GAS RETICULATION
SYSTEM
TYPE OF GAS PIPELINE SYSTEMS
• Transmission
• Is a line installed for the purposed of transmitting gas
from a source or sources of supply to one or more distribution centers or a pipe installed to
interconnected sources or supply.
• Transmission lines differ from gas distribution line in
that they operate at higher pressure, are longer and
have greater distance between connection
2
• Distribution
• Is a network of pipeline connecting the gas from supply sources to the consumer premises.
• Supply source are transmission line for
natural gas and bulk storage for liquefied
petroleum gas.
3
4
5
GAS PIPE DESIGN COMPONENTS
1. 
Pipeline optimization 
2. 
Selection and analysis of pipeline route 
3. 
Geotechnical and environmental aspects 
4. 
Engineering survey 
5. 
Route design 
6. 
Buoyancy control 
7. 
Selection of materials 
8. 
Stress analysis 
9. 
Facility design 
10. 
Corrosion control 
6
Basic Concepts of Gas
Distribution System (Gas Supply)
• Items to ensure stability of supply
High reliability
Low installation cost
Low maintenance
Materials and parts supply facilities
• Supply system is determined based on the serviced
area, volume of gas needed, the capacity of existing
equipment, the possibility of the expansion, maintenance and control facilities and costs.
7
• In making the classification of consumers and
supply system, it is necessary to ensure the system is
safe and secure.
• Supply system is classified to:
1. 
Large industry > 1000 cubic meters per hour 
2. 
Medium and small industries 
3. 
Commercial 
4. 
Domestic  <1 cubic meter per hour 
8
Government Acts
• Systems should be designed to comply with the requirements
of the following acts:
• Petroleum Act (Safety Measures) 1984 Cover security measures to be considered in designing and installation of gas and petroleumrelated facilities.
• Environmental Quality Act (1974) Act governing the activities that may affect the environment. Identify the mandatory environmental impact study
• Factories and Machinery Act (1967)
To enforce the requirements of the tests carried out on a highpressure gas pipe installation, including welding
procedures, welder qualifications and other related.
9
Code of Practice and Standards
AGA 
: American Gas Association 
ANSI 
: American National Standard Institute 
ASME 
: American Society of Mechanical Testing 
ASTM 
: American Society of Testing of Material 
API 
: American Petroleum Institute 
BS 
: British Standard 
CSA 
: Canadian Standard Association 
IP 
: Institute of Petroleum 
ISA 
: Instrumentations Standards Association 
MS 
: Malaysian Standard 
MSS 
: Material Specification Standards 
NACE 
: National Association of Corrosion Engineers 
NEMA 
: National Electrical Manufacturing Association 
PTS 
: Petronas Technical Standard 
SIS 
: Standard Institution of Sweeden 
SSPC 
: Steel Structure Painting Council 
10
Design Factor and Class Location
• The thickness of the pipe is determined by design
factors as contained in ANSI / ASME B31.8.
• Class location is determined by calculating the density of homes along the pipe to 200 m wide on the left and
right pipe during 1600 m.
Less than 10 houses 
Class I 
10 to 40 houses 
Class II 
More than 40 houses 
Class III 
Storey building 
Class IV 
11
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM PIPELINE
• Using steel and plastic pipeline with pipe diameter
and pressure lower than the transmission pipeline
system.
• Consists of series of pipes that operate at different pressures and there is no agreement or a general statement or terminology on pressure range for each classification.
12
• Before gas distributed to the user, it passes
through a series of gas stations in the system.
1. Local Stations
2. Area Station
3. Service Station
• Installation of the stations subject to the pressure required by the user.
• Pressure reduced using pressure regulator.
• Odorizer included for security purposes.
13
BASIC CONSIDERATION IN SELECTING
• Three main factors should be considered:
1. 
Estimates the gas consumption rate or gas 
demand 

2. 
Selection and assumption of distribution system (Network analysis) 
3. 
Check the pressure required whether it is 
maintained at a specific level
14
DESIGN DEMAND ESTIMATION
• Determination of the total amount of gas
consumption is among the first requirements for the determination of the pipe diameter.
• What is required for the determination of the total amount of gas consumption is the amount
of gas consumption of each combustion
appliances and the number of such appliances to be installed.
• It can be determined directly from manufacturer.
15
Appliances 
Rating (Btu/hr) 

