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Hopkins: Advanced Television Systems

ADVANCED TELEVISION SYSTEMS

Robert Hopkins United States Advanced Television Systems Committee

ABSTRACT This paper was f i r s t presented as a t u t o r i a l t o engineers a t t h e Federal Communications Commission (FCC) i n January 1987 t o acquaint them with t h e progress i n advanced t e l e v i s i o n systems. I t was r e v i s e d and presented as a workshop paper a t t h e NAB Convention i n March 1987 f o r t h e broadcasting community. Because of t h e high l e v e l of a c t i v i t y on advanced t e l e v i s i o n systems, i t is now f u r t h e r r e v i s e d f o r t h e consumer e l e c t r o n i c s community. This paper reviews t h e NTSC t e l e v i s i o n system, improved NTSC, component systems, t h e 1125/60 high d e f i n i t i o n t e l e v i s i o n (HDTV) s t u d i o system, and proposals f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g HDTV programs t o t h e public.
BACKGROUND

e s t a b l i s h an understanding of MAC systems before covering t h e proposed HDTV transmission systems. The 525/60 B-MAC system w i l l b e reviewed i n t h i s section. The next t o p i c w i l l b e t h e 1125 l i n e s p e r frame, 60 f i e l d s p e r second, 2 : l i n t e r l a c e d scan, HDTV s t u d i o system, t h e only HDTV s t u d i o system t h a t has been designed and marketed. Standards e f f o r t s i n t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) have concentrated on a s t u d i o standard as a f i r s t priority. Broadcasting high d e f i n i t i o n t e l e v i s i o n programs The general t o t h e p u b l i c is t h e f i n a l topic. approaches w i l l b e noted followed by d e s c r i p t i o n s of s p e c i f i c proposals. The similarities and d i f f e r e n c e s of t h e proposals are examined. The r e f e r e n c e materials used t o prepare t h i s paper are l i s t e d by t o p i c a t t h e end of t h e t e x t . For t h o s e wishing t o study advanced t e l e v i s i o n systems i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l , t h e s e papers, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e f e r e n c e s c i t e d i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l papers, would c o n s t i t u t e a remarkable l i b r a r y .

The 525 l i n e s p e r frame, 60 f i e l d s p e r second, 2:l i n t e r l a c e d scan t e l e v i s i o n system has been s e r v i n g t h e United S t a t e s p u b l i c f o r almost 50 years. Performance of t h i s t e l e v i s i o n system has improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y over t h e years, c l e a r l y one of t h e reasons f o r its long l i f e . The most s i g n i f i c a n t s i n g l e improvement was t h e a d d i t i o n of color. Engineers were able t o add c o l o r information t o t h e black and white s i g n a l without i n c r e a s i n g t h e transmission bandwidth. To achieve t h i s , luminance information was decreased and a s u b c a r r i e r , containing c o l o r information, was introduced. The r e s u l t f o r black and white r e c e i v e r s was lower r e s o l u t i o n and t h e appearance of a dot s t r u c t u r e , a l o s s t h a t was considered t o be acceptable. Other improvements have taken many forms and arise from c o n s t a n t l y expanding technology. Both pickup devices and d i s p l a y devices have improved dramatically. S o l i d state circuits now perform complex f u n c t i o n s which were n o t p o s s i b l e when t h e system was designed. Current technology w i l l permit another s i g n i f i c a n t improvement, high d e f i n i t i o n t e l e v i s i o n . Although everyone recognizes t h a t HDTV is h e r e t o s t a y , t h e r e have been many debates on t h e need f o r i t , t h e p r e c i s e timing of various s e r v i c e s and, of course, t h e t e c h n i c a l standards. This paper w i l l f i r s t review t h e NTSC system and p o i n t o u t some of t h e a r t i f a c t s . Proposals t h a t have been made t o improve t h e NTSC system w i l l b e examined.
A review of multiplexed analog components (MAC) w i l l follow. MAC systems have been proposed f o r d i r e c t broadcast s a t e l l i t e (DBS) s e r v i c e s i n s e v e r a l p a r t s of t h e world. Also, some of t h e proposed HDTV transmission systems use MAC technology. I t is appropriate, t h e r e f o r e , t o
Contributed Paper Manuscript received December 3, 1987.

Although many people are n o t aware of t h i s f a c t , t h e r e have been two NTSC's. The f i r s t National Television System Committee was convened- around i940 t o e s t a l i s h &e t e c h n i c a l standards f o r an American black and white t e l e v i s i o n system. The agreed upon standards were 525 l i n e s per frame, 60 f i e l d s p e r second, 2 : l i n t e r l a c e d scan and 4:3 aspect r a t i o . The f i e l d frequency was p r e c i s e l y 60 Hertz. Channel spacing f o r broadcasting was set a t 6.0 MHz. The p i c t u r e carrier frequency was 1.25 MHz above t h e lower end of t h e channel. The maximum video bandwidth t r a n s m i t t e d was 4.2 MHz. V e s t i g i a l sideband amplitude modulation (VSB-AM) was chosen s i n g l e sideband f o r t h e upper frequency components and double sideband f o r t h e lower frequency components. The sound c a r r i e r frequency was set 4.5 MHz above t h e p i c t u r e carrier frequency.

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The second NTSC was convened i n t h e e a r l y 1950's t o e s t a b l i s h t e c h n i c a l standards f o r an American c o l o r t e l e v i s i o n system. The black and white parameters were maintained with t h e exception of t h e h o r i z o n t a l scanning frequency and t h u s t h e Each frequency was increased f i e l d frequency 0.1%. This w i l l be explained later i n t h i s paper.

The c o l o r information was added t o t h e black and white s i g n a l by i n s e r t i n g a subcarrier modulated i n quadrature by two color-difference s i g n a l s . The two color-difference s i g n a l s , c a l l e d t h e I and Q signals, are i n quadrature on a c o l o r diagram. The I s i g n a l was s p e c i f i e d with a bandwidth of about 1.5 MHz while t h e Q s i g n a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n was only .5 MHz. The human eye has g r e a t e r c o l o r

0098 3063/88/0200 O001$01.00

0 1988 IEEE

IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 34, No. 1, FEBRUARY 1988

r e s o l u t i o n f o r c o l o r s n e a r t h e I a x i s than n e a r t h e Q a x i s and thus, t o conserve bandwidth, t h e s e axes were chosen. The equations f o r t h e luminance s i g n a l (Y) and t h e color-difference s i g n a l s are derived from t h e red, green and b l u e signals as f o l lows :
Y = 0.59G + 0.11B + 0.30R I = -0.27(B-Y) + 0.74(R-Y) Q = 0.41(B-Y) + 0.48(R-Y)

2)

3) 4) 5)

progressive scanning i n camera and d i s p l a y maintaining t h e i n t e r l a c e d scan transmission, pre-combing luminance and chrominance p r i o r t o transmission, t h e F'ukinuki proposal which s a c r i f i c e s a small amount of c o l o r information t o i n c r e a s e t h e luminance information, and t h e QUME proposal, quadrature modulation of t h e p i c t u r e carrier with new information.

Progressive Scan i n Display The c o l o r s u b c a r r i e r frequency ( f C) was chosen t o b e an odd m u l t i p l e of one hal!? t h e h o r i z o n t a l scanning frequency ( f H) t o minimize t h e appearance of t h e subcarrier i n t h e p i c t u r e . The m u l t i p l e was a l s o selected t o have small f a c t o r s . The r e s u l t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p is given by: fSC = (13) (7) ( 5 ) / 2 fH = 455/2 fH This frequency is about 3.58 MHz. Since there were concerns t h a t t h e c o l o r s u b c a r r i e r and sound carrier would cause mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e , and t h a t t h e sound carrier frequency could n o t b e changed and maintain c o m p a t i b i l i t y with r e c e i v e r s already i n use, t h e h o r i z o n t a l scanning frequency (and t h u s t h e f i e l d frequency) was changed. The c o l o r s u b c a r r i e r was i n t e r l e a v e d with t h e sound carrier t o minimize i n t e r f e r e n c e . The r a t i o of t h e sound carrier frequency (fA) and t h e h o r i z o n t a l scanning frequency had been: fA/fH = 4,500,000/15,750
= 285.71
A l l c u r r e n t t e l e v i s i o n systems use 2 : l i n t e r l a c e scanning. Two v e r t i c a l scans, o r f i e l d s , are

r e q u i r e d t o complete one p i c t u r e , o r frame, of t h e picture. Each f i e l d contains h a l f t h e scanning lines. The f i r s t f i e l d provides every o t h e r l i n e of t h e frame; t h e second f i e l d contains t h e o t h e r set of every o t h e r l i n e . Figure 3 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e 525 l i n e 2:l i n t e r l a c e d scanning raster.
A progressive scan system ( a l s o c a l l e d s e q u e n t i a l

scan) c o n t a i n s a l l t h e scanning l i n e s i n each f i e l d . Scanning a l l 525 l i n e s each f i e l d produces a better p i c t u r e than i n t e r l a c e d scanning but i t
doubles t h e bandwidth. The p i c t u r e can b e improved by converting t h e i n t e r l a c e d scan s i g n a l i n t o a progressive scan s i g n a l . With twice t h e number of scan l i n e s , t h e scan l i n e v i s i b i l i t y decreases by a f a c t o r of two. This does n o t i n c r e a s e t h e s i g n a l r e s o l u t i o n b u t i t does i n c r e a s e t h e perceived r e s o l u t i o n by improving t h e Kell Factor. The easiest way t o implement t h i s improvement i s t o d i s p l a y every scan l i n e t w i c e during t h e normal scan l i n e period. One l i n e s t o r e is required and t h e h o r i z o n t a l scanning frequency is doubled. However, diagonal l i n e s i n t h e p i c t u r e become distorted.
A f u r t h e r improvement,

