline route

3.

Geotechnical and environmental aspects

4.

Engineering survey

5.

Route design

6.

Buoyancy control

7.

Selection of materials

8.

Stress analysis

9.

Facility design

10.

Corrosion control

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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Basic Concepts of Gas Distribution System (Gas Supply) • Items to ensure stability of supply

Basic Concepts of Gas

Distribution System (Gas Supply)

Items to ensure stability of supply

High reliability

Low installation cost

Low maintenance

Materials and parts supply facilities

Supply system is determined based on the serviced

area, volume of gas needed, the capacity of existing

equipment, the possibility of the expansion, maintenance and control facilities and costs.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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• In making the classification of consumers and supply system, it is necessary to ensure

In making the classification of consumers and

supply system, it is necessary to ensure the system is

safe and secure.

Supply system is classified to:

1.

Large industry -> 1000 cubic meters per hour

2.

Medium and small industries

3.

Commercial

4.

Domestic - <1 cubic meter per hour

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

8

Government Acts • Systems should be designed to comply with the requirements of the following

Government Acts

Systems should be designed to comply with the requirements

of the following acts:

Petroleum Act (Safety Measures) 1984 Cover security measures to be considered in designing and installation of gas and petroleum-related facilities.

Environmental Quality Act (1974) Act governing the activities that may affect the environment. Identify the mandatory environmental impact study

Factories and Machinery Act (1967)

To enforce the requirements of the tests carried out on a high-pressure gas pipe installation, including welding

procedures, welder qualifications and other related.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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Code of Practice and Standards AGA : American Gas Association ANSI : American National Standard

Code of Practice and Standards

AGA

: American Gas Association

ANSI

: American National Standard Institute

ASME

: American Society of Mechanical Testing

ASTM

: American Society of Testing of Material

API

: American Petroleum Institute

BS

: British Standard

CSA

: Canadian Standard Association

IP

: Institute of Petroleum

ISA

: Instrumentations Standards Association

MS

: Malaysian Standard

MSS

: Material Specification Standards

NACE

: National Association of Corrosion Engineers

NEMA

: National Electrical Manufacturing Association

PTS

: Petronas Technical Standard

SIS

: Standard Institution of Sweeden

SSPC

: Steel Structure Painting Council

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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Design Factor and Class Location • The thickness of the pipe is determined by design

Design Factor and Class Location

The thickness of the pipe is determined by design

factors as contained in ANSI / ASME B31.8.

Class location is determined by calculating the density of homes along the pipe to 200 m wide on the left and

right pipe during 1600 m.

Less than 10 houses

Class I

10 to 40 houses

Class II

More than 40 houses

Class III

Storey building

Class IV

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PIPELINE • Using steel and plastic pipeline with pipe diameter and pressure lower

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PIPELINE

Using steel and plastic pipeline with pipe diameter

and pressure lower than the transmission pipeline

system.

Consists of series of pipes that operate at different pressures and there is no agreement or a general statement or terminology on pressure range for each classification.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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• Before gas distributed to the user, it passes through a series of gas stations

Before gas distributed to the user, it passes

through a series of gas stations in the system.

1. Local Stations

2. Area Station

3. Service Station

Installation of the stations subject to the pressure required by the user.

Pressure reduced using pressure regulator.

Odorizer included for security purposes.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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BASIC CONSIDERATION IN SELECTING THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM • Three main factors should be considered: 1.

BASIC CONSIDERATION IN SELECTING

THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

Three main factors should be considered:

1.

Estimates the gas consumption rate or gas

demand

2.

Selection and assumption of distribution system (Network analysis)

3.

Check the pressure required whether it is

maintained at a specific level

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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DESIGN DEMAND ESTIMATION • Determination of the total amount of gas consumption is among the

DESIGN DEMAND ESTIMATION

Determination of the total amount of gas

consumption is among the first requirements for the determination of the pipe diameter.

What is required for the determination of the total amount of gas consumption is the amount

of gas consumption of each combustion

appliances and the number of such appliances to be installed.

It can be determined directly from manufacturer.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

15

Appliances Rating (Btu/hr) Range, Free Standing Domestic 65 000 Built-In Oven or Boiler Unit, Domestic

Appliances

Rating (Btu/hr)

Range, Free Standing Domestic

65

000

Built-In Oven or Boiler Unit, Domestic Built-In Top Unit, Domestic Water Heater, Automatic Storage (30 to 40 gal tank)

25

000

40

000

45

000

Water Heater, Automatic Storage (50 gal tank)

55

000

Water Heater, Automatic Instantaneous:

 

Capacity : 2 gal. per minute Capacity : 4 gal. per minute

142

800

285

000

Capacity : 6 gal. per minute

428 000

Refrigerator Gas Light Incinerator, Domestic

3

000

2

500

35

000

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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• However, the amount of gas consumption can be determine based on various factors 

However, the amount of gas consumption can be determine based on various factors

Number of customer

Type of residence

Fuel supply and demand situation

Kind of industries

Future prospect of the subject area

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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• In general the total amount of all rating of appliances does not always amount

In general the total amount of all rating of appliances does not always amount of the gas that each consumer uses. This is because, it is rarely the case that consumers use all their appliances simultaneously and the appliances are not always to be used with the fully open.