Range, Free Standing Domestic 
65 
000 
BuiltIn Oven or Boiler Unit, Domestic BuiltIn Top Unit, Domestic Water Heater, Automatic Storage (30 to 40 gal tank) 
25 
000 
40 
000 

45 
000 

Water Heater, Automatic Storage (50 gal tank) 
55 
000 
Water Heater, Automatic Instantaneous: 

Capacity : 2 gal. per minute Capacity : 4 gal. per minute 
142 
800 
285 
000 

Capacity : 6 gal. per minute 
428 000 

Refrigerator Gas Light Incinerator, Domestic 
3 
000 
2 
500 

35 
000 
16
• However, the amount of gas consumption can be determine based on various factors
Number of customer
Type of residence
Fuel supply and demand situation
Kind of industries
Future prospect of the subject area
17
• In general the total amount of all rating of appliances does not always amount of the gas that each consumer uses. This is because, it is rarely the case that consumers use all their appliances simultaneously and the appliances are not always to be used with the fully open.
• Therefore, the amount of gas to be considered as a
design consumption is a total gas consumption
the area multiply with consumption factor which is
called appliance gas coincident factor.
18
REQUIRED INFORMATION FOR
SERVICE PIPELINE DESIGN
The following information should be obtained:
• Plant layout
Overall plant layout
Part of plant layout where firing equipment is located
• Location of each burner system
• Required pressure of each equipment
• Future demand
• Location of natural gas service station and for LPG user
Existing LPG piping layout (This drawing must be
checked to confirm its actual installation)
LPG supplied pressure
If possible, former LPG piping contractor name
19
PIPELINE ROUTE SELECTION
• Avoid side slopes and cross slopes
• Avoid unstable slope
• Avoid any crossing, if possible
river, highway, culvert etc
cross at straight section
• Avoid cemeteries
• Avoid national park or reserve land
• Avoid religious places
• Avoid community places
• Avoid pocket land
20
ROUTE OF SERVICES PIPING
CONSIDERATIONS
SELECTION &
Following is the criteria to be considered to select services piping route.
• Exposed piping is much better than underground piping for
easy maintenance and safety
• Gas piping shall not be installed in/at/through the following places or locations:
a lift shaft
exhaust duct, etc.
electrical facility room, etc.
where it will be subjected to extreme temperature, water or moisture continuously
where it will be subjected to excessive vibration
where it will be subjected to corrosive gas or solution
in concrete slab or cylinder
21
• Gas piping shall be securely supported to avoid strain
exerting on the pipe. Therefore good pipe support
must be considered too.
• The piping and its support must not obstruct the
operation of any factory's mobile machine i.e. forklift
and crane.
• Planning or possible expansion or modification of
factory
where the future demand will be
whether the construction (of the expansion) will
cause unsafe condition or modification required
to the piping system.
22
• The construction or installation work of the piping shall least affect the production or operation of the factory.
• PE pipe shall not be installed as exposed pipe.
• The radius of the inner curve of PE pipe bending (R) shall not less than 25 times of inner
diameter of the pipe.
23
• Location of customer's monitoring meter and line of equipment/regulator shall be located in ventilated spaces readily accessible for examination, servicing or replacement.
• Piping system shall be as simple as possible to
avoid confusion, especially in case of existing LPG piping remained.
• The loop of piping shall not be use for internal
piping
24
SIZING OF GAS PIPING FOR
SERVICE LINE
• Is a line connected from the street main to the customer's meter.
• Gas piping shall be of such size and so installed as to provide a supply of gas sufficient to meet