The h o r i z o n t a l scanning frequency was changed so t h a t t h e sound carrier frequency would b e an even m u l t i p l e of t h e h o r i z o n t a l scanning frequency. The f a c t o r c l o s e s t t o 285.71 s a t i s f y i n g t h i s The new f i e l d requirement, 286, was selected. frequency was p r e c i s e l y 1000/1001 times 60 H e r t z , o r 59.94 Hertz. Figure 1 is a block diagram of an NTSC encoder while Figure 2 is a diagram of t h e spectrum of t h e t r a n s m i t t e d NTSC s i g n a l . The manner i n which t h e c o l o r information was added g i v e s rise t o some of t h e a r t i f a c t s observed i n t h e NTSC system. High s p a t i a l frequencies i n t h e imaged scene can produce luminance information which is t r e a t e d by t h e NTSC decoder as i f i t were c o l o r information. A wide bandwidth luminance channel i n a r e c e i v e r can cause t h e subcarrier t o b e displayed as a dot s t r u c t u r e . I n both cases, t h e a r t i f a c t s come about because of t h e mutual i n t e r f e r e n c e of t h e luminance s i g n a l and t h e c o l o r signal. Another a r t i f a c t arises from i n t e r l a c e d scanning. The raster appears t o slowly move up t h e screen and, once t h e human eye has locked onto t h i s movement, t h e r e s o l u t i o n of t h e p i c t u r e appears t o be lower. The scanning s t r u c t u r e becomes obvious. I f t h e viewer's eye follows o b j e c t s i n motion i n t h e displayed image, again, t h e r e s o l u t i o n of t h e p i c t u r e appears t o b e lower and t h e scanning s t r u c t u r e becomes obvious. IMPROVED NTSC The most promising concepts f o r improving NTSC are:

r e q u i r i n g two l i n e s t o r e s , i n s e r t s t h e average of two time-adjacent scan l i n e s between t h e s a i d two l i n e s . The d i s t o r t i o n of diagonal l i n e s is decreased.

Both of t h e s e techniques e f f e c t i v e l y create a new scan l i n e between t h e e x i s t i n g scan l i n e s . Note t h a t t h e r e is a scan l i n e i n t h i s l o c a t i o n , t h e scan l i n e i n t h e o t h e r f i e l d . This is i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 3. By adding a f i e l d s t o r e t h i s l i n e i n t h e o t h e r f i e l d can be displayed. This process r e s u l t s i n very good s t i l l p i c t u r e s . However, it a l s o produces motion d e f e c t s because t h e l i n e i n t h e o t h e r f i e l d is separated i n time by 1/60 of a second. Motion compensation c i r c u i t r y is required f o r best r e s u l t s . Progressive Scan i n Camera/Display with I n t e r l a c e d Scan Transmission S t i l l g r e a t e r p i c t u r e improvement can be obtained i f t h e camera and t h e d i s p l a y use progressive scan with t h e s i g n a l converted t o an i n t e r l a c e d scan s i g n a l p r i o r t o transmission. I n t h i s case e x t r a information is a v a i l a b l e a t t h e t r a n s m i t t i n g end t o process t h e transmitted l i n e s i n such a way t h a t , when t h e r e c e i v e r re-converts t h e s i g n a l t o progressive scan using a pre-determined process, t h e f i n a l p i c t u r e w i l l be improved. Even g r e a t e r b e n e f i t s could be obtained i f a u x i l i a r y d a t a were t r a n s m i t t e d t o t e l l t h e r e c e i v e r t h e b e s t way t o p u t t h e p i c t u r e t o g e t h e r again.

1) progressive scanning i n t h e d i s p l a y ,

Hopkins: Advanced Television Systems

This approach may create a problem f o r c u r r e n t r e c e i v e r s s i n c e t h e v e r t i c a l r e s o l u t i o n of t h e s i g n a l would b e higher than can b e displayed on a normal 525 l i n e i n t e r l a c e d scan receiver. The r e s u l t could be g r e a t e r a l i a s i n g . This technique does not r e q u i r e s t i l l another standard f o r s t u d i o cameras. The high d e f i n i t i o n t e l e v i s i o n s t u d i o s i g n a l can b e an i n p u t t o t h i s system with t h e s i g n a l scan converted t o 525 l i n e i n t e r l a c e d scan a n t i c i p a t i n g progressive scan i n t h e receiver. This approach, more scan l i n e s i n t h e camera and i n t h e d i s p l a y with i n t e r l a c e d scan transmission, has been proposed t o i n c r e a s e v e r t i c a l r e s o l u t i o n i n HDTV transmission systems. Pre-Combinq
An a r t i f a c t extremely v i s i b l e i n t h e NTSC system

p o r t i o n of t h e spectrum devoted t o c o l o r is poorly used and t h i s p o r t i o n could be dedicated t o high r e s o l u t i o n luminance information. This technique produces motion d e f e c t s and motion compensation c i r c u i t r y must b e included i n t h e r e c e i v e r . Figure 8 shows t h e t e l e v i s i o n s i g n a l i n a t h r e e dimensional r e p r e s e n t a t i o n with t h e h o r i z o n t a l scanning l i n e s p a r a l l e l t o t h e x-axis, v e r t i c a l scans p a r a l l e l t o t h e y-axis, and time t h e t h i r d dimension. In t h i s case, each f i e l d , separated i n time by 1/60 second, r e p r e s e n t s a plane. J u s t as t h e c o l o r subcarrier has a 180 phase s h i f t from l i n e t o l i n e as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 4, it a l s o h a s a 180 phase s h i f t from f i e l d t o f i e l d and frame t o frame. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c can b e used t o c a r r y c o l o r information with one phase s h i f t and high r e s o l u t i o n luminance information with another phase s h i f t . I f t h e s i g n a l is i n phase following a 262 l i n e delay, it is assumed t o b e c o l o r information as shown by t h e dashed l i n e s r i s i n g t o t h e r i g h t i n Figure 8. I f t h e s i g n a l is i n phase a f t e r a 263 l i n e delay, it is assumed t o b e high r e s o l u t i o n luminance information as shown by t h e dashed l i n e s f a l l i n g t o t h e r i g h t . The decoder block diagram is given i n Figure 9. S i g n a l s o u t of phase a f t e r a 262 l i n e delay are decoded as high r e s o l u t i o n information. Signals o u t of phase a f t e r a 263 l i n e delay are decoded as c o l o r information. Quadrature Modulation of t h e P i c t u r e Carrier The Wireless Research Laboratory of t h e Matsushita Electric Indus t r i a l Company proposed a Quadrature Modulating Ex tended d e f i n i t i o n t e l e v i s i o n s y s tem TQUME) i n w f h h quadrature modulation of t h e NTSC p i c t u r e carrier is used t o i n c r e a s e t h e h o r i z o n t a l r e s o l u t i o n o r t o i n c r e a s e t h e aspect r a t i o . The unmodulated p i c t u r e carrier is phase s h i f t e d by 900 and then modulated with t h e a d d i t i o n a l information signal. The r e s u l t i n g s i g n a l is band l i m i t e d , f i l t e r e d , and added t o t h e normally modulated p i c t u r e carrier. This process is shown i n Figure 10. Figure 1Oa is a diagram of t h e modulating circuit. Figure 1 b shows t h e band O l i m i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Figure 1Oc shows t h e f i l t e r characteristic. Figure 1Od is a diagram of t h e spectrum of t h e QUME s i g n a l .
A t t h e p o i n t of reception, a QUME r e c e i v e r would

