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30902 "Competency Mapping as a Determinant of Organizational Efficiency with special reference to IT Industry

Dr. Rishu Roy1, Samta Arora2

Abstract In todays competitive and turbulent milieu organizations are moving towards excellence. Organizational excellence can be only achieved through the employees having the capability of learning, unlearning and relearning. The competencies and proficiencies which were essential yesterday may loose the significance today and may be extinct tomorrow thus the demand of the hour is to sustain employees who have urge for continuous improvement. So, it is mandatory for winning organizations to innovate & update competencies for enhancing organizational efficiency. The objective of the study is to identify areas of excellence and domains needing improvement in IT industry.

Competency, Organizational Efficiency

The advent of innovative and disruptive technologies, rapid changes in business environment, shortening business cycles and more than ever demanding customers have compelled business organizations to pass through cataclysmic times. The pressures in the free economy, breakdown of trade barriers and globalization are making enormous demands on todays corporation to compete in every domain. The biggest challenge faced by IT industry is to map the competencies redesign their organizations for attaining competitive advantage through organizational excellence. The core of the organizational excellence is dependent on competencies posses by the organization. Achieving efficiency in business naturally tops out of all the critical items in IT Industry and therefore it becomes imperative to recruit and retain competent employees. Each employee possesses distinct culture and background which is reflected in his / her personality and behavior. Therefore, it is crucial for organization to assess the performance of the employees religiously and continuously to evaluate the improvement and progress occurred toward achievement of organizational objectives. In contemporary days every organization has accepted the fact that smooth functioning of other departments is directly or indirectly influenced by efficient functioning of its HR. Thus, it goes without saying if organizations are able to utilize and explore competency mapping process, then it can pave the way towards success and growth by leaps and bounds.

Organizations of the future will have to rely more on their competent employees than any other resource for achieving success in this age of volatility. Competencies are the inner tools for motivating employees, directing systems and processes and guiding the business towards common goals that allow the organizations to increase its value. Competencies provide a common language and method that can integrate all the major HR functions and services like recruitment, training, performance management, remuneration, performance appraisal, career and succession planning and integrated Human Resource Management System. Research conducted by industrial and organizational psychologists has found that effectiveness of an employee to carry out a job is a multi facet concept which depends upon various constructs. As there are several constructs that affect efficiency and effectiveness of operations, the improvement is carried out in every construct. Divergence between any of the construct gives

rise to wastage of time, money and efforts deteriorating efficiency in operational process. Organizations in order to facilitate individual performance are required to identify the right person for the right job. Allocating jobs to employees according to their competency and interest motivate the employee which ultimately leads to job satisfaction fostering individual and organizational performance. Over the past 10 years, human resource and organizational development professionals have generated a lot of interest in the notion of competencies as a key element and measure of human performance. Competencies are becoming a frequently-used and written-about vehicle for organizational applications like defining the factors for success in jobs (i.e., work) and work roles within the organization, assessing the current performance and future development needs of persons holding jobs and roles, mapping succession possibilities for employees within the organization, assigning compensation grades and levels to particular jobs and roles and selecting applicants for open positions, using competency-based interviewing techniques

Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are combinations of knowledge, skills, and attributes (KSA) that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include: personal characteristics, traits, motives, values or ways of thinking that impact an individuals behavior. The process is completely customizable. The decisions of competency design are driven by number of organizational factors, including management philosophy, customer requirements, business needs and in-place processes. These factors vary from one organization to another, requiring a customized approach to competencies in the workplace. Customization is essential to the overall success of competency efforts, since every organization must integrate competency concepts into its own job design, recruitment, hiring orientation, development and succession processes.

Competency Mapping Competencies is the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are combinations of knowledge, skills, and attributes that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include: personal characteristics, traits, motives, values or ways of thinking that impact an individuals behavior. Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify and describe competencies that