demand without undue pressure drop between
service station and gas appliances.
25
• Several points need to be considered when sizing the
pipe;
2 ½ and 5 inches pipe shall not be used for new piping system except for a special case. These two pipes are not common in the market.
The pipe size of the piping system shall not be
changed except for branches and connection for meters, regulators, isolation valves or special case
such as tiein point to existing piping etc.
The pipe size of the downstream pipe shall not be larger than upstream except the connection for meters, regulators, isolation valves etc. And the
downstream pipe of meters or regulator must be
adequate size for distributing condition.
26
• The minimum pipe size for welding is recommended to be 1 inch.
• Factors influence the service line sizing are:
Total connected load
Length of service line
Pressure at the main
• There are four methods widely used to solved the above task as called a quit and simple calculation (not as complex as general gas flow equation).
NFPA No. 54 (National Fire Protection Association)
Method
Clifford Method
Cox's Formula
Pauls’s Formula
27
Elevation Effect to Low Pressure
System
• Consider gas with specific gravity of S at static height of 1m:
At datum:
• Atmospheric pressure 
: Pa 
mbar 
• Gauge Pressure 
: Pg 
mbar 
• Absolute pressure
: Pa + Pg mbar
28
• At 1m height, gauge pressure lower by ρ _{g}_{a}_{s} x g x H.
29
• At 1m height, atmospheric pressure is lowered
by
r _{a}_{i}_{r} x g x H.
r _{a}_{i}_{r} = 1.2248 kg/m ^{3}
30
• Therefore,
• It shows that, the pressure drop for low pressure system is:
0.12 (1  S) mbar/m
31
COX'S FORMULA
• Supply Pressure is/above 29.4 kPa.G (3000 mmH _{2} O).
• The pipe size of each section or portion shall be pre
determined by using Table, which shows the maximum flow capacity at various pressure to ensure
the flow velocity at various pressure to ensure the
flow velocity does not exceed 20 m/s.
32
33
• In case that supply pressure is not available in the Table,
the maximum flow capacity of each pipe at 20 m/s can
be calculated as below:
^{Q} max ^{}
1.8
2 x x D ^{2} x
10
101.3 P _{s}
101.3
where,
Q _{m}_{a}_{x}
: Maximum flowrate (Sm ^{3} /hr) at 20 m/s flow velocity : Supply pressure (kPa.G)
P _{s}
D : Pipe inner diameter (mm)
101.3 : Atmospheric pressure in kPa
34
• The pressure drop of the size predetermined above
to each appliance system shall be calculated by Cox's
Formula as shown below: However, maximum allowable pressure drop is 15% of supply pressure. If not, shall select bigger pipe size for that sections to provide the sufficient pressure or pressure drop within 15% of supply pressure.
• In that case, piping cost effect should be also taken into consideration, so that 2 or more piping sections or portions might be selected to bigger pipe size. This mean that, the down stream pipe size must be bigger size than upstream pipe.
35
•
Q K
Where,
P _{2}
P _{1} & P _{2} : Absolute pressure (kPa.abs) = Gauge Pressure (kPa.G) + Atmospheric Pressure (101.325 kPa)
S
Q
L
D
K
: Specific Gravity
: Flowrate (Sm ^{3} /hr)
: Distance (m)
: Pipe Inner Diameter (mm)
: Cox's Coefficient = 1.69 x 10 ^{}^{3}
36
Example 1
• Determine pipeline sizing of a domestic installation
diagram shown below. Assume SG = 0.6
37
Solution
a) Piping Diagram
38
b) Design flowrate and predetermined
Node No. 
Flowrate Sm ^{3} /h 
Pipe Size (inch) 
01 
395 
3 (2 ½) 
12 
95 
1 
23 
35 
¾ 
24 
60 
1 
15 
300 
2 
39
c) Pressure Drop Calculation
As supply pressure is 138 kPa.G, the minimum pressure to the equipment is 117.3 kPa.G (218.6 kPa.abs). Therefore, pressure drop of each pipe as shown in the following table.
40
Node No. 
Flowrate (Sm ^{3} /h) 
Length 
Pipe size 
Pipe size 
P 
1 
P 
2 
Remarks 
(m) 
(inch) 
(mm) 
(kPa.abs) 
(kPa.abs) 