r e s u l t s from i n t e r f e r e n c e between high frequency luminance information and t h e c o l o r s i g n a l . This occurs because of t h e overlapping s p e c t r a . I f t h e luminance and chrominance s i g n a l s are f i l t e r e d t o e l i m i n a t e overlapping s p e c t r a p r i o r t o t h e NTSC encoder, t h e s e a r t i f a c t s are g r e a t l y diminished. The phase of t h e c o l o r s u b c a r r i e r on successive scanning l i n e s is shown i n Figure 4. The phase s h i f t from one l i n e t o t h e next l i n e is e x a c t l y 180 s i n c e t h e c o l o r s u b c a r r i e r frequency is an odd m u l t i p l e of one-half t h e h o r i z o n t a l scanning frequency. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c can b e used i n s p e c i a l f i l t e r s , c a l l e d comb f i l t e r s , t o s e p a r a t e luminance and c o l o r information. I f t h e s i g n a l is i n phase from one l i n e t o t h e next l i n e , it is assumed t o b e luminance information. If the signal is o u t of phase from one l i n e t o t h e next l i n e , it is assumed t o b e c o l o r information. Figure 5 is a comb f i l t e r block diagram which w i l l pass only luminance information. The r e s u l t i n g I f the signal spectrum is shown i n Figure 6. between t h e delay l i n e s is i n v e r t e d p r i o r t o t h e adder, only t h e c o l o r information passes through the filter. The r e s u l t i n g spectrum is i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t shown i n Figure 6 except t h a t t h e n u l l s , r a t h e r than t h e peaks, occur a t m u l t i p l e s of t h e h o r i z o n t a l scanning frequency. C i r c u i t s f o r pre-combing luminance and chrominance . These c i r c u i t s s i g n a l s are shown i n Figure 7 could b e added t o Figure 1 a t t h e p o i n t s shown as "chrominance s i g n a l " and "luminance signal.'' It may not be a good p r a c t i c e , however, t o add t h e s e c i r c u i t s t o every camera s i n c e c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e i n t h e s t u d i o is t o use s e v e r a l NTSC encoders and decoders ( t o perform d i g i t a l video e f f e c t s , f o r example) which may degrade t h e s i g n a l . Such an improvement may be more a p p r o p r i a t e i n a component s t u d i o i n which NTSC encoding is done one time only, immediately p r i o r t o transmission. Proponents of t h i s improvement claim s i g n i f i c a n t improvements are v i s i b l e i n r e c e i v e r s with comb f i l t e r decoders. They f u r t h e r claim t h a t some improvements a r e seen with t r a d i t i o n a l receivers. Fukinuki Proposal

u s e a synchronous d e t e c t o r t o s e p a r a t e l y e x t r a c t t h e normal s i g n a l and t h e a d d i t i o n a l information s i g n a l and properly combine them t o produce an improved p i c t u r e . Current r e c e i v e r s with a synchronous d e t e c t o r would ignore t h e a d d i t i o n a l information s i g n a l . Current r e c e i v e r s with an envelope d e t e c t o r would d i s p l a y some c r o s s t a l k from t h e a d d i t i o n a l information s i g n a l . I n o r d e r t o decrease c r o s s t a l k , t h e f i l t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shown i n Figure 1Oc was chosen t o be symmetrical t o t h e f i l t e r a t t h e video IF stage. According t o Matsushita, t h e f i l t e r i n g reduces t h e amount of c r o s s t a l k about 10 dB.
MAC SYSTEMS

Dr. Fukinuki, Hitachi Central Research Laboratory, proposes i n t e r l e a v i n g higher d e f i n i t i o n luminance information with c o l o r i n much t h e same way as c o l o r information is already i n t e r l e a v e d with t h e luminance information. H points out that a e

Several d i f f e r e n t MAC systems have been proposed i n t h e standards e f f o r t s around t h e world. Their similarities are g r e a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s are i n t h e p r e c i s e choice of numbers. The 525/60 B-MAC system i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s paper.

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1'

I ,

IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 34, No. 1, FEBRUARY 1988

Before proceeding i t would b e h e l p f u l t o n o t e t h a t t e l e v i s i o n was developed p r i m a r i l y as a s e r v i c e f o r t h e public. A f t e r engineers reached agreement on t h e transmission parameters, b r o a d c a s t e r s used t h e same parameters t o make t e l e v i s i o n programs. It was convenient, perhaps mandatory, t o u s e t h e same format f o r s t u d i o production s i n c e s e p a r a t e components were d i f f i c u l t t o use because of timing constraints. As technology has advanced ( d i g i t a l video e f f e c t s ) t h e need f o r h i g h e r performance i n t h e s t u d i o h a s increased. S u f f i c i e n t headroom should e x i s t f o r f u l l transmission q u a l i t y a f t e r a 11 pos t-product ion.
MAC systems came about as a convenient way t o maintain s e p a r a t e components without having t o worry about maintaining t h e critical timing of t h r e e s e p a r a t e s i g n a l s on t h r e e s e p a r a t e cables. Figure 11 shows t h e B-MAC waveform. The luminance and c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e and m u l t i p l e d i g i t a l sound s i g n a l s a r e compressed i n time and placed on t h e same s i g n a l l i n e . Various MAC systems d i f f e r i n t h e i r compression r a t i o s , d a t a rates, and number of sound channels. B-MAC compresses luminance by t h e f a c t o r 3/2 and compresses c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e s i g n a l s by a f a c t o r of 3. S i x high q u a l i t y d i g i t a l sound channels are provided. The c o l o r system u s e s a l i n e s e q u e n t i a l format; t h e R-Y and B-Y s i g n a l s a r e c a r r i e d on alternate l i n e s .

a p p l i c a t i o n s of HDTV besides broadcasting. They conducted psychophysical experiments on t h e s i z e of s c r e e n , t h e a s p e c t r a t i o , t h e a n g l e of v i s i o n , t h e s e n s e of r e a l i t y , etc. A f t e r t h e experiments were completed NHK designed a system which met t h e requirements, t h e 1125/60 HIYPV system. Many people around t h e world support t h i s s y s t e m f o r a s i n g l e world-wide production standard. They argue t h a t a s i n g l e world-wide high d e f i n i t i o n e l e c t r o n i c production s t a n d a r d i s d e s i r a b l e , t h a t t h e 1125/60 system e x i s t s , and t h a t t h e 1125/60 system meets production requirements. Resolution is comparable t o 35mm r e l e a s e s , a world s t a n d a r d f o r motion p i c t u r e s . Figure 1 2 lists parameters agreed on f o r a high d e f i n i t i o n t e l e v i s i o n s t u d i o u s i n g t h e 1125/60 parameters; NHK o r i g i n a l l y proposed t h e following b a s i c parameters: 1125 l i n e s p e r frame 60 f i e l d s p e r second 2:l i n t e r l a c e d scan 5:3 a s p e c t r a t i o The number of l i n e s was s e l e c t e d t o b e g r e a t e r than 1000 b u t n o t twice 525 o r 625, a compromise between t h e two scanning s t a n d a r d s i n e x i s t e n c e today. They chose 60 f i e l d s p e r second, r a t h e r than 50 f i e l d s p e r second, because of t h e reduced f l i c k e r and t h e h i g h e r temporal sampling r a t e . They s e l e c t e d i n t e r l a c e scanning over p r o g r e s s i v e scanning because of t h e reduced bandwidth. They b e l i e v e d t h e a s p e c t r a t i o should b e a t l e a s t 5:3, perhaps as wide a s 2:1, and s e l e c t e d 5:3. S t u d i e s i n t h e United S t a t e s supported each of t h e s e parameters except t h e a s p e c t r a t i o . The U.S. proposed an a s p e c t r a t i o of 16:9 t o g i v e g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y i n s h o o t i n g and r e l e a s i n g a program. By u s i n g a "shoot and p r o t e c t " scheme with a 16:9 a s p e c t r a t i o , r e l e a s e s could b e made conveniently i n any a s p e c t r a t i o between 4:3 and 2.35:l. I f t h e master has a 16:9 a s p e c t r a t i o , a 4:3 a s p e c t r a t i o release would u s e t h e f u l l h e i g h t of t h e master and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e width a s shown i n Figure 13. A r e l e a s e w i t h 2.35:l a s p e c t r a t i o would u s e t h e f u l l width of t h e master and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e h e i g h t , a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 13. Releases w i t h an a s p e c t r a t i o between t h e s e two extremes would u s e e i t h e r t h e f u l l width or t h e f u l l height. The o u t e r r e c t a n g l e r e p r e s e n t s t h e The i n n e r r e c t a n g l e 16:9 a s p e c t r a t i o master. r e p r e s e n t s t h e image a r e a i n which t h e critical p o r t i o n s of t h e image should b e contained. S e v e r a l e n g i n e e r s wanted a p r o g r e s s i v e scanning format t o be used, arguing t h a t post-production would b e e a s i e r and a r t i f a c t s would be reduced. However, with t w i c e t h e number of l i n e s per f i e l d , t h e bandwidth doubles, a s e r i o u s problem. Camera Video s e n s i t i v i t y , already l i m i t e d , is reduced. t a p e r e c o r d e r s cannot handle t h e e x t r a bandwidth. Most e n g i n e e r s f e l t t h a t t h e number of l i n e s should n o t b e decreased below 1000 t o compensate f o r t h e g r e a t e r bandwidth. On t h e o t h e r hand, some argued t h a t i f t h e bandwidth were t o b e doubled, it would b e p r e f e r a b l e t o continue t o u s e i n t e r l a c e d scanning b u t with t w i c e t h e number of lines.
" K proposed t h a t t h e s t u d i o system have s e p a r a t e