Therefore, the amount of gas to be considered as a

design consumption is a total gas consumption

the area multiply with consumption factor which is

called appliance gas coincident factor.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

18

REQUIRED INFORMATION FOR SERVICE PIPELINE DESIGN The following information should be obtained: • Plant layout

REQUIRED INFORMATION FOR

SERVICE PIPELINE DESIGN

The following information should be obtained:

Plant layout

Overall plant layout

Part of plant layout where firing equipment is located

Location of each burner system

Required pressure of each equipment

Future demand

Location of natural gas service station and for LPG user

Existing LPG piping layout (This drawing must be

checked to confirm its actual installation)

LPG supplied pressure

If possible, former LPG piping contractor name

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

19

PIPELINE ROUTE SELECTION • Avoid side slopes and cross slopes • Avoid unstable slope •

PIPELINE ROUTE SELECTION

Avoid side slopes and cross slopes

Avoid unstable slope

Avoid any crossing, if possible

river, highway, culvert etc

cross at straight section

Avoid cemeteries

Avoid national park or reserve land

Avoid religious places

Avoid community places

Avoid pocket land

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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ROUTE OF SERVICES PIPING CONSIDERATIONS SELECTION & Following is the criteria to be considered to

ROUTE OF SERVICES PIPING

CONSIDERATIONS

SELECTION &

Following is the criteria to be considered to select services piping route.

Exposed piping is much better than underground piping for

easy maintenance and safety

Gas piping shall not be installed in/at/through the following places or locations:

a lift shaft

exhaust duct, etc.

electrical facility room, etc.

where it will be subjected to extreme temperature, water or moisture continuously

where it will be subjected to excessive vibration

where it will be subjected to corrosive gas or solution

in concrete slab or cylinder

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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• Gas piping shall be securely supported to avoid strain exerting on the pipe. Therefore

Gas piping shall be securely supported to avoid strain

exerting on the pipe. Therefore good pipe support

must be considered too.

The piping and its support must not obstruct the

operation of any factory's mobile machine i.e. forklift

and crane.

Planning or possible expansion or modification of

factory

where the future demand will be

whether the construction (of the expansion) will

cause unsafe condition or modification required

to the piping system.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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• The construction or installation work of the piping shall least affect the production or

The construction or installation work of the piping shall least affect the production or operation of the factory.

PE pipe shall not be installed as exposed pipe.

The radius of the inner curve of PE pipe bending (R) shall not less than 25 times of inner

diameter of the pipe.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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• Location of customer's monitoring meter and line of equipment/regulator shall be located in ventilated

Location of customer's monitoring meter and line of equipment/regulator shall be located in ventilated spaces readily accessible for examination, servicing or replacement.

Piping system shall be as simple as possible to

avoid confusion, especially in case of existing LPG piping remained.

The loop of piping shall not be use for internal

piping

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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SIZING OF GAS PIPING FOR SERVICE LINE • Is a line connected from the street

SIZING OF GAS PIPING FOR

SERVICE LINE

Is a line connected from the street main to the customer's meter.

Gas piping shall be of such size and so installed as to provide a supply of gas sufficient to meet

demand without undue pressure drop between

service station and gas appliances.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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• Several points need to be considered when sizing the pipe;  2 ½ and

Several points need to be considered when sizing the

pipe;

2 ½ and 5 inches pipe shall not be used for new piping system except for a special case. These two pipes are not common in the market.

The pipe size of the piping system shall not be

changed except for branches and connection for meters, regulators, isolation valves or special case

such as tie-in point to existing piping etc.

The pipe size of the downstream pipe shall not be larger than upstream except the connection for meters, regulators, isolation valves etc. And the

downstream pipe of meters or regulator must be

adequate size for distributing condition.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
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• The minimum pipe size for welding is recommended to be 1 inch. • Factors

The minimum pipe size for welding is recommended to be 1 inch.

Factors influence the service line sizing are:

Total connected load

Length of service line

Pressure at the main

There are four methods widely used to solved the above task as called a quit and simple calculation (not as complex as general gas flow equation).

NFPA No. 54 (National Fire Protection Association)

Method

Clifford Method

Cox's Formula

Pauls’s Formula

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

27

Elevation Effect to Low Pressure System • Consider gas with specific gravity of S at

Elevation Effect to Low Pressure

System

Consider gas with specific gravity of S at static height of 1m:

At datum:

Atmospheric pressure

: Pa

mbar

Gauge Pressure

: Pg

mbar

Absolute pressure

: Pa + Pg mbar

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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• At 1m height, gauge pressure lower by ρ g a s x g x

At 1m height, gauge pressure lower by ρ gas x g x H.

• At 1m height, gauge pressure lower by ρ g a s x g x H.
• At 1m height, gauge pressure lower by ρ g a s x g x H.
• At 1m height, gauge pressure lower by ρ g a s x g x H.
• At 1m height, gauge pressure lower by ρ g a s x g x H.
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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• At 1m height, atmospheric pressure is lowered by r a i r x g

At 1m height, atmospheric pressure is lowered

by

r air x g x H.