01 
395 
100 
3 77.92 
239.3 
236.7 

12 
95 
70 
1 26.64 
236.7 
222.1 

23 
35 
65 
¾ 20.96 
222.1 
211.8 
<218.6 

24 
60 
40 
1 26.64 
222.1 
216.6 
<218.6 

12 
95 
70 
1 ¼ 
35.08 
236.7 
233.1 

23 
35 
65 
¾ 
20.96 
233.1 
227.8 
>218.6 

24 
60 
40 
1 
26.64 
233.1 
227.8 
>218.6 

15 
300 
50 
2 
52.48 
236.7 
231.2 
>218.6 
41
d) Result
42
Example 2
• A horizontal liquefied petroleum gas pipeline planned to be installed a the Gas Engineering Laboratory as shown in
figure. Liquefied petroleum gas is supplied through a bulk
tank, which has a wetted area of 90 square feet and a minimum rate of evaporation of 13.3875 Ib/hr. The Gas
Engineering Department has signed the agreement with a
supplier for the supply of liquefied petroleum gas composition as shown in table in order to achieve the latent heat of evaporation and the heat of combustion are 160
Btu/Ib and 21422 Btu/Ib, respectively. If the surrounding temperature and overall heat transfer coefficient is 80 ^{o} F and 3 Btu/ft ^{2} . ^{o} F respectively, calculate the pipe size of each section involved.
43
Composition 
Percent Volume 
Propane 
55 
ibutane 
30 
nbutane 
15 
44
45
Comp 
%V 
V (gal) 
ρ 
W 
MW 
mol 
x 
P _{v}_{a}_{p} at 
x. P _{v}_{a}_{p} 
y 
y.MW 

(Ib/gal) 
72.06 
^{o} F 

C3 
55 
0.55 
4.16 
2.288 
44 
0.052 
0.5843 
150 
87.645 
84.33 
37.1052 

nC4 
30 
0.30 
4.81 
1.443 
58 
0.025 
0.2809 
34 
9.5506 
9.19 
5.3302 

iC4 
15 
0.15 
4.64 
0.696 
58 
0.012 
0.1348 
50 
6.740 
6.48 
3.7584 

0.089 
103.9356 
100 
46.1938 
46
47
• Supply Pressure = 100 kPa.gauge
• Minimum Pressure = 85 kPa.gauge =186.3 kPa.abs
• Predetermine
Node 
Q (Sm ^{3} /h) 
Pipe size (inch) 
01 
395 
2 ½ (3) 
12 
95 
1 
23 
35 
¾ 
24 
60 
1 
15 
300 
2 
48
Node No. 
Flowrate (Sm ^{3} /h) 
Length 
Pipe size 
Pipe size 
P 
1 
P 
2 
Remarks 
(m) 
(inch) 
(mm) 
(kPa.abs) (kPa.abs) 

01 
395 
100 
3 
77.92 
201.3 198.2 

12 
95 
70 
1 ¼ 
35.08 
198.2 193.9 

23 
35 
65 
¾ 
20.96 
193.9 182.0 
< 186.3 

24 
60 
40 
1 
26.64 
193.9 187.5 
> 186.3 

23 
35 
65 
1 
26.64 
193.9 190.3 
> 186.3 

15 
300 
50 
2 
52.48 
198.2 191.6 
> 186.3 
49
50
PAUL'S FORMULA
• Supply Pressure is less than 29.4 kPa.G (3000 mmH _{2} O)
• Pressure drop of each section can be calculated by Paul's
Formula as shown below:
ΔP : Pressure drop (Pa) K _{2} : Paul's coefficient = 7.09 x 10 ^{}^{4}
D 
: Pipe inner diameter (mm) 
S 
: Specific gravity of gas 
L 
: Pipe length (m) 
Q 
: Flowrate (Sm ^{3} /hr) 
Q K _{2}
P D 5
S. L
or
P
S
^{K} 2
D 5
x Q 2 L
51
• The Paul's Formula can be simplified as the
following formula which is based on Tokyo Gas experiences.
'
P K _{2} Q ^{2} L
ΔP : Pressure drop (Pa)
L 
: Pipe length (m) 
Q 
: Flowrate (Sm ^{3} /hr) 
52
• where, K' _{2} as shown in table below. (K' _{2} is also taken into consideration of the pressure drop at fittings).
Nominal Pipe Size (inch) 
K’ _{2} 
Nominal Pipe Size (inch) 
K’ _{2} 