The B-MAC system can accommodate t h e wider a s p e c t r a t i o of 16:9. Consider f i r s t t h e compression and expansion technique used when a 4:3 a s p e c t r a t i o s i g n a l is displayed. Each l i n e of t h e luminance s i g n a l , 750 samples, is placed i n a l i n e s t o r e w i t h a 910 fH clock. The samples a r e removed from t h e l i n e s t o r e with a 1365 fH clock, compressing A t the t h e luminance s i g n a l by t h e f a c t o r 3/2. decoder t h e 750 samples a r e placed i n a l i n e s t o r e with a 1365 f H clock and removed from t h e l i n e s t o r e f o r d i s p l a y with a 910 fH c l o c k , t h u s expanding t h e luminance s i g n a l by t h e f a c t o r 3/2 and r e s t o r i n g its o r i g i n a l form. The i d e n t i c a l process is used when a 16:9 a s p e c t r a t i o s i g n a l is d i s p l a y e d on a 16:9 a s p e c t r a t i o monitor. If, however, t h e 16:9 a s p e c t r a t i o s i g n a l is displayed on a 4:3 a s p e c t r a t i o monitor, t h e decoder must expand t h e luminance s i g n a l by t h e f a c t o r (3/2) (16/9) / (4/3) = 2 In t h i s case, a f t e r t h e 750 samples are placed i n a l i n e s t o r e i n t h e decoder with a 1365 fH c l o c k , t h e samples are removed from t h e l i n e s t o r e f o r d i s p l a y with a 1365/2 fH clock. Pan and scan is accomplished by having t h e s i g n a l i n c l u d e d a t a t e l l i n g t h e decoder which p o r t i o n of t h e s i g n a l t o display.
MAC

systems can o f f e r h i g h e r performance than composite systems because of s e p a r a t i o n of t h e luminance and color-dif ference s i g n a l s , i n c l u s i o n of f u l l bandwidth luminance, and r e s u l t i n g l a c k of cross-modulation. On t h e n e g a t i v e side, c o l o r v e r t i c a l r e s o l u t i o n is lower because of t h e l i n e s e q u e n t i a l format. Also, baseband bandwidth i s i n c r e a s e d by t h e luminance compression r a t i o , 50% f o r B-MAC. 1125/60 HDTV STUDIO SYSTEM

NHK, t h e Japan Broadcasting Corporation, has been studying and developing HDTV f o r s e v e r a l years.

Their s c i e n t i s t s

assumed t h a t

t h e r e were many

luminance and color-dif ference s i g n a l s .

However ,

Hopkins: Advanced Television Systems

t h e bandwidths being considered today are g r e a t e r The Advanced than those f i r s t proposed by NHK. Television Systems Committee (ATSC) suggested t h a t sampled r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h e s i g n a l should b e s p e c i f i e d a s well as s p e c i f i c bandwidths. The European Broadcasting Union ( B U ) suggested t h a t only sampled r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s should be s p e c i f i e d . In o r d e r t o decide how many samples p e r l i n e should be used, t h e ATSC argued t h a t t h e CCIR has defined HDTV as having about twice t h e h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l r e s o l u t i o n of c u r r e n t t e l e v i s i o n systems. CCIR Recommendation 601 s p e c i f i e s 720 luminance samples during t h e a c t i v e l i n e and h a l f t h a t number f o r each of t h e two c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e s i g n a l s f o r c u r r e n t t e l e v i s i o n systems. Twice t h e r e s o l u t i o n would then imply twice 720 samples m u l t i p l i e d by t h e r a t i o of a s p e c t r a t i o s (16:9 divided by 4:3) r e s u l t i n g i n 1920 samples p e r a c t i v e l i n e f o r t h e luminance and h a l f t h a t number f o r each of t h e two c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e s i g n a l s . The r e s u l t i n g bandwidths would be about 30 MHz f o r luminance and 1 5 MHz f o r each c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e signal. Recently, t h e Society of Motion P i c t u r e and Television Fhgineers (SMPTE) decided t h a t t h e bandwidths should be 30 MHz f o r t h e luminance and f o r each of t h e c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e s i g n a l s .

HDTV TRANSMISSION

HDTV programs w i l l be d i s t r i b u t e d v i a VCR, video d i s c , o p t i c a l / e l e c t r i c a l cable systems, DBS, and terrestrial transmission. The most d i f f i c u l t w i l l be terrestrial transmission because of standards and r e g u l a t o r y issues. However, it is m opinion y t h a t t h e t e r r e s t r i a l broadcasters w i l l f i n d a way t o make s i g n i f i c a n t improvements i n t h e t e c h n i c a l q u a l i t y of t h e i r transmissions when t h e o t h e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o u t l e t s begin using HDTV.
W i l l t h e t e c h n i c a l standards f o r each of t h e s e media b e t h e same? There may be advantages i f they are t h e same, b u t it is n o t clear t h a t they must be t h e same. Bandwidth is most l i m i t e d f o r t e r r e s t r i a l transmission and compromises w i l l be necessary. I n audio systems, sound i n p u t devices (FM r a d i o , AM r a d i o , TV sound, LP's, C D ' s , reel t o reel r e c o r d e r s , cassette r e c o r d e r s ) vary widely b u t feed a common a m p l i f i e r and speakers. Perhaps t h e consumer HDTV system w i l l c o n s i s t of a d i s p l a y driven by a frame s t o r e w i t h m u l t i p l e i n p u t s t o t h e frame s t o r e (NTSC, HDTV-VCR, HDTV-UHF).

"he ATSC a l s o proposed t h a t t h e sampling frequency should be 74.25 MHz which r e s u l t s i n 2200 samples per t o t a l line. With 1920 samples i n t h e a c t i v e l i n e , 280 samples are l e f t f o r blanking, 3.77 @. These f i g u r e s a r e being s p e c i f i e d by t h e various standards o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r t h e 1125/60 system.
The s t a n d a r d s o r g a n i z a t i o n s are s p e c i f y i n g SMPTE "C" colorimetry. The equation f o r t h e luminance is:
Y = 0.701G + 0.087B + 0.212R

This equation a p p l i e s following gamma c o r r e c t i o n , a l s o f u l l y specified. The gamma was n o t f u l l y s p e c i f i e d i n t h e NTSC system.

NHK proposed a new concept f o r t h e synchronizing signal, a t h r e e l e v e l s i g n a l shown i n Figure 14. The p r e c i s e timing information is c a r r i e d by z e r o
c r o s s i n g s between negative and p o s i t i v e p u l s e s r a t h e r than negative going edges. NHK b e l i e v e s t h e timing accuracy improves s i g n i f i c a n t l y with t h i s waveform. The ATSC agreed i n March 1985 t o recommend t o t h e U.S. Department of S t a t e t h a t t h e 1125/60 system be proposed t o t h e CCIR as a s i n g l e world-wide standard f o r HDTV studios. A f t e r t h e US . . CCIR National Committee unanimously agreed, t h i s was submitted t o t h e CCIR as t h e U.S. p o s i t i o n . The governments of Canada and Japan submitted similar positions. A t t h e CCIR Plenary Assembly meeting i n Dubrovnik i n May 1986 t h e d e c i s i o n on a s t u d i o standard was postponed u n t i l t h e end of t h e next Study Period, 1990. The Plenary Assembly agreed unanimously t o a t t a c h t h e s e parameters t o CCIR Report 801 making them t h e only parameters so acknowledged i n Report 801. Since t h e time of t h e Plenary Assembly, a c t i v i t i e s around t h e world suggest t h a t t h e 1125/60 system w i l l become a de f a c t o standard f o r 60 Hz HDTV studios. Standards o r g a n i z a t i o n s are proceeding t o document t h e system as a standard. What is not c l e a r is whether t h e system w i l l be accepted as a s i n g l e world-wide standard.