are the most critical to success in a work situation or work rate. It is a process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a give job or role or a set tasks at a given point of time. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituents task or activities and identifying the competencies (Technical, managerial, Behavioral, conceptual knowledge and Attitude and skills etc) needed to perform the same successfully. Competency is to be mapped on the supply side (both internal and external supply) with the developed framework competency model to the job requisition. Competencies namely, knowledge, skills, traits, motives- have to be integrated with the HR system. An assessment center is an alternative to validate the competencies with the help of various tools. The assessment center is the most important step in mapping the competencies, once they have been identified. Competency mapping is important and is an essential exercise and every well managed firm should have well defined roles and list of competencies required to perform each role effectively. Such list should be used for recruitment, performance management, promotions, placements and training needs identification. Competency mapping is gaining much more importance and organizations are aware of having good human resources or putting the right people on right job. In performing or carrying out work, it is essential that the required job skills first be articulated. This information not only helps to identify individuals who have the matching skills for doing the work but also the skills that will enhance the successful performance of the work. Yet often to perform well, it is not enough just to have these skills. It is also critical to complement the skills with the necessary knowledge and attitudes. For example, the necessary knowledge will enable an individual to apply the right skills while having the right attitude will motivate him to give his best efforts. These skills, knowledge and attitudes required for the work are usually collectively referred as competencies.

Organizational Efficiency Efficiency and effectiveness were originally industrial engineering concepts that came of age in the early twentieth century. Management theorists like Frederick Taylor and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth designed time and motion studies primarily to improve efficiency. The words efficiency and effectiveness are often considered synonyms, along with terms like competency, productivity, and proficiency. Efficiency is doing things right, and effectiveness is doing the right things. To achieve the excellence and to progress in this competitive era, every organization works to enhance the efficiency of the firm which can only be achieved with the help of competent employees. Monterey investment cannot helps in bringing efficiency to the firm; with the concept of right man for right job can contributes for increasing efficiency. If employees will

love their job and highly motivated for performing their task, they give their 100% for it which will directly enhance the efficiency of organization. This has provided objectivity to HR activities with the help of tool like competency mapping. Assessment role of HR has function to core function with competency based HR system and

changed from support

HR functions now-a-days directly contribute to enhance organization efficiency.

Crosier (1950) threw the light to the management community by defining the organization as imperfect social compromises. Far from being scientific constructs, he depicted a complex organization as a reflection of its actual degree of competency. Despite a growing interest of competency among mangers and human resource professionals in recent years, the modern competency movement in industrial-organizational psychology actually dates from the mid1950s and early 1970s. In that regard, Flanagans work (1954) and McClellands studies (1970) cited as two landmark efforts that originally invented the concept of competency. Concept maps were invented by Novak in the 1960s used as a teaching tool. Later in (1986), Trochim suggested the concept map into a strategic planning tool for use in the design of organizational components. Trochim's technique differs significantly from Novak's original school of thought. While Novak's maps are generated for an individual, Trochim's are generated by a group.

Sanghi (2004) in her book developing competencies stated that, the biggest challenge of any business is to sustain and grow. In order to compete it is essential to understand and analyse what kind of competencies a business needs. In any business, human resource is most crucial out of all the resources. Strategies can therefore only be effectively implemented if organizations have a competent workforce. Environmental imperatives are playing an important role in redefining the role of human resources (HR) to the tune of a changing environment. An effective HR strategy gives direction to bring in change in an orderly fashion. This can be done by developing a competency model and mapping each job incumbent on these competencies. Flanagan (1954) suggested that critical incidents technique as a precursor to the key methodology used in rigorous competency studies. Based on studies of US Air Force pilot performance, Flanagan concluded that the principle objective of job analysis procedures should be the determination of critical requirements. These requirements include those which have been demonstrated to have made the difference between success and failure in carrying out an important part of the job assigned in significant number of instances. From here, critical incidents technique was originally

discovered. Critical incidents itself can be defined as a set of procedures for systematically identifying behaviors that contribute to success or failure of individuals or organizations in specific situations. Flanagans work, while not strictly about competencies, was important

because it laid the foundation for a new approach to examining what people do. In a later form, the critical incidents technique would resurface to focus around significant behavioral events that distinguish between exemplary and fully-successful performers. It is Flanagans critical incidents technique that sixteen years later inspires McClelland to discover and develop the term of Competency.


Competency for business is having personnel with the ability to execute the principles, skills, behaviors, processes and techniques needed to perform a given task, procedure or set of tasks to achieve your desired results. Competence is shown in action in a situation and context that might be different the next time a person has to act. In emergency contexts, competent people will react to the situation following behaviors they have previously found to succeed, hopefully to good effect. To be competent a person needs to be able to interpret the situation in the context and to have a repertoire of possible actions to take and have trained in the possible actions in the repertoire, if this is relevant. Regardless of training, competence grows through experience and the extent of an individual to learn and adapt. This study is in reference to IT industry as there are many factors which can contribute in enhancing the organizational efficiency of the organization.