• At 1m height, atmospheric pressure is lowered by r a i r x g x
• At 1m height, atmospheric pressure is lowered by r a i r x g x

r air = 1.2248 kg/m 3

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

30

• Therefore, • It shows that, the pressure drop for low pressure system is: 0.12

Therefore,

• Therefore, • It shows that, the pressure drop for low pressure system is: 0.12 (1
• Therefore, • It shows that, the pressure drop for low pressure system is: 0.12 (1

It shows that, the pressure drop for low pressure system is:

0.12 (1 - S) mbar/m

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

31

COX'S FORMULA • Supply Pressure is/above 29.4 kPa.G (3000 mmH 2 O). • The pipe

COX'S FORMULA

Supply Pressure is/above 29.4 kPa.G (3000 mmH 2 O).

The pipe size of each section or portion shall be pre-

determined by using Table, which shows the maximum flow capacity at various pressure to ensure

the flow velocity at various pressure to ensure the

flow velocity does not exceed 20 m/s.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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SKN 4223
SKN 4223

33

• In case that supply pressure is not available in the Table, the maximum flow

In case that supply pressure is not available in the Table,

the maximum flow capacity of each pipe at 20 m/s can

be calculated as below:

Q max

1.8

2 x x D 2 x

as below: Q max  1.8 2 x  x D 2 x 10 101.3 

10

101.3 P s

101.3

where,

Q max

: Maximum flowrate (Sm 3 /hr) at 20 m/s flow velocity : Supply pressure (kPa.G)

P s

D : Pipe inner diameter (mm)

101.3 : Atmospheric pressure in kPa

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

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• The pressure drop of the size pre-determined above to each appliance system shall be

The pressure drop of the size pre-determined above

to each appliance system shall be calculated by Cox's

Formula as shown below: However, maximum allowable pressure drop is 15% of supply pressure. If not, shall select bigger pipe size for that sections to provide the sufficient pressure or pressure drop within 15% of supply pressure.

In that case, piping cost effect should be also taken into consideration, so that 2 or more piping sections or portions might be selected to bigger pipe size. This mean that, the down stream pipe size must be bigger size than upstream pipe.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

35

• Q  K P 2  P 2 2  D 5 1 S

Q K

P 2  P 2 2  D 5 1 S L
P 2
P 2 2  D 5
1
S L

Where,

P 2

S Q 2 L P 2  1 2 D 5 K
S
Q 2 L
P 2
1
2 D 5
K

P 1 & P 2 : Absolute pressure (kPa.abs) = Gauge Pressure (kPa.G) + Atmospheric Pressure (101.325 kPa)

S

Q

L

D

K

: Specific Gravity

: Flowrate (Sm 3 /hr)

: Distance (m)

: Pipe Inner Diameter (mm)

: Cox's Coefficient = 1.69 x 10 -3

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

36

Example 1 • Determine pipeline sizing of a domestic installation diagram shown below. Assume SG

Example 1

Determine pipeline sizing of a domestic installation

diagram shown below. Assume SG = 0.6

• Determine pipeline sizing of a domestic installation diagram shown below. Assume SG = 0.6
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

37

Solution a) Piping Diagram Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 38

Solution

a) Piping Diagram

a) Piping Diagram
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

38

b) Design flowrate and pre-determined Node No. Flowrate Sm 3 /h Pipe Size (inch) 0-1

b) Design flowrate and pre-determined

Node No.

Flowrate Sm 3 /h

Pipe Size (inch)

0-1

395

3 (2 ½)

1-2

95

1

2-3

35

¾

2-4

60

1

1-5

300

2

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

39

c) Pressure Drop Calculation As supply pressure is 138 kPa.G, the minimum pressure to the

c) Pressure Drop Calculation

As supply pressure is 138 kPa.G, the minimum pressure to the equipment is 117.3 kPa.G (218.6 kPa.abs). Therefore, pressure drop of each pipe as shown in the following table.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

40

Node No. Flowrate (Sm 3 /h) Length Pipe size Pipe size P 1 P 2

Node No.

Flowrate (Sm 3 /h)

Length

Pipe size

Pipe size

P

1

P

2

Remarks

(m)

(inch)

(mm)

(kPa.abs)

(kPa.abs)

0-1

395

100

 

3 77.92

239.3

236.7

 

1-2

95

70

 

1 26.64

236.7

222.1

 

2-3

35

65

 

¾ 20.96

222.1

211.8

<218.6

2-4

60

40

 

1 26.64

222.1

216.6

<218.6

1-2

95

70

1 ¼

35.08

236.7

233.1

 

2-3

35

65

¾

20.96

233.1

227.8

>218.6

2-4

60

40

1

26.64

233.1

227.8

>218.6

1-5

300

50

2

52.48

236.7

231.2

>218.6

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

41

d) Result Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 42

d) Result

d) Result
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

42

Example 2 • A horizontal liquefied petroleum gas pipeline planned to be installed a the

Example 2

A horizontal liquefied petroleum gas pipeline planned to be installed a the Gas Engineering Laboratory as shown in

figure. Liquefied petroleum gas is supplied through a bulk

tank, which has a wetted area of 90 square feet and a minimum rate of evaporation of 13.3875 Ib/hr. The Gas