Compatibility is a term t h a t is o f t e n used and t o o o f t e n misused. I propose t h a t w d e f i n e l e v e l s of e compatibility r e l a t e d t o receivers. The highest l e v e l (LEVEL 5) is represented by a system which allows HDTV transmissions t o be received by an NTSC r e c e i v e r and displayed as an HDTV p i c t u r e . Although t h i s seems absurd, t h e concept r e p r e s e n t s t h e h i g h e s t a t t a i n a b l e l e v e l of c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The next lower l e v e l (LEVEL 4) is represented by a system which allows HDTV transmissions t o be received by an NTSC r e c e i v e r and displayed with t h e same q u a l i t y as c u r r e n t NTSC transmissions. LEVEL 3 is represented by a system which allows HDTV transmissions t o be received by an NTSC r e c e i v e r and displayed with reduced performance when compared with t h e p i c t u r e from an NTSC transmission t h i s was t h e s i t u a t i o n when t h e United S t a t e s added c o l o r t o t h e black and white t e l e v i s i o n transmissions. LEVEL 2 is represented by a system which allows HDTV transmissions t o b e r e c e i v e d and displayed by an NTSC r e c e i v e r using a low c o s t a d a p t e r box t h i s was t h e s i t u a t i o n LEVEL 1 is when UHF transmissions f i r s t began. represented by a system which r e q u i r e s a high c o s t a d a p t e r box, perhaps so expensive t h a t consumers would p r e f e r t o purchase t h e new system. In t h e cases of LEVEL 2 and LEVEL 1, I assume t h a t a new r e c e i v e r can be designed t o o p e r a t e on both t h e c u r r e n t system and t h e HDTV system. LEVEL 0 is t h e lowest l e v e l and t h e only l e v e l which I would c a l l non-compatible. It is represented by a system with which NTSC r e c e i v e r s cannot d i s p l a y HDTV transmissions i n any form, even with adapter boxes, and new r e c e i v e r s cannot d i s p l a y an NTSC transmission. The l e v e l s of c o m p a t i b i l i t y a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 15.

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I b e l i e v e t h a t high performance HDTV transmission systems w i l l have lower l e v e l s of compatibility. Also, I b e l i e v e t h a t high l e v e l c o m p a t i b i l i t y systems w i l l be lower performance H E " systems. This must be acknowledged when making a decision. The trade-off is today's l e v e l of c o m p a t i b i l i t y v e r s u s tomorrow's l e v e l of performance.
CCIR R e p o r t 801 d e f i n e s HDTV i n comparison with c u r r e n t t e l e v i s i o n systems a s having t w i c e t h e v e r t i c a l s p a t i a l resolution, t w i c e t h e horizontal s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n , separate c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e and

IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 34, No. 1, FEBRUARY 1988

luminance s i g n a l s , improved c o l o r r e n d i t i o n , wider a s p e c t r a t i o , and m u l t i p l e channel high f i d e l i t y sound. I f one assumes t h e s e requirements f o r t h e t r a n s m i t t e d s i g n a l , t h e bandwidth (BW) of t h e luminance s i g n a l becomes:
B = (4.2) ( 2 ) (2) ( 1 6 / 9 ) / ( 4 / 3 ) MHz = 22.4 MHz W

M S Proposal UE M u l t i p l e Sub-Nyquist Encoding (MUSE) was proposed f o r DBS "V fiansmission. The signal is d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from t h e 1125/60 s t u d i o system. The luminance and c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e s i g n a l s are band l i m i t e d then sampled. One o u t of every f o u r samples is t r a n s m i t t e d each f i e l d and, a f t e r f o u r f i e l d s , every sample is transmitted. During each l i n e 373 a c t u a l luminance samples a r e transmitted. The minimum h o r i z o n t a l spacing of samples is about 1/1500 of t h e p i c t u r e width. The minimum v e r t i c a l spacing of samples i s about 1/1035 of t h e p i c t u r e height. T h i s p r o c e s s , d e p i c t e d i n Figure 16, produces high r e s o l u t i o n s t i l l p i c t u r e s b u t t h e r e s o l u t i o n of o b j e c t s i n motion is lower than t h e r e s o l u t i o n of s t a t i o n a r y o b j e c t s .

6 NHK

The HDTV luminance bandwidth, compared t o t h e NTSC 4.2 M z luminance bandwidth, is i n c r e a s e d by two H f a c t o r s of two because of t h e doubled v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l r e s o l u t i o n and by t h e degree t o which t h e HDTV a s p e c t r a t i o , 16:9, exceeds t h e NTSC a s p e c t r a t i o , 4:3. Recognizing t h a t 22.4 M z H bandwidth is r e q u i r e d merely f o r t h e luminance signal an a d d i t i o n a l bandwidth of 5-10 MHz would be needed f o r t h e s e p a r a t e c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e s i g n a l s and about 0.6 MHz would b e needed f o r high f i d e l i t y d i g i t a l s t e r e o sound i t seems clear t h a t t h e t a s k of "compressing1' t h i s amount of information t o f i t within t h e c u r r e n t 6 MHz NTSC channel is d i f f i c u l t . Many o r g a n i z a t i o n s are s e a r c h i n g f o r a transmission system which, i n t h e i r view, r e p r e s e n t s an a p p r o p r i a t e compromise i n bandwidth, q u a l i t y , complexity, and l e v e l of compatibility. The compromises taken by any one o r g a n i z a t i o n may r e s u l t i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which In t h i s do n o t meet t h e d e f i n i t i o n given above. paper, I do n o t i n t e n d t o p a s s judgment on t h e compromises and w i l l r e f e r t o a l l t h e proposals examined below a s "HDTV transmission s y s tems" s i n c e , i n each case, HDTV program m a t e r i a l is t h e i n p u t t o t h e transmission system.

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Receivers r e q u i r e a frame s t o r e . Motion d e t e c t o r s are used i n t h e encoder t o f u l l y compensate f o r some t y p e s of motion such as a camera pan. T h i s information is t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e r e c e i v e r as a d i g i t a l s i g n a l . The transmission i n c l u d e s d i g i t a l s t e r e o sound. Luminance and c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e s i g n a l s a r e s e p a r a t e i n a MAC format. The f u l l s i g n a l r e q u i r e s a baseband bandwidth of 8.1 MHz. The M S system was designed f o r F transmission. UE M However, t h e MST-NAB demonstration (Washington, DC, January 1987) used t h e M S system with VSBUE AM transmission occupying two U F channels (58 and H 59). The p i c t u r e c a r r i e r was set 3 MHz i n t o t h e 1 2 M z channel. H Consumer e l e c t r o n i c s manufacturers i n Japan a r e designing consumer equipment t o o p e r a t e with t h i s system. Plans a r e being made i n Japan f o r a DBS s e r v i c e , s t a r t i n g around 1990, u s i n g t h i s system.
B e l l L a b o r a t o r i e s Proposal B e l l Labs proposed a two channel system i n which t h e f i r s t channel c o n t a i n s an NTSC s i g n a l d e r i v e d from a high d e f i n i t i o n s i g n a l w i t h 1050 l i n e s . The 1050 l i n e s i g n a l , a f t e r v e r t i c a l f i l t e r i n g , is scan converted i n t o t h e 525 l i n e format. The h o r i z o n t a l r e s o l u t i o n of t h e s i g n a l t r a n s m i t t e d i n t h e f i r s t channel is normal NTSC. The second channel c o n t a i n s h i g h e r frequency luminance and c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e s i g n a l information. Horizontal r e s o l u t i o n of t h e combined s i g n a l s is e s s e n t i a l l y two times NTSC r e s o l u t i o n . B e l l claims an NTSC r e c e i v e r recovers t h e s i g n a l in t h e f i r s t channel with only s l i g h t degradation. A HDTV r e c e i v e r n recovers t h e s i g n a l s i n both channels and combines them i n a frame s t o r e scan c o n v e r t i n g t h e o u t p u t t o 1050 l i n e s producing a high d e f i n i t i o n p i c t u r e .
B e l l Labs claims t h e second channel has s u f f i c i e n t c a p a c i t y t o t r a n s m i t m u l t i p l e channel sound. They have a l s o d e s c r i b e d s e v e r a l methods f o r o b t a i n i n g wider a s p e c t r a t i o p i c t u r e s .

Eight p r o p o s a l s f o r "V transmission United S t a t e s are examined i n t h i s paper: M S Proposal UE BELL L a b o r a t o r i e s Proposal CBS Proposal GLENN Proposal DEL REY Group Proposal North American P h i l i p s (NAP) Proposal S c i e n t i f i c A t l a n t a (SA) Proposal NBC Proposal

in

the

The p r o p o s a l s f a l l i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s with r e s p e c t t o channel requirements:


A)
B)

C)

one channel wider than c u r r e n t channels, two channels with one channel c a r r y i n g a "compatible" s i g n a l , o r one "compatible" c u r r e n t channel

The M S proposal r e q u i r e s one channel, wider than UE an NTSC channel, and has LEVEL 1 c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The BELL proposal uses two NTSC channels where one channel has LEVEL 3 c o m p a t i b i l i t y and c o n t a i n s an NTSC s i g n a l . The CBS proposal is a two channel DBS system which u s e s a MAC approach, r a t h e r than NTSC, f o r t h e f i r s t channel and t h u s has LEVEL 2 c o m p a t i b i l i t y with r e s p e c t t o NTSC r e c e i v e r s . The GLENN proposal u s e s one NTSC channel and a n o t h e r low bandwidth channel. The f i r s t channel c o n t a i n s The DEL REY NTSC and has LEVEL 3 c o m p a t i b i l i t y . proposal r e q u i r e s only one NTSC channel and has LEVEL 3 c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The N P proposal can b e A implemented i n two forms, a two NTSC channel system o r a MAC system. The f i r s t form c o n t a i n s NTSC i n one channel and has LEVEL 3 c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The second form has LEVEL 2 c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The SA proposal is based on t h e B-MAC system and has LEVEL 2 c o m p a t i b i l i t y . The NBC proposal r e q u i r e s one NTSC channel and has LEVEL 3 c o m p a t i b i l i t y .