½ 
5.20 
3 
6.67 
x 104 

3/4 
8.80 
x 101 
4 
3.94 
x 105 
1 
2.37 
x 101 
6 
3.94 
x 105 
1 1/4 
5.31 
x 102 
8 
3.02 
x 106 
1 1/2 
2.29 
x 102 
12 
4.14 
x 107 
2 
7.85 
x 103 
53
• If the supply pressure is very low, the pressure
differences caused by difference of pipe level cannot
be neglected. Therefore, pressure differences shall be considered and calculated by the formula as shown
below.
P _{H} r . g. 1 S. H 12.68 x 1 S. H
P _{H} : Pressure difference Pa
r 
: Density of air 1.293 kg/N m ^{3} 
S 
: Specific gravity of gas 
Difference of pipe level m
g : G ravity acceleration 9.807 kg/s ^{2}
54
• If level of the node is higher than level of the last
node, the pressure drop is ΔP pressure calculated by Paul's Formula minus ΔPH.
• The predetermined of pipe size shall be named as
node number normally as node 0 (started  service station), the next branch is named as node 1 and to
the end by following manner:
1. The longest length of piping from node n to the end value shall be measured (Ln)
55
2. Calculate the K value with below formula:
K
^{}^{P} n.max
Q ^{2}
n
^{L} n
^{}^{P} n.max ^{}^{}^{P} n 1.max ^{}^{}^{P} n1
P _{n}_{.}_{m}_{a}_{x} : Maximum allowable pressure drop from node n to the end value
P _{n}_{}_{1} : Pressure drop of section n1 calculated by determined pipe size
Q _{n}
: Design flowrate of section n
56
3. 
Compare K value to K'2 value shown in the 
table. Then find out the appropriate pipe size of corresponding K'2 (the value selected for K'2 

should be less than K value). The selected pipe 

size is known as predetermined pipe size for section n. 

4. 
Pn shall be calculated by Paul's Formula 
5. 
Repeat (1) – (4) to determine the pipe size of 
section n + 1 until the end section.
57
Example
• Determine the pipe size below. The maximum allowable pressure drop is 3 kPa.
58
59
• Predetermine pipe size
• The most long pipe length from service station to
equipment is 0  4. Then,
• Node 0 to Node 1
K
^{}^{P} n.max
Q n ^{2} ^{.} ^{L} n
3000
90 ^{2} x 100
'
Pressure drop K _{2} Q ^{2} L
3.7 x 10 ^{}^{3}
6.67 x 10 ^{}^{4} x 90 ^{2} x 10 54.0 Pa
Therefore : Pipe Size 3"
60
• Node 1  Node 2
K
^{}^{P} n.max
Q n ^{2} ^{.} ^{L} n
3000 54
60 ^{2} x 90
'
Pressure drop K _{2} Q ^{2} L
9.1 x 10 ^{}^{3}
7.85 x 10 ^{}^{3} x 60 ^{2} x 30 847.8
Therefore : Pipe Size 2"
Pa
61
• Node 2  Node 3
^{}^{P} n.max
3000 54 847.8
K 
2.6 
x 10 ^{}^{1} 


Q n ^{2} ^{.} ^{L} n
20 ^{2} x 20
'
Pressure drop K _{2} Q ^{2} L
2.37 x 10 ^{}^{1} x 20 ^{2} x 20 1896 Pa
Therefore : Pipe Size 1"
62
• Node 2  Node 4
K
^{}^{P} n.max
Q n ^{2} ^{.} ^{L} n
3000 54 847.8
40 ^{2} x 60
'
Pressure drop K _{2} Q ^{2} L
2.19 x 10 ^{}^{2}
7.85 x 10 ^{}^{3} x 40 ^{2} x 60 753.6 Pa
Therefore : Pipe Size 2"
63
• Node 1  Node 5
^{}^{P} n.max
3000 54.0
K 
6.5 
x 10 ^{}^{1} 


Q n ^{2} ^{.} ^{L} n
30 ^{2} x 5
'
Pressure drop K _{2} Q ^{2} L
2.37 x 10 ^{}^{1} x 30 ^{2} x 5 1066.5
Therefore : Pipe Size 1"
Pa
64
• Determination of pipe size
Node 
Flowrate (Sm ^{3} /h) 
Length 
PreSize 
ΔP 
Pipe Size 
ΔP 

(m) 
(inch) 
(Pa) 
(inch) 
(Pa) 