Engineering Department has signed the agreement with a

supplier for the supply of liquefied petroleum gas composition as shown in table in order to achieve the latent heat of evaporation and the heat of combustion are 160

Btu/Ib and 21422 Btu/Ib, respectively. If the surrounding temperature and overall heat transfer coefficient is 80 o F and 3 Btu/ft 2 . o F respectively, calculate the pipe size of each section involved.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

43

Composition Percent Volume Propane 55 i-butane 30 n-butane 15 Storage and Reticulation System SKN

Composition

Percent Volume

Propane

55

i-butane

30

n-butane

15

Percent Volume Propane 55 i-butane 30 n-butane 15 Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 44
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

44

Q  13.3875 lb / h R Q '  13.3875 × L v 
Q  13.3875 lb / h R Q '  13.3875 × L v 
Q
 13.3875
lb
/
h
R
Q
'
 13.3875 ×
L
v
 13.3875 ×160
 2142
Btu
/
h
Q ' 
 A
T
2142
3 × 90 × 80
 T
2
T
 72.06
o
F
2
P
 y P  x P
vap
A
A
A A
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

45

Comp %V V (gal) ρ W MW mol x P v a p at x.

Comp

%V

V (gal)

ρ

W

MW

mol

x

P vap at

x. P vap

y

y.MW

 

(Ib/gal)

72.06

o F

C3

55

0.55

4.16

2.288

44

0.052

0.5843

150

87.645

84.33

37.1052

n-C4

30

0.30

4.81

1.443

58

0.025

0.2809

34

9.5506

9.19

5.3302

i-C4

15

0.15

4.64

0.696

58

0.012

0.1348

50

6.740

6.48

3.7584

 

0.089

103.9356

100

46.1938

AMW 461938 . SG    160 . 28 96 . 28 96 .
AMW
461938
.
SG 
 160
.
28 96
.
28 96
.
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

46

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 47
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 47
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
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47

• Supply Pressure = 100 kPa.gauge • Minimum Pressure = 85 kPa.gauge =186.3 kPa.abs •

Supply Pressure = 100 kPa.gauge

Minimum Pressure = 85 kPa.gauge =186.3 kPa.abs

Pre-determine

Node

Q (Sm 3 /h)

Pipe size (inch)

0-1

395

2 ½ (3)

1-2

95

1

2-3

35

¾

2-4

60

1

1-5

300

2

Pipe size (inch) 0-1 395 2 ½ (3) 1-2 95 1 2-3 35 ¾ 2-4 60
2 SQ L 2 P  P  2 1   3  2
2
SQ L
2
P
P
2
1
3
2
5
1.69 x10
D
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

48

Node No. Flowrate (Sm 3 /h) Length Pipe size Pipe size P 1 P 2

Node No.

Flowrate (Sm 3 /h)

Length

Pipe size

Pipe size

P

1

P

2

Remarks

(m)

(inch)

(mm)

(kPa.abs)

(kPa.abs)

0-1

395

100

3

77.92

201.3

198.2

 

1-2

95

70

1 ¼

35.08

198.2

193.9

 

2-3

35

65

¾

20.96

193.9

182.0

< 186.3

2-4

60

40

1

26.64

193.9

187.5

> 186.3

2-3

35

65

1

26.64

193.9

190.3

> 186.3

1-5

300

50

2

52.48

198.2

191.6

> 186.3

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
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SKN 4223

49

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 50
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 50
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

50

PAUL'S FORMULA • Supply Pressure is less than 29.4 kPa.G (3000 mmH 2 O) •

PAUL'S FORMULA

Supply Pressure is less than 29.4 kPa.G (3000 mmH 2 O)

Pressure drop of each section can be calculated by Paul's

Formula as shown below:

ΔP : Pressure drop (Pa) K 2 : Paul's coefficient = 7.09 x 10 -4

D

: Pipe inner diameter (mm)

S

: Specific gravity of gas

L

: Pipe length (m)

Q

: Flowrate (Sm 3 /hr)

Q K 2

: Pipe length (m) Q : Flowrate (Sm 3 /hr) Q  K 2  P
: Pipe length (m) Q : Flowrate (Sm 3 /hr) Q  K 2  P

P D 5

S. L

or

P

S

K 2

D 5

x Q 2 L

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

51

• The Paul's Formula can be simplified as the following formula which is based on

The Paul's Formula can be simplified as the

following formula which is based on Tokyo Gas experiences.

'

P K 2 Q 2 L

ΔP : Pressure drop (Pa)

L

: Pipe length (m)

Q

: Flowrate (Sm 3 /hr)

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

52

• where, K' 2 as shown in table below. (K' 2 is also taken into

where, K' 2 as shown in table below. (K' 2 is also taken into consideration of the pressure drop at fittings).

Nominal Pipe Size (inch)

 

K’ 2

Nominal Pipe Size (inch)

 

K’ 2

½

5.20

3

6.67

x 10-4

3/4

8.80

x 10-1

4

3.94

x 10-5

1

2.37

x 10-1

6

3.94

x 10-5

1 1/4

5.31

x 10-2

8

3.02

x 10-6

1 1/2

2.29

x 10-2

12

4.14

x 10-7

2

7.85

x 10-3

   
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

53

• If the supply pressure is very low, the pressure differences caused by difference of

If the supply pressure is very low, the pressure

differences caused by difference of pipe level cannot

be neglected. Therefore, pressure differences shall be considered and calculated by the formula as shown

below.