Figure 17 shows t h e t r a n s m i t t e d spectrum. T h i s f i g u r e shows two a d j a c e n t channels. However, two non-adjacent channels can b e used. Figure 1 8 is a block diagram of t h e encoder. The decoder u s e s t h e i n v e r s e function. CBS Proposal CBS proposed a two channel transmission system f o r an HDTV s e r v i c e u s i n g two DBS channels. Each channel c a r r i e s a time multiplex component ( T K )

Hopkins: Advanced Television Systems

signal. In t h i s paper, t h e TMC s i g n a l should b e considered t h e same a s a MAC s i g n a l . The CBS system f i r s t converts t h e HDTV s t u d i o s i g n a l i n t o a 1050 l i n e i n t e r l a c e d format with a 5:3 a s p e c t ratio. Every second p a i r of l i n e s of t h e 1050 l i n e s i g n a l is averaged t o g e n e r a t e a 525 l i n e i n t e r l a c e d s i g n a l with a 5:3 a s p e c t r a t i o . The c e n t r a l 4:3 a s p e c t r a t i o p o r t i o n of t h i s signal is t r a n s m i t t e d i n t h e f i r s t channel which is shown i n Figure 19. The second channel carries every o t h e r l i n e of t h e 1050 l i n e s i g n a l i n a 5:3 a s p e c t r a t i o format. It a l s o c a r r i e s t h e " s i d e panels" of t h e f i r s t channel. V e r t i c a l f i l t e r i n g is a p p l i e d t o t h e f i r s t channel (averaging each two l i n e s of t h e 1050 l i n e s i g n a l ) so t h e r e w i l l b e no l o s s i n t h e s i n g l e channel r e c e i v e r . The "side panels" have lower h o r i z o n t a l r e s o l u t i o n than t h e c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of t h e p i c t u r e s i n c e they are t r a n s m i t t e d i n t h e second channel which is compressed by a g r e a t e r f a c t o r . T h i s is i l l u s t r a t e d i n a scanning format i n Figure 20. The h o r i z o n t a l s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n of t h e r e s u l t i n g high d e f i n i t i o n p i c t u r e is t h e same a s i t is f o r t h e s i g n a l i n t h e f i r s t channel which, it should b e noted, is about 50% h i g h e r than an NTSC s i g n a l s i n c e t h e DBS channels permit transmission of a wider bandwidth s i g n a l . The v e r t i c a l r e s o l u t i o n of t h e high d e f i n i t i o n p i c t u r e i s two times t h e v e r t i c a l r e s o l u t i o n of an NTSC p i c t u r e .
A NTSC r e c e i v e r , w i t h an a d a p t e r box, u s e s t h e n

n o t a requirement. The t r a n s m i t t e d s i g n a l could b e d e r i v e d from an HDTV s t u d i o s i g n a l .


A wider a s p e c t r a t i o is accommodated i n t h e NTSC

channel by reducing h o r i z o n t a l blanking by 10%and d e c r e a s i n g t h e number of a c t i v e l i n e s by 10%.

Del Rey Group Proposal


The Del Rey Group has proposed a 525/60/2:1 high d e f i n i t i o n transmission system u s i n g a s i n g l e NTSC channel. The sampling p a t t e r n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 23. The t r a n s m i t t e d s i g n a l can b e derived from an 1125/60 s t u d i o output. The easiest way t o examine t h i s proposal, though, is t o assume an o r i g i n a l luminance signal with t w i c e 525 l i n e s and t h r e e times t h e h o r i z o n t a l r e s o l u t i o n . Each NTSC luminance p i c t u r e element ( p i x e l ) is replaced by t h r e e new p i x e l s as shown. The p i x e l s designated A-F are t r a n s m i t t e d i n p l a c e of t h e normal NTSC p i x e l s , and, a f t e r s i x f i e l d s , a l l s i x p i x e l s are transmitted. A frame s t o r e is used i n t h e H W r e c e i v e r t o recover t h e f u l l s i g n a l . The D e l Rey Group claims t h a t t h i s s i g n a l could b e d i r e c t l y d i s p l a y e d on a c u r r e n t NTSC r e c e i v e r w i t h l i t t l e l o s s compared with a conventional NTSC p i c t u r e . Normal NTSC c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e bandwidths are used i n t h e system. The minimum spacing of h o r i z o n t a l samples is about 1/1320 of t h e p i c t u r e width. The minimum spacing of v e r t i c a l samples is about U828 of t h e p i c t u r e height. The Del Rey Group a l s o proposes t h a t 69 fewer a c t i v e video l i n e s be t r a n s m i t t e d each frame which r e s u l t s i n a wider a s p e c t r a t i o p i c t u r e . The Del Rey Group claims t h a t most NTSC r e c e i v e r s overscan t o such a n e x t e n t t h a t t h e loss of t h e t r a n s m i t t e d l i n e s would n o t b e observed i n a t y p i c a l r e c e i v e r . Those l i n e s are then used t o t r a n s m i t d i g i t a l sound. Figure 24 shows t h i s approach. North American P h i l i p s Proposal

s i g n a l i n t h e f i r s t channel t o d i s p l a y a 525 l i n e p i c t u r e with 4:3 a s p e c t r a t i o . A HDTV r e c e i v e r n combines t h e two s i g n a l s t o d i s p l a y a 1050 l i n e p i c t u r e with 5:3 a s p e c t r a t i o . This system can b e implemented without using a frame s t o r e i n t h e receiver. The TMC format f o r each channel i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 21. Glenn Proposal
W i l l i a m E. Glenn of t h e New York I n s t i t u t e of Technology proposed a system u s i n g one NTSC s i g n a l and an a u x i l i a r y s i g n a l which occupies about one h a l f an NTSC channel. Dr. Glenn made s t u d i e s of human v i s i o n and found t h a t humans have two t y p e s of v i s i o n r e c e p t o r s which have d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s f o r s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n and temporal r e s o l u t i o n . One type of v i s i o n r e c e p t o r has high s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n b u t low temporal r e s o l u t i o n while t h e o t h e r type of v i s i o n r e c e p t o r has high temporal r e s o l u t i o n b u t low s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n . H i s system t a k e s advantage of t h e s e p r o p e r t i e s of human v i s i o n t o reduce t h e t r a n s m i t t e d bandwidth. High temporal r e s o l u t i o n information i s t r a n s m i t t e d u s i n g t h e NTSC s i g n a l and high s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n information is t r a n s m i t t e d i n t h e second channel a t a lower frame r a t e .

North American P h i l i p s (NAP) proposed a concept for HMV transmission which can b e implemented i n two forms. One form is a MAC system s u i t a b l e f o r s a t e l l i t e transmission. The o t h e r form, e a s i l y d e r i v e d from t h e f i r s t , is a two channel system i n which t h e f i r s t channel carries an NTSC s i g n a l and t h e second channel carries t h e wide a s p e c t r a t i o p a n e l s , h i g h e r r e s o l u t i o n information and d i g i t a l s t e r e o sound. N P proposes t h a t t h e MAC s i g n a l A could b e d i s t r i b u t e d by s a t e l l i t e and converted t o t h e two channel s i g n a l f o r l o c a l s e r v i c e e i t h e r by t e r r e s t r i a l broadcasting o r cable distribution. The d e s c r i p t i o n given h e r e is based on t h e two channel NTSC system demonstrated i n A p r i l 1987. Although t h e t r a n s m i t t e d s i g n a l s can b e d e r i v e d from an 1125/60 s t u d i o o u t p u t , t h e easiest way t o examine t h i s proposal is t o look a t an o r i g i n a l 525 l i n e p r o g r e s s i v e scan 16:9 a s p e c t r a t i o s i g n a l as shown i n Figure 25. The NTSC s i g n a l f o r t h e f i r s t channel is obtained by s e l e c t i n g a 4:3 a s p e c t r a t i o p o r t i o n of every o t h e r l i n e of t h e source s i g n a l . The second channel carries f o u r s i g n a l s during each " l i n e scan." The f i r s t s i g n a l is t h e l e f t panel f o r t h e wide a s p e c t r a t i o and t h e second s i g n a l is t h e r i g h t panel f o r t h e wide aspect ratio. These two s i g n a l s a r e processed as a normal NTSC signal. The two p a n e l s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y of equal width s i n c e p r o v i s i o n s a r e included f o r a pan and scan f e a t u r e . The t h i r d s i g n a l is a " l i n e d i f f e r e n c e " s i g n a l necessary f o r