The study endeavors to identify the different factors of Competency Mapping affecting organizational efficiency with special reference to IT industries.

The Study In the present study is an exploratory research which identifies factors for competency building with special reference to IT industry.

The Sample The Sample of 100 employees has been collected from different IT companies. Dias Park, CSC, Infobeans, Gate6, Accenture & Infosys.

Tools for Data Collection The research was carried out through survey method. A well structured, close ended and well designed questionnaire was utilized to get clear idea of respondents perception. The respondents were asked to respond on Likert Scale (Five Point Scale) ranging from Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree. Cronbachs Alpha Test (Cronbach, 1951) was applied to check reliability before the questionnaire was administered for the final survey. An Alpha Coefficient of .60 is considered to be good reliability estimate of the instrument. In the present study Alpha Coefficient Value was found to be 0.80.

Tools for Data Analysis Data analysis was done using Factor Analysis with the help of SPSS software.

The scale was administered on 100 respondents and the scores obtained were subjected to factor analysis and ten factors were identified. These are Managerial Skills, Operational Skills, Participatory Skills, Team Management, Management Leadership, Inter Personnel Skills, Stress Coping Abilities, Communication Skills, Self-Effectiveness, Mentoring (Annexure 2) 1. Managerial Skills: This is measured by item 05, 16, 01, 12, 15. These are Stronger commitments to organization's goals improves productivity; Ability of system designing skills; Attributes that are required to take business decisions for achieving organization objectives; Positive feelings towards the jobs; Contribution of planning skills to enhance the efficiency of organization. The total factor was found to be 3.002 2. Operational Ability: This is measured by item 13,14,18,17. It is Execution of business process; Physical and mental health should be sound in the work place; decision making; Understand and satisfy the customer need. The total factor load was found to be 2.323. 3. Participative Skills: This is measured by items 07,02,03,30. These are To carry out assigned roles and responsibilities; Taking initiatives to enhance organizational efficiency; Development of wide range of abilities; Participate in giving feedbacks. The total factor

load was found to be 2.268. 4. Team Management: This is measured by items 23, 22. It is Team work for attaining the organizational goals; Analyses of data & information. The total factor load was found to be 1.624. 5. Management Leadership: This is measured by items 21,27,20,19. These items are Empowering the subordinates; Rely on the peer group for task completion; Inspire the peer group for effective and efficient work; Maintaining contacts and relationship with other people. The total factor load was found to be 2.368. 6. Inter Personnel Skills: This is measured by items 10, 04, 11, 09. These items are Carry out the assigned activities which contribute to organizational efficiency; Inter-group meetings are arranged to reduce to destructive effects of inter-group conflicts; Certain skills develop when adequate opportunities are given at work; Willingness in work contributes in enhancing the efficiency of organization. The total factor load was found to be 2.448. 7. Stress Coping Abilities: This is measured by items 29, 28. It is Cope up with the stress, frustration and hostility in a better way; efficient in the skills pertaining to job. The total load was found to be 1.400. 8. Communication Skills: This is measured by items 25, 24. It is Express ideas, feelings clearly & efficiently with oral and written means; Valuation of suggestions at the time of interaction. The total factor load was found to be 1.536. 9. Self Effectiveness: This is measured by item 26, 06. It is Creative Thinking; Long term Planning. The total factor load was found to be 1.275. 10. Mentoring: This is measured by item 08. It is Counseling helps in enhancing the efficiency of organization. The total factor load was found to be 0.726.

The conclusions have been drawn in the light of objectives which were framed for carrying out present study. The study has successfully achieved its objective as concluded below. The total factor load of Managerial Skills was 3.00 which is highest among all other factor loads. Therefore, managerial skills contribute in enhancing the efficiency of the IT firms.


The study provides the following important implication for researches as well as practitioners. The findings of the study have thrown up number of possible applications for practitioners as well as for the academicians. Such applications are convinced as implications of the study for facilitating the conversion of knowledge into wisdom. Competency Mapping is found to be associated with a wide variety of beneficial organizational responses and better managerial effectiveness. With it Competency Mapping also helps in core HR functions like, candidate appraisal for recruitment, employee potential appraisal for promotion or functional shift, employee training need identification, employee performance diagnostic and employee self development initiatives. The policy makers and the top management of organizations can utilize from the present study for understanding the role of competency mapping in facilitating to contribute towards enhancing the efficiency of individual as well as of the organization.