P H r . g. 1 S. H 12.68 x 1 S. H

P H : Pressure difference Pa

r

: Density of air 1.293 kg/N m 3

S

: Specific gravity of gas

Difference of pipe level m

g : G ravity acceleration 9.807 kg/s 2

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

54

• If level of the node is higher than level of the last node, the

If level of the node is higher than level of the last

node, the pressure drop is ΔP pressure calculated by Paul's Formula minus ΔPH.

The pre-determined of pipe size shall be named as

node number normally as node 0 (started - service station), the next branch is named as node 1 and to

the end by following manner:

1. The longest length of piping from node n to the end value shall be measured (Ln)

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

55

2. Calculate the K value with below formula: K  P n.max  Q 2

2. Calculate the K value with below formula:

K

P n.max

Q 2

n

L n

P n.max P n 1.max P n1

P n.max : Maximum allowable pressure drop from node n to the end value

P n1 : Pressure drop of section n1 calculated by determined pipe size

Q n

: Design flowrate of section n

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

56

3. Compare K value to K'2 value shown in the table. Then find out the

3.

Compare K value to K'2 value shown in the

table. Then find out the appropriate pipe size of corresponding K'2 (the value selected for K'2

should be less than K value). The selected pipe

size is known as pre-determined pipe size for section n.

4.

Pn shall be calculated by Paul's Formula

5.

Repeat (1) (4) to determine the pipe size of

section n + 1 until the end section.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

57

Example • Determine the pipe size below. The maximum allowable pressure drop is 3 kPa.

Example

Determine the pipe size below. The maximum allowable pressure drop is 3 kPa.

• Determine the pipe size below. The maximum allowable pressure drop is 3 kPa.
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

58

Solution Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 59
Solution
Solution
Solution Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 59
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

59

• Pre-determine pipe size • The most long pipe length from service station to equipment

Pre-determine pipe size

The most long pipe length from service station to

equipment is 0 - 4. Then,

Node 0 to Node 1

K

P n.max

Q n 2 . L n

3000

90 2 x 100

'

Pressure drop K 2 Q 2 L

3.7 x 10 3

6.67 x 10 4 x 90 2 x 10 54.0 Pa

Therefore : Pipe Size 3"

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

60

• Node 1 - Node 2 K   P n.max Q n 2 .

Node 1 - Node 2

K

P n.max

Q n 2 . L n

3000 54

60 2 x 90

'

Pressure drop K 2 Q 2 L

9.1 x 10 3

7.85 x 10 3 x 60 2 x 30 847.8

Therefore : Pipe Size 2"

Pa

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

61

• Node 2 - Node 3  P n.max 3000  54  847.8 K

Node 2 - Node 3

P n.max

3000 54 847.8

K

 

2.6

x 10 1

Q n 2 . L n

20 2 x 20

'

Pressure drop K 2 Q 2 L

2.37 x 10 1 x 20 2 x 20 1896 Pa

Therefore : Pipe Size 1"

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

62

• Node 2 - Node 4 K   P n.max Q n 2 .

Node 2 - Node 4

K

P n.max

Q n 2 . L n

3000 54 847.8

40 2 x 60

'

Pressure drop K 2 Q 2 L

2.19 x 10 2

7.85 x 10 3 x 40 2 x 60 753.6 Pa

Therefore : Pipe Size 2"

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

63

• Node 1 - Node 5  P n.max 3000  54.0 K   

Node 1 - Node 5

P n.max

3000 54.0

K

 

6.5

x 10 1

Q n 2 . L n

30 2 x 5

'

Pressure drop K 2 Q 2 L

2.37 x 10 1 x 30 2 x 5 1066.5

Therefore : Pipe Size 1"

Pa

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

64

• Determination of pipe size Node Flowrate (Sm 3 /h) Length Pre-Size Δ P Pipe

Determination of pipe size

Node

Flowrate (Sm 3 /h)

Length

Pre-Size

ΔP

Pipe Size

ΔP

(m)

(inch)

(Pa)

(inch)

(Pa)

0

1

90

10

3

54.0

2

635.8

1

2

60

30

2

847.8

2

847.8

2

4

40

60

2

753.6

2

753.6

0

4

     

1655.4

 

2237.2

2

3

20

70

1

1896.0

1 ¼

424.8

0

3

     

2797.8

 

1908.4

1

5

30

5

1

1066.5

1

1066.5

0 5

     

1120.5

 

1702.3

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

65

NFPA 54 • Noted for simplicity • Given a length and the maximum load, the

NFPA 54

Noted for simplicity

Given a length and the maximum load, the required

pipe size is read directly from the table

Following factors are required.

1)

Allowable loss in pressure from point of delivery to

2)

equipment Maximum gas demand

3)

Length of pipe from the point of delivery to the

4)

most remote Specific gravity of gas

5)

Diversity factor

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

66

• Capacities for low pressure (0.5 psig or less) in cubic feet per hour of

Capacities for low pressure (0.5 psig or less) in cubic

feet per hour of 0.60 specific gravity for different length

are shown in Table 13 to Table 16 ( MS 930) for iron pipe or equivalent rigid pipe.