The NTSC s i g n a l is subjected t o improvements u s i n g techniques d e s c r i b e d i n t h e improved NTSC s e c t i o n of t h i s paper. The a u x i l i a r y s i g n a l c o n t a i n s high frequency, low temporal rate luminance information and high r e s o l u t i o n c o l o r information. The high frequency luminance information c o n s i s t s of 862 p i c t u r e elements p e r a c t i v e l i n e and 1024 a c t i v e l i n e s i n a quincunx (checkerboard) p a t t e r n . All t h i s information i s t r a n s m i t t e d i n a MAC format t o t h e r e c e i v e r . The r e c e i v e r u s e s a frame s t o r e t o reconstruct the picture. A block diagram of t h e encoder f o r t h i s system is shown i n Figure 22. In t h i s diagram the high r e s o l u t i o n luminance s i g n a l is d e r i v e d from a s e p a r a t e camera tube. This is

IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 34, No. 1, FEBRUARY 1988

a progressive scan d i s p l a y i n t h e r e c e i v e r the average value of two a d j a c e n t l i n e s t r a n s m i t t e d i n t h e f i r s t channel is s u b t r a c t e d from t h e luminance p o r t i o n of t h e l i n e s discarded f o r generating t h e NTSC s i g n a l and compressed by a f a c t o r of 8/3. The f o u r t h s i g n a l c o n t a i n s "bursts" of a Dolby d i g i t a l encoded 16 b i t s t e r e o sound s i g n a l .

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s i n g l e NTSC channel by combining s e v e r a l of t h e concepts described i n t h e improved NTSC p o r t i o n of t h i s paper higher l i n e number i n t h e camera and t h e d i s p l a y , pre-combing, t h e Fukinuki procedure , and t h e QUME procedure.

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receive only t h e f i r s t channel and d i s p l a y a normal NTSC p i c t u r e . HDTV r e c e i v e r s would receive both channels, combine t h e s i g n a l s i n an a p p r o p r i a t e manner, and d i s p l a y wide a s p e c t r a t i o progressive scan p i c t u r e s using 525 lines. Although t h e h o r i z o n t a l r e s o l u t i o n and c o l o r r e s o l u t i o n demonstrated by NAP are normal NTSC r e s o l u t i o n , they are working on techniques t o i n c r e a s e both. The v e r t i c a l luminance r e s o l u t i o n is higher than NTSC because of t h e progressive scan. A frame s t o r e is not required. The p i c t u r e does n o t s u f f e r when motion is present. The MAC system has not been demonstrated b u t is described a s a four f i e l d sequence, 525 l i n e p r o g r e s s i v e scan signal with baseband bandwidth of 9.5 MHz. In a given f i e l d , every f o u r t h l i n e has f u l l luminance bandwidth of 16.8 MHz equivalent i n s p a t i a l r e s o l u t i o n t o a 6.3 MHz NTSC s i g n a l . Every second l i n e is a " l i n e difference" s i g n a l , as described above, band l i m i t e d t o about 28% f u l l luminance bandwidth. A l l o t h e r l i n e s a r e band l i m i t e d t o about 56% f u l l bandwidth. One of t h e two c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e s i g n a l s is s e n t every o t h e r l i n e on an a l t e r n a t e basis. The c o l o r - d i f f e r e n c e s i g n a l has e i t h e r 14% o r 28% of t h e f u l l luminance bandwidth. Figure 26 shows t h e c o n t e n t s of each l i n e and t h e spatial-temporal resolution.

A NTSC r e c e i v e r would n

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The o r i g i n a t i o n s i g n a l i s a high l i n e number, wide a s p e c t r a t i o s i g n a l from which an NTSC s i g n a l is derived. The wide a s p e c t r a t i o is maintained i n t h e NTSC s i g n a l by compressing t h e s i d e panels t o occupy about 1 p S each. NBC claims t h a t r e c e i v e r s overscan and t h i s p o r t i o n of t h e p i c t u r e would not appear i n c u r r e n t r e c e i v e r s as a r e s u l t . With a r e c e i v e r designed t o recover t h i s s i g n a l , though, t h e s i d e panels would be s t r e t c h e d t o t h e i r proper size. This technique r e s u l t s i n low bandwidth side panels. The higher frequency information f o r t h e s i d e panels, including t h e encoded c o l o r f o r t h e s i d e panels, is placed on a s u b c a r r i e r which u s e s t h e p o r t i o n of t h e spectrum i n e f f i c i e n t l y used by t h e c o l o r information (Fukinuki). This new s c b c a r r i e r , about 3.1 MHz, is modulated i n quadrature by a s i g n a l containing higher frequency luminance information f o r t h e 4:3 a s p e c t r a t i o p o r t i o n of t h e p i c t u r e . The main s i g n a l and t h e s e a d d i t i o n a l s i g n a l s must b e f i l t e r e d ( s i m i l a r t o pre-combing with a f i e l d delay) p r i o r t o combining them, otherwise a r t i f a c t s would b e introduced. The a d d i t i o n a l s i g n a l s are band-limited t o about 1.2 MHz each. Vertical information, needed t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e higher l i n e number generated by t h e source, is c a r r i e d by another s i g n a l . That s i g n a l i s bandl i m i t e d t o 750 kHz and then used t o modulate t h e p i c t u r e carrier i n quadrature with t h e main s i g n a l (QUME). NBC claims t h a t l i t t l e c r o s s t a l k w i l l b e seen on c u r r e n t r e c e i v e r s from t h i s s i g n a l s i n c e it is coherent with t h e information i n t h e main signal.
A diagram of t h i s system is shown i n Figure 28. Figure 29 is a diagram of t h e spectrum of t h e transmitted signal.

S c i e n t i f i c A t l a n t a Proposal S c i e n t i f i c A t l a n t a has proposed t h a t t h e B-MAC system could b e used t o c a r r y an HDTV s i g n a l v i a satellite. The i n p u t s i g n a l could b e e i t h e r 1050 l i n e s i n t e r l a c e d scan o r 525 l i n e s progressive scan. This technique is used t o i n c r e a s e t h e v e r t i c a l r e s o l u t i o n of t h e s i g n a l . The B-MAC system, described earlier i n t h i s paper, already handles wide a s p e c t r a t i o p i c t u r e s . Figure 27 diagrams t h e encoding procedure u s i n g The 525 l i n e s p r o g r e s s i v e scan a s t h e input. signal is f i l t e r e d i n a diagonal manner decreasing t h e diagonal resolution. The r e s u l t i n g s i g n a l is sampled i n a quincunx p a t t e r n t o e l i m i n a t e every o t h e r sample. The samples from every second l i n e are moved i n t o t h e empty s p o t i n t h e l i n e above. Every second l i n e then c o n t a i n s no samples and it can be discarded. The r e s u l t i n g s i g n a l i s a 525 i n t e r l a c e d scan s i g n a l which can be t r a n s m i t t e d through a r e g u l a r B-MAC channel. The normal B-MAC r e c e i v e r would d i s p l a y t h e s i g n a l i n t h e normal fashion. A high d e f i n i t i o n B-MAC r e c e i v e r would regenerate t h e 525 l i n e progressive scan p i c t u r e by reversing t h e procedure described above. The samples which were moved i n t o t h e l i n e above would b e moved back i n t o p l a c e and missing samples would b e c a l c u l a t e d based on surrounding samples. This e n t i r e procedure is accomplished with a small number of l i n e s t o r e s .
NBC Proposal
NBC and t h e David Sarnoff Research Center have proposed a system which can b e t r a n s m i t t e d i n a

S i m i l a r i t i e s and Differences of Proposals I t is d i f f i c u l t t o make d i r e c t comparisons between t h e proposals. Demonstrating t h e systems s i d e by s i d e u s i n g test s i g n a l s and program material would provide t h e best comparison. However, t h i s cannot b e done today s i n c e only one of t h e systems has been thoroughly developed. The o t h e r systems are i n various s t a g e s of development.