0 
– 1 
90 
10 
3 
54.0 
2 
635.8 
1 
– 2 
60 
30 
2 
847.8 
2 
847.8 
2 
– 4 
40 
60 
2 
753.6 
2 
753.6 
0 
– 4 
1655.4 
2237.2 

2 
– 3 
20 
70 
1 
1896.0 
1 ¼ 
424.8 
0 
– 3 
2797.8 
1908.4 

1 
– 5 
30 
5 
1 
1066.5 
1 
1066.5 
0 – 5 
1120.5 
1702.3 
65
NFPA 54
• Noted for simplicity
• Given a length and the maximum load, the required
pipe size is read directly from the table
• Following factors are required.
1) 
Allowable loss in pressure from point of delivery to 
2) 
equipment Maximum gas demand 
3) 
Length of pipe from the point of delivery to the 
4) 
most remote Specific gravity of gas 
5) 
Diversity factor 
66
• Capacities for low pressure (0.5 psig or less) in cubic
feet per hour of 0.60 specific gravity for different length
are shown in Table 13 to Table 16 ( MS 930) for iron pipe or equivalent rigid pipe.
 Table 13 and 15 are based upon a pressure drop
0.3 inches water column
 Table 14 and 16 are based upon a pressure drop
0.5 inches water column
 Table 26 is used when capacities in thousands of BTU per hour of undiluted liquefied petroleum
gases based on pressure drop 0.5 inches water
column.
67
68
69
70
71
72
• If the data does not give the exact value, select the column showing the next larger
• If the gravity of gas is different with table 13 to 16,
use the gravity factor in Table 25
• In using these tables no additional allowance is necessary for an ordinary number of fittings.
73
74
Example
• Determine the required pipe size of each section and
outlet of the piping system shown below. Given gas
gravity 0.65, designed pressure drop is 0.5 inches water column and gas heating value is 1000 BTU/CF.
Outlet A
Water heater:
30,000 Btu/h
10 '
5 '
Outlet B
Point of delivery
Outlet C 
Gas refrigerator: 
Range: 
3,000 Btu/hr 
75,000 Btu/hr
75
Solution
• Step 1
Maximum gas demand at each outlet
= Consumption Rating (Btu/hr) Heating Value of Gas (Btu/cf)
Outlet A
Outlet B
Outlet C Outlet D
= 30,000/1000
= 3,000/1000
= 75,000/1000 = 136,000/1000
= 30 cfh
= 3 cfh
= 75 cfh = 136 cfh
76
• Step 2
Length of pipe from the point of delivery to the
most remote outlet (A) = 60 ft
• Step 3
Refer to table which follow the above specification. Read under column length of 60 ft.
77
Section 
Outlet 
Demand 
Pipe Required (inches) 
(cfh) 