- Table 13 and 15 are based upon a pressure drop

0.3 inches water column

- Table 14 and 16 are based upon a pressure drop

0.5 inches water column

- Table 26 is used when capacities in thousands of BTU per hour of undiluted liquefied petroleum

gases based on pressure drop 0.5 inches water

column.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

67

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 68
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 68
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

68

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 69
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 69
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

69

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 70
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 70
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

70

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 71
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 71
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

71

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 72
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 72
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

72

• If the data does not give the exact value, select the column showing the

If the data does not give the exact value, select the column showing the next larger

If the gravity of gas is different with table 13 to 16,

use the gravity factor in Table 25

In using these tables no additional allowance is necessary for an ordinary number of fittings.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

73

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 74
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 74
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

74

Example • Determine the required pipe size of each section and outlet of the piping

Example

Determine the required pipe size of each section and

outlet of the piping system shown below. Given gas

gravity 0.65, designed pressure drop is 0.5 inches water column and gas heating value is 1000 BTU/CF.

Outlet D Furnace: 136,000 Btu/hr 20 ' Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 10 '
Outlet D
Furnace:
136,000 Btu/hr
20 '
Section 1
Section 2
Section 3
10 '
20 '
10 '
15 '
10 '

Outlet A

Water heater:

30,000 Btu/h

10 '

5 '

Outlet B

Point of delivery

Outlet C

Gas refrigerator:

Range:

3,000 Btu/hr

75,000 Btu/hr

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

75

Solution • Step 1 Maximum gas demand at each outlet = Consumption Rating (Btu/hr) Heating

Solution

Step 1

Maximum gas demand at each outlet

= Consumption Rating (Btu/hr) Heating Value of Gas (Btu/cf)

Outlet A

Outlet B

Outlet C Outlet D

= 30,000/1000

= 3,000/1000

= 75,000/1000 = 136,000/1000

= 30 cfh

= 3 cfh

= 75 cfh = 136 cfh

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

76

• Step 2 Length of pipe from the point of delivery to the most remote

Step 2

Length of pipe from the point of delivery to the

most remote outlet (A) = 60 ft

Step 3

Refer to table which follow the above specification. Read under column length of 60 ft.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

77

Section Outlet Demand Pipe Required (inches) (cfh) 1 A 30 3/8 B 3 1/4  

Section

Outlet

Demand

Pipe Required (inches)

(cfh)

1

A

30

3/8

B

3

1/4

 

A + B

33

3/8

2

C

75

3/4

 

A+B+C

108

3/4

3

D

136

3/4

 

A+B+C+D

244

1

If the gravity factor is applied to this example, the value in the

column marked 60 feet of Table 14 would be multiplied by the multiplier 0.96 from Table 25 and resulting cubic feet per hour

values would be used to size the piping.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

78

Based on SG 0.6 at 60 feet (cfh) Multiplier 0.96 (cfh) Nominal Iron Pipe Size

Based on SG 0.6 at 60 feet (cfh)

Multiplier 0.96 (cfh)

Nominal Iron Pipe Size (inches)

16

15.36

1/4

36

34.56

3/8

68

65.28

1/2

178

170.88

3/4

260

249.60

1

520

499.20

1 1/4

810

777.60

1 1/2

1520

1459.20

2

2400

2304.00

2 1/2

4300

4128.00

3

8800

8448.00

4

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

79

Clifford Method • May not be simple but offers the advantage of flexibility • Can

Clifford Method

May not be simple but offers the advantage of flexibility

Can be noted with actual pressure drop and pipe size

Which ultimately may prove useful when making

adjustments for possible future loads.

Classified by two categories

1) Low pressure line

2) High pressure line

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

80

Low Pressure Line • Five factors should be considered i) Pipe length together with additional
Low Pressure Line
Low Pressure Line

Five factors should be considered

i)

Pipe length together with additional length of fitting

ii)

Allowable pressure drop

iii)

Load or demand

iv)

Pipe material

v)

Actual pressure drop

Refer to Table 28 and Table 29

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

81

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 82
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 82
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

82

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 83
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 83
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

83

Pipe Length • Length 10 - 100 feet Listed in left hand side of the

Pipe Length

Length 10 - 100 feet Listed in left hand side of the table

Length > 100 feet

The actual length (plus the allowable for fitting) and

allowable pressure drop are both divided by a

convenient number that will bring the pipe length

within the range of the table

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

84

Example • 280 ft line with allowable pressure drop 0.6 inches water column. • The
Example
Example

280 ft line with allowable pressure drop 0.6 inches

water column.

The pipeline would be properly sized if the length is

considered to be 70 (divided by 4) and the allowable

pressure drop is 0.15 inches water column.

Equivalent length for fitting refer to Table 29.

Commonly, 2 inches pipe size used as a reference. If the final result (pressure drop) more than allowable

value select the next larger size.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

85

Allowable Pressure Drop • Is given over to pressure drop ranging from 0.1 to 1.0

Allowable Pressure Drop

Is given over to pressure drop ranging from 0.1 to

1.0 inches water column.

This pressure drops makes the table quit flexible and allow for appropriate selection.