The Handbook of Competency Mapping: Understanding, Designing and Implementing Competency Models in Organizations- by Seema Sanghi by Sage Publications Pvt. Ltd; Second Edition (November 5, 2007)

Crosier, M. (1950).

Review on the modern competency movement in industrial-

organizational psychology.

Flanagans (1954) and McClellands Dave (1970). Studied and originally invented the concept of competency.

Trochim William (1986), concept of map into a strategic planning tool for use in the designing of organizational components.

Flanagan John (1954), a seminal article published about Critical Incidents Technique as a precursor to the key methodology used in rigorous competency studies.

Bloom Benjamin (USA) (1950) identifies educational objectives by defining KSA, s needed to be developed in education.

Boyatzis Richard (1980) stated the first empirically-based and fully-researched book on competency model developments.

McClelland David (Harvard Psychologist) (1973) stated pioneered the Competency Movement across the world and made it a global concept.

McClelland, D.C. and Boyatzis, R.E. (1982), The leadership motive pattern and long term success in management, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 67 No. 6, pp. 737-43.


WEB-BIBLIOGRAPHY Competency Mapping Competency Development Guidebook


Annexure 1 : Rotated Component Matrix


Annexure 2: Analysis of the Study





F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10

Managerial Skills Inter Personnel Skills Management Leadership Operational Abilities Participative Skills Team Management Communication Skills Stress Coping Abilities Self-Effectiveness Mentoring

05, 16, 01, 12, 15 10, 04, 11, 09 21,27,20,19 13,14,18,17 07,02,03,30 23, 22 25, 24 29, 28 26, 06 08

3.00 2.44 2.36 2.32 2.26 1.62 1.53 1.40 1.27 0.72


Annexure 3 : Competency Mapping - Scale

Dear Madam/ Sir We are conducting survey in "A Study On Factor affecting On selection of Internet Service Preovider. A set of questionnaire is here with enclosed for you. Your kind cooperation is needed in filling them up. The questionnaire is designed to know your opinion in general. Please note it is not the test of your intelligence. There is no right or wrong answer. The data is being collected for purely academic purpose. Thanking You, Yours sincerely,

Shekh Zeeshan Iqwal

General Information Name (Optional): _________________________ Age: ______ Gender: ____ Qualification: ___________________ Name of the Organization: ____________________ Designation: ________________________ Experience: ____________________ SCALE Instructions: Keeping the organization in which you are working in mind, please write the number of 'your choice against each statement. This scale is not a test of your intelligence as there is no right or wrong answers. 1.Strongly Disagree 2. Disagree 3. Neutral 4. Agree 5. Strongly Agree


S.No. STATEMENTS Does Bandwidth play an important role in 1. Broadband speeds are concerned.

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree

Strongly Agree


Do you have determined your budget, While using Internet Services? . Is your Internet Service Provider gives you the


fast access?

Are you satisfied with your present Internet 4. Service Provider? Do you think that use of the broad band net 5. connector improves your work Efficiency?


Is Tariff attracting you for choosing your service provider?

Is Network Coverage playing an Important role 7. while choosing your service provider? Are you wanted to switch another service 8. provider? Is your service provider upgrade their offer 9. regularly? Is your data actually reaches your destination 10. by usages of Packet loss? Is your internet service provider reliable for 11. you? Is Feasible cost an important features which 12. satisfied the consumer provided by Internet Service Provider?

Physical and psychological health is an 13. important factor which constitutes in

organizational efficiency. Business function processes are executed by you 14. efficiently. Do your planning skills contribute to enhance the 15. efficiency of organization? You possess the ability of system designing skills. 16. You effectively understand and satisfy your 17. customers needs & requirements? Are you able to decide optimal course of action 18. for any situation? You rely on your peer group/subordinate for 19. effective completion of your responsibilities? Are you able to inspire your peer group or 20. subordinates to accomplish the task effectively? Do you empower the subordinates for operations 21. that contribute in enhancing organizational efficiency? For attaining the organization objectives, you 22. can comfortably work in a team. Are you good at understanding and interpreting 23. data and information? Are you able to express ideas, feelings clearly 24. & efficiently with oral and written means?


Is your suggestion/s valued during interaction? Your creative thinking contributes to organizational


efficiency. Maintaining contacts & relationships with


people from other domain is important.


Are you able to cope up with the stress, 28. frustration and hostility in a better way? How efficient you are in the skills pertaining to 29. your job? Do you believe in giving and receiving the 30. feedbacks?