1 
A 
30 
3/8 
B 
3 
1/4 

A + B 
33 
3/8 

2 
C 
75 
3/4 
A+B+C 
108 
3/4 

3 
D 
136 
3/4 
A+B+C+D 
244 
1 
If the gravity factor is applied to this example, the value in the
column marked 60 feet of Table 14 would be multiplied by the multiplier 0.96 from Table 25 and resulting cubic feet per hour
values would be used to size the piping.
78
Based on SG 0.6 at 60 feet (cfh) 
Multiplier 0.96 (cfh) 
Nominal Iron Pipe Size (inches) 
16 
15.36 
1/4 
36 
34.56 
3/8 
68 
65.28 
1/2 
178 
170.88 
3/4 
260 
249.60 
1 
520 
499.20 
1 1/4 
810 
777.60 
1 1/2 
1520 
1459.20 
2 
2400 
2304.00 
2 1/2 
4300 
4128.00 
3 
8800 
8448.00 
4 
79
Clifford Method
• May not be simple but offers the advantage of flexibility
• Can be noted with actual pressure drop and pipe size
• Which ultimately may prove useful when making
adjustments for possible future loads.
• Classified by two categories
1) Low pressure line
2) High pressure line
80
• Five factors should be considered
i) 
Pipe length together with additional length of fitting 
ii) 
Allowable pressure drop 
iii) 
Load or demand 
iv) 
Pipe material 
v) 
Actual pressure drop 
• Refer to Table 28 and Table 29
81
82
83
Pipe Length
• Length 10  100 feet Listed in left hand side of the table
• Length > 100 feet
The actual length (plus the allowable for fitting) and
allowable pressure drop are both divided by a
convenient number that will bring the pipe length
within the range of the table
84
• 280 ft line with allowable pressure drop 0.6 inches
water column.
• The pipeline would be properly sized if the length is
considered to be 70 (divided by 4) and the allowable
pressure drop is 0.15 inches water column.
• Equivalent length for fitting refer to Table 29.
Commonly, 2 inches pipe size used as a reference. If the final result (pressure drop) more than allowable
value select the next larger size.
85
Allowable Pressure Drop
• Is given over to pressure drop ranging from 0.1 to
1.0 inches water column.
• This pressure drops makes the table quit flexible and allow for appropriate selection.
• Allowable pressure drop used is 0.6 inches water
column.
• Single line pipeline is direct solving but branch lines must be sized separately.
86
• Calculate the load it must handle.
• A branch line is sized on the basis of the BTU rating of the appliance it services.
• The main line must handle the total load.
• An intermediate line will be sized for the
appliances it services.
87
Pipe Material
• Four type of piping material system and practitioner
will make his selection on the basis of company practice.
Actual Pressure Drop
• For the more complicated piping system it is helpful to determine the actual pressure drop for the pipe sized selected.
88
• Determine pipeline sizing of a domestic installation shown below. Used allowable pressure drop is 0.6 inches water column.
Water h eater
30 ,0 00 Btu
C
Gas Rang e
63 ,0 00 Bt
B
10 feet,
0.26 " W C
A 15 feet, 0.34 " W C
10 feet, 0.26 " W C
D
5 feet,
0.26 " W C
Floo r furnace
80 ,0 00 Btu
89
Solution
• Step 1 Leading to the appliance with the greatest load or input. Equivalent length:
Main line
Measured length One 90 degree elbow SubTotal
= 15 feet = 5 feet = 20 feet
Branch line to floor furnace (The Greatest Load)
Measured length TeeSide Outlet SubTotal
= 5 feet = 10.4 feet = 15.4 feet
90
• Total pipe length from furnace to the pressure regulator is 35.4 feet
Since the main line is 0.57 of total length involved and 0.57 pressure drop of 0.6 inches water column is 0.34
inches water column. So allowable pressure drop on
each branch line is 0.26 inches water column
91
• Step 2
Load demand based on figure:
Gas range
Water heater Floor furnace Total Load
= 63,000
= 30,000 = 80,000 = 173,000 Btu
92
• Step 3
Can select out of 4 type of piping material (use Table 28)
Main line
Pipe Sizing
Pipe length 20 ft and 0.34 " W.C. (allowable pressure drop) (Select the suitable piping material) to the total load 173,000 Btu (if not available, look the next larger i.e. 321,000 Btu  interpolation).
Answer
= ¾ " IPS
93
94
• Actual Pressure Drop
From 3/4 inch IPS, proceed to RHS to 175,000 BTU (nearest to 173,000 Btu).
Then proceed upward until in line with the pipe distance 20 ft.
Answer
= 0.1 inches water column
95
96
• Branch Line B
Pipe sizing and actual pressure drop
Use the similar way as above (main line)
Pipe length
= 20 ft (10 ft. measured length + 10 ft. TeeSide)
Allowable pressure drop = 0.26 " W.C.
Load (63,000 Btu) Pipe size Actual pressure drop
= 109,000 Btu (interpolation) = 1/2 " K Tubing = 0.1" W.C.
(Nearest load = 68,000 Btu)
97
• Branch Line C
Pipe sizing and actual pressure drop. Use the similar way as
above (main line).
Pipe length = 20 ft (10 ft. measured length + 10 ft. TeeSide)