Allowable pressure drop used is 0.6 inches water

column.

Single line pipeline is direct solving but branch lines must be sized separately.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

86

Load or Demand • Calculate the load it must handle. • A branch line is
Load or Demand
Load or Demand

Calculate the load it must handle.

A branch line is sized on the basis of the BTU rating of the appliance it services.

The main line must handle the total load.

An intermediate line will be sized for the

appliances it services.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

87

Pipe Material • Four type of piping material system and practitioner will make his selection

Pipe Material

Four type of piping material system and practitioner

will make his selection on the basis of company practice.

Actual Pressure Drop

For the more complicated piping system it is helpful to determine the actual pressure drop for the pipe sized selected.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

88

Example • Determine pipeline sizing of a domestic installation shown below. Used allowable pressure drop
Example
Example

Determine pipeline sizing of a domestic installation shown below. Used allowable pressure drop is 0.6 inches water column.

Water h eater

30 ,0 00 Btu

drop is 0.6 inches water column. Water h eater 30 ,0 00 Btu C Gas Rang

C

Gas Rang e

63 ,0 00 Bt

B

Water h eater 30 ,0 00 Btu C Gas Rang e 63 ,0 00 Bt B

10 feet,

R
R

0.26 " W C

A 15 feet, 0.34 " W C

10 feet, 0.26 " W C

D

5 feet,

0.26 " W C

R 0.26 " W C A 15 feet, 0.34 " W C 10 feet, 0.26 "

Floo r furnace

80 ,0 00 Btu

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

89

Solution • Step 1 Leading to the appliance with the greatest load or input. Equivalent

Solution

Step 1 Leading to the appliance with the greatest load or input. Equivalent length:

Main line

Measured length One 90 degree elbow Sub-Total

= 15 feet = 5 feet = 20 feet

Branch line to floor furnace (The Greatest Load)

Measured length Tee-Side Outlet Sub-Total

= 5 feet = 10.4 feet = 15.4 feet

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

90

• Total pipe length from furnace to the pressure regulator is 35.4 feet Since the

Total pipe length from furnace to the pressure regulator is 35.4 feet

Since the main line is 0.57 of total length involved and 0.57 pressure drop of 0.6 inches water column is 0.34

inches water column. So allowable pressure drop on

each branch line is 0.26 inches water column

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

91

• Step 2 Load demand based on figure: Gas range Water heater Floor furnace Total

Step 2

Load demand based on figure:

Gas range

Water heater Floor furnace Total Load

= 63,000

= 30,000 = 80,000 = 173,000 Btu

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

92

• Step 3 Can select out of 4 type of piping material (use Table 28)

Step 3

Can select out of 4 type of piping material (use Table 28)

Main line

Pipe Sizing

Pipe length 20 ft and 0.34 " W.C. (allowable pressure drop) (Select the suitable piping material) to the total load 173,000 Btu (if not available, look the next larger i.e. 321,000 Btu - interpolation).

Answer

= ¾ " IPS

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

93

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 94
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 94
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

94

• Actual Pressure Drop From 3/4 inch IPS, proceed to RHS to 175,000 BTU (nearest

Actual Pressure Drop

From 3/4 inch IPS, proceed to RHS to 175,000 BTU (nearest to 173,000 Btu).

Then proceed upward until in line with the pipe distance 20 ft.

Answer

= 0.1 inches water column

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

95

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 96
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 96
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

96

• Branch Line B Pipe sizing and actual pressure drop Use the similar way as

Branch Line B

Pipe sizing and actual pressure drop

Use the similar way as above (main line)

Pipe length

= 20 ft (10 ft. measured length + 10 ft. Tee-Side)

Allowable pressure drop = 0.26 " W.C.

Load (63,000 Btu) Pipe size Actual pressure drop

= 109,000 Btu (interpolation) = 1/2 " K Tubing = 0.1" W.C.

(Nearest load = 68,000 Btu)

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

97

• Branch Line C Pipe sizing and actual pressure drop. Use the similar way as

Branch Line C

Pipe sizing and actual pressure drop. Use the similar way as

above (main line).

Pipe length = 20 ft (10 ft. measured length + 10 ft. Tee-Side)

Allowable pressure drop = 0.26 " W.C.

Load (30,000 Btu)

Pipe size

Actual pressure drop

= 54,000 Btu (interpolation)

= 3/8 " K Tubing

= 0.08" W.C. (Nearest load = 31,000 Btu)

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

98

• Branch Line D Pipe sizing and actual pressure drop. Use the similar way as

Branch Line D

Pipe sizing and actual pressure drop. Use the similar way as above (main line).

Pipe length = 15 ft (5 ft. measured length + 10 ft. Tee-Side)

Allowable pressure drop = 0.26 " W.C.

Load (80,000 Btu) Pipe size

Actual pressure drop

= 126,000 Btu (interpolation) = 1/2 " K Tubing

= 0.11" W.C.

(Nearest load = 84,000 Btu)

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

99

High Pressure Line • If an appliance requires gas at a pressure of 10 psig

High Pressure Line

If an appliance requires gas at a pressure of 10 psig or

15 psig for proper operation, it will have to supplied by

a high pressure gas line.

The carrying capacity of a pipeline is 10 times or 15

times greater with high pressure gas than with low pressure.

- Table 31 to Table 34 (MS 930) have to be used

for Option 1

- Chart in Figure 19 (MS 930) has to be used for Option 2.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

100

• The increased capacity depends, of course on the pressure at which the gas is

The increased capacity depends, of course on the pressure at which the gas is piped and allowed pressure drop.

If an existing low pressure line has become overload, its

capacity may be increased considerably by increasing the

pressure by only a few pounds.

In many such cases it would be less expensive and provide better performance to change to two-stage regulator rather than replace the existing low pressure line.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

101

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

Table 31 (MS930)

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 Table 31 (MS930) 102

102

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 103
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 103
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

103

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 104
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 104
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

104

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 105
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223 105
Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

105

Example (Table 31) • A commercial installation is to be made in a northern area

Example (Table 31)

A commercial installation is to be made in a northern area where the lowest temperature to be accounted is - 15 o F. The pipe length is 40 ft and the maximum load is 650,000 Btu. Determine the required pipe size for

intermediate pressure line when two-stages regulator will used.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

106

Solution • Step 1 Referring to the key at the bottom of Table 31, it

Solution

Step 1 Referring to the key at the bottom of Table 31, it will be noted that for a minimum temperature -15 o F, the B capacities should be used.

Step 2

Select 40 ft in the left hand column of the table and use the pipe

capacities shown opposite the letter B.

Step 3 Since the Figure 650, representing the load in thousands of Btu does not appear in the horizontal line opposite 40 ft B the next higher figure 870 is selected.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

107

• Step 4 Moving upward from the 870 just selected the required pipe size is

Step 4 Moving upward from the 870 just selected the

required pipe size is found to be ½ inch type K

tubing. By following the same procedure in the right of the table, ½ inch pipe will be indicated for this installation.

Note: For sizing high pressure lines involving

factors beyond the scope of the simplified in

Table 31, Table 32 to Table 35 are recommended.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

108

Example (Option 1) • Determine the proper pipe sizes for the high piping system shown
Example (Option 1)
Example (Option 1)

Determine the proper pipe sizes for the high piping

system shown below. The maximum allowable

pressure drop between the high pressure regulator outlet and several appliances is 5 psig

2,00 0,000 Btu Delivered pressure L3 10 p sig 20 feet L1 20 0 feet
2,00 0,000 Btu
Delivered
pressure
L3
10
p sig
20 feet
L1
20 0 feet
L2
2 5 feet
R
L4
Initial
3,00 0,000 B
20 feet
pressure 15 psig

1,50 0,000 Btu

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

109

• Step 1 An arbitrary decision must be made as to how this will be

Step 1

An arbitrary decision must be made as to how this will be apportioned. Suggested:

Main line Each branch

= 3 psi = 2 psi

Therefore, delivered pressure for the main line will be 12 psi and this will then be the initial pressure for the

branch lines.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

110

• Step 2 Referring to Table 33. 15 psi initial pressure it will be seen

Step 2

Referring to Table 33.

15 psi initial pressure it will be seen that the value of 'h' for 3 psi pressure drop is 169.

For each branch lines the initial is 12 psi and the pressure drop is 2 psi. For this pressure drop and initial pressure the value of 'h' is 103

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

111

• Step 3 Size the main line Pipe length Value of 'h' Load = 200

Step 3 Size the main line

Pipe length

Value of 'h'

Load

= 200 ft

= 169 = 6500 thousand Btu (total load)

Since 200 ft is not shown in the pipe sizing table. It is necessary to make

adjustment such as the following:

200

ft value of 'h' 169

100

ft value of 'h' 85

In table 32, the values 80 and 90 are found for 'h'. Since 85 is haft way between, one can follow down between the two line to the standard pipe section.

The indicated pipe sized

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

= 1 1/4 IPS

112

• However, the actual value of 'h' can be estimated. Find 6500 in the horizontal

However, the actual value of 'h' can be estimated.

Find 6500 in the horizontal line opposite to 1 ¼

IPS: 6684 is selected

Proceed upward to the 100 ft line it is seen that the actual value of 'h' appears to be 40. Since pipe

length and 'h' were divided by 2, it is necessary now

multiply by 2 to get the true value of 'h' for the size selected.

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

113

• Size the line 2 = 25 ft = 103 = 3000 thousand Btu Since

Size the line 2

= 25 ft = 103 = 3000 thousand Btu

Since 'h' with 103 is not shown in the pipe sizing table. It is necessary to make adjustment such as the following:

The value of 'h' and the load by 4, as follow;

Pipe length Value of 'h' Load

Value of 'h' 103 Value of 'h' 26

Load 3000 thousand Btu

Load 750 thousand Btu

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

114

• The problem can now be solved on the basis of the following factors: Pipe

The problem can now be solved on the basis of the following factors:

Pipe length

Value of 'h' Load

= 25 ft

= 26 = 750 thousand Btu

Using table as already explained;

Pipe size

Value of 'h'

½ IPS

=

= 10 x 4

= 40

> (chart shown factor)

Storage and Reticulation System SKN 4223
Storage and Reticulation System
SKN 4223

115

• Size the line 3 Solved in the same manner and the following factors being

Size the line 3