Allowable pressure drop = 0.26 " W.C.
Load (30,000 Btu)
Pipe size
Actual pressure drop
= 54,000 Btu (interpolation)
= 3/8 " K Tubing
= 0.08" W.C. (Nearest load = 31,000 Btu)
98
• Branch Line D
Pipe sizing and actual pressure drop. Use the similar way as above (main line).
Pipe length = 15 ft (5 ft. measured length + 10 ft. TeeSide)
Allowable pressure drop = 0.26 " W.C.
Load (80,000 Btu) Pipe size
Actual pressure drop
= 126,000 Btu (interpolation) = 1/2 " K Tubing
= 0.11" W.C.
(Nearest load = 84,000 Btu)
99
High Pressure Line
• If an appliance requires gas at a pressure of 10 psig or
15 psig for proper operation, it will have to supplied by
a high pressure gas line.
• The carrying capacity of a pipeline is 10 times or 15
times greater with high pressure gas than with low pressure.
 Table 31 to Table 34 (MS 930) have to be used
for Option 1
 Chart in Figure 19 (MS 930) has to be used for Option 2.
100
• The increased capacity depends, of course on the pressure at which the gas is piped and allowed pressure drop.
• If an existing low pressure line has become overload, its
capacity may be increased considerably by increasing the
pressure by only a few pounds.
• In many such cases it would be less expensive and provide better performance to change to twostage regulator rather than replace the existing low pressure line.
101
Table 31 (MS930)
102
103
104
105
Example (Table 31)
• A commercial installation is to be made in a northern area where the lowest temperature to be accounted is  15 ^{o} F. The pipe length is 40 ft and the maximum load is 650,000 Btu. Determine the required pipe size for
intermediate pressure line when twostages regulator will used.
106
Solution
• Step 1 Referring to the key at the bottom of Table 31, it will be noted that for a minimum temperature 15 ^{o} F, the B capacities should be used.
• Step 2
Select 40 ft in the left hand column of the table and use the pipe
capacities shown opposite the letter B.
• Step 3 Since the Figure 650, representing the load in thousands of Btu does not appear in the horizontal line opposite 40 ft B the next higher figure 870 is selected.
107
• Step 4 Moving upward from the 870 just selected the
required pipe size is found to be ½ inch type K
tubing. By following the same procedure in the right of the table, ½ inch pipe will be indicated for this installation.
Note: For sizing high pressure lines involving
factors beyond the scope of the simplified in
Table 31, Table 32 to Table 35 are recommended.
108
•
Determine the proper pipe sizes for the high piping
system shown below. The maximum allowable
pressure drop between the high pressure regulator outlet and several appliances is 5 psig
1,50 0,000 Btu
109
• Step 1
An arbitrary decision must be made as to how this will be apportioned. Suggested:
Main line Each branch
= 3 psi = 2 psi
Therefore, delivered pressure for the main line will be 12 psi and this will then be the initial pressure for the
branch lines.
110
• Step 2
Referring to Table 33.
15 psi initial pressure it will be seen that the value of 'h' for 3 psi pressure drop is 169.
For each branch lines the initial is 12 psi and the pressure drop is 2 psi. For this pressure drop and initial pressure the value of 'h' is 103
111
• Step 3 Size the main line
Pipe length
Value of 'h'
Load
= 200 ft
= 169 = 6500 thousand Btu (total load)
Since 200 ft is not shown in the pipe sizing table. It is necessary to make
adjustment such as the following:
200 
ft value of 'h' 169 
100 
ft value of 'h' 85 
In table 32, the values 80 and 90 are found for 'h'. Since 85 is haft way between, one can follow down between the two line to the standard pipe section.
The indicated pipe sized
= 1 1/4 IPS
112
• However, the actual value of 'h' can be estimated.
Find 6500 in the horizontal line opposite to 1 ¼
IPS: 6684 is selected
• Proceed upward to the 100 ft line it is seen that the actual value of 'h' appears to be 40. Since pipe
length and 'h' were divided by 2, it is necessary now
multiply by 2 to get the true value of 'h' for the size selected.
113
• Size the line 2
= 25 ft = 103 = 3000 thousand Btu
Since 'h' with 103 is not shown in the pipe sizing table. It is necessary to make adjustment such as the following:
The value of 'h' and the load by 4, as follow;
Pipe length Value of 'h' Load
Value of 'h' 103 Value of 'h' 26
Load 3000 thousand Btu
Load 750 thousand Btu
114
• The problem can now be solved on the basis of the following factors:
Pipe length
Value of 'h' Load
= 25 ft
= 26 = 750 thousand Btu
Using table as already explained;
Pipe size
Value of 'h'
½ IPS
=
= 10 x 4
= 40
> (chart shown factor)
115
• Size the line 3
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