As a general r u l e , systems r e q u i r i n g t h e g r e a t e s t bandwidth w i l l probably have t h e b e s t performance. Likewise, systems using t h e least bandwidth w i l l
probably have t h e poorest performance. Trade-offs can b e made t o enhance any one aspect of system performance b u t , almost c e r t a i n l y , another aspect w i l l b e degraded. The two channel systems r e q u i r e t h e g r e a t e s t bandwidth. However, they have been designed t o maintain a high l e v e l of c o m p a t i b i l i t y and may have been s u b j e c t e d t o compromises which do n o t u s e t h e bandwidth i n t h e most e f f i c i e n t manner. Techniques used t o i n c r e a s e t h e r e s o l u t i o n are:
1) i n c r e a s e t h e 2) decrease t h e 3) decrease t h e 4) combinations

t o t a l bandwidth, temporal r e s o l u t i o n , diagonal r e s o l u t i o n , o r of t h e above.

I~ IS I I
I

Hopkins: Advanced Television Systems

A l l of t h e proposed systems i n c r e a s e t h e v e r t i c a l

and h o r i z o n t a l r e s o l u t i o n when compared with NTSC. However, a l l of them are expected t o s u f f e r i n one way o r another when motion is present. Systems by BELL, CBS, and SA have f u l l temporal resolution. However, BELL converts t o higher l i n e number which can introduce a r t i f a c t s , CBS treats s i d e p a n e l s i n t h e second channel which can introduce a r t i f a c t s , and SA uses Sub-Nyquist sampling which can a l s o introduce a r t i f a c t s . The o t h e r systems r e q u i r e more than one frame t o update t h e p i c t u r e . GLENN is a 7.5 frame p e r second ( f p s ) update, DEL R Y is E 10 f p s , M S is 1 5 f p s , and N P is 1 5 fps. UE A NBC uses intraframe averaging which introduces some l o s s of temporal resolution. Four d i f f e r e n t techniques are used t o i n c r e a s e t h e v e r t i c a l resolution. CBS t r a n s m i t s two times t h e number of l i n e s . N P and NBC t r a n s m i t about twice A as many l i n e s b u t remove most of t h e h o r i z o n t a l information from h a l f t h e lines. MUSE, GLENN, DEL REY, and SA t r a n s m i t about twice as many l i n e s b u t remove h a l f t h e h o r i z o n t a l information from every line. BELL converts t o a higher l i n e number a t t h e r e c e i v e r t o i n c r e a s e t h e perceived v e r t i c a l resolution.

Extensive misuse of t h e word "compatibility" l e d t o a d e f i n i t i o n of a range of c o m p a t i b i l i t y l e v e l s r a t h e r than a d e f i n i t i o n of t h e word. Systems with a high l e v e l of c o m p a t i b i l i t y may r e s u l t i n lower l e v e l s of performance while systems with a low l e v e l of c o m p a t i b i l i t y may r e s u l t i n higher l e v e l s of performance. number of a l t e r n a t i v e and innovative systems These have been proposed f o r HDTV transmission. systems have been developed t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s ranging from computer simulations t o developed hardware. Each i s based on d i f f e r e n t assumptions regarding t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e set of compromises. The HDTV d e l i v e r y system t h a t is most developed is being used by Japanese manufacturers t o design consumer equipment. That system would most l i k e l y H b e usable f o r terrestrial broadcasting i n t h e U F band, b u t i t s u s e raises a number of standards and regulatory issues.
A

Two d i f f e r e n t techniques a r e used t o i n c r e a s e t h e BELL and CBS i n c r e a s e t h e h o r i z o n t a l resolution. bandwidth. MUSE, GLENN, DEL REY, NAP, SA, and NBC transmit information from e x t r a h o r i z o n t a l samples using an i n t e r l e a v e d technique. Only CBS has f u l l diagonal resolution.
A MUSE, BELL, CBS, GLENN, NAP, and S i n c r e a s e t h e c o l o r r e s o l u t i o n when compared with NTSC. MUSE, CBS, NAP i n t h e i r MAC system, and SA t r a n s m i t s e p a r a t e luminance and c o l o r information. BELL, GLENN, DEL REY, NAP i n t h e i r NTSC system, and NBC u s e t h e NTSC system t o transmit c o l o r information.
A l l of t h e proposed systems include a wide a s p e c t

In t h i s paper only general comparisons are made between t h e proposed systems. Comparisons a l s o can b e found i n t h e reference documents f o r t h i s paper, o f t e n i n a competitive manner, s t r e s s i n g t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e proponent's system and t h e weaknesses of t h e competitive systems. Care must b e taken t o understand t h e assumptions made i n each case.
O e f i n a l note. D r . Glenn has compared t h e NTSC, n improved NTSC, enhanced T and HDTV systems i n V terms of achieving equal r e s o l u t i o n on t h e r e t i n a of t h e viewer. H assumes t h a t improvements made e t o NTSC can a l s o b e made t o enhanced and H T DV systems. H i s comparison i s shown i n Figure 31.

REFERENCES Progressive Scan i n Camera/Display Wendland; "High-Def i n i t i o n Television Studies on Compatible Basis with Present Standards"; Telev i s i o n Technology i n t h e ~ O ' S , SMPTE, 1981 Pre-Combing Turner; "Improvement of Video S i g n a l s by Comb F i l t e r Techniques Both a t t h e Broadcast Television Transmitter and a t t h e Receiver"; IEEE Transa c t i o n s on Consumer E l e c t r o n i c s , August, 1977 Faroudja, Roizen; "Improving NTSC t o Achieve NearRGB Performance"; SMPTE Journal, August, 1987 Fukinuki Proposal Fukinuki, Hirano, Yoshigi; "Experiments on Proposed Extended-Definition TV with F u l l NTSC Compatibility"; IEEE Communications Society Global Telecommunications Conference, December, 1985 Quadrature Modulation (QUME) Yasumoto, Kageyama, Inouye, Uwabata, Abe; "An Extended D e f i n i t i o n Television System Using Quadrature Modulation of t h e Video Carrier with Inverse Nyquist F i l t e r " ; IEEE Transactions on Consumer E l e c t r o n i c s , August, 1987

r a t i o p i c t u r e . MUSE, GLENN, DEL REY, NAP i n t h e i r MAC system, and SA treat t h e wide a s p e c t r a t i o as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of t h e system r a t h e r than send t h e s i d e panels i n a s e p a r a t e manner. Only CBS and SA do n o t r e q u i r e a f i e l d s t o r e ( o r more) f o r f u l l performance. The N P system could have a A lower performance option which would n o t r e q u i r e a f i e l d store. MUSE, GLENN, and DEL REY have t h e g r e a t e s t memory requirements. The BELL, GLENN, DEL REY, NAP i n t h e i r NTSC system, and NBC s i g n a l s can b e displayed on a c u r r e n t NTSC r e c e i v e r without an a d a p t e r box. A l l of t h e systems could u s e t h e 1125/60 s t u d i o s i g n a l as an input signal. Figure 30 c o n t a i n s a t a b l e showing many of t h e s e comparisons. S M AY U MR This paper examined many proposals f o r d e l i v e r i n g higher d e f i n i t i o n p i c t u r e s t o t h e public. The proposals range from improvements t o t h e NTSC system t o HDTV transmission systems r e q u i r i n g a g r e a t e r bandwidth than is a v a i l a b l e i n a s i n g l e NTSC channel. While i t seems q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t t h e 1125/60 HDTV s t u d i o system w i l l become t h e 60 H s t u d i o standard, standards f o r d e l i v e r y t o t h e z p u b l i c are an open question. Bandwidth considerations may lead t o t h e u s e of d i f f e r e n t standards f o r d i f f e r e n t HDTV d e l i v e r y systems.

A Transmission Standard f o r Pay Lucas; "B-MAC: DBS"; SMPTE Journal, November, 1985

10

IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 34, No. 1, FEBRUARY 1988

1125/60 HDTV S t u d i o System

t h e 38th Annual Broadcast Engineering Conference , Las Vegas, A p r i l , 1984 Glenn Proposal "Compatible Terrestrial HDTV Transmission"; Glenn; 1986 NAB Engineering Conference Proceedings Del Rey Group Proposal I r e d a l e ; "A Proposal f o r a New High-Definition NTSC Broadcast Protocol"; SMPTE Journal, October, 1987 North American P h i l i p s Proposal Tsinberg; "ENTSC Two-Channel Compatible HDTV System"; IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, August, 1987 "Hierarchical High D e f i n i t i o n Television System WHITE Compatible with t h e NTSC Environment"; PAPER, P h i l i p s Laboratories, North American P h i l i p s Corporation, September, 1987 S c i e n t i f i c A t l a n t a Proposal Lucas; "B-MAC and HDTV: Does i t Fit?"; Third I n t e r n a t i o n a l Colloquium on Advanced Television Systems, Ottawa, October, 1987
NBC Proposal

Fu j i o ; "High-Definition Wide-Screen Television Present S t a t e of t h e Study System f o r t h e Future of HD-TV Systems i n Japan"; IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, December, 1980

Hayashi; "Research and Development on HighD e f i n i t i o n Television i n Japan"; SMPTE Journal March, 1981

1125/60 High-Definition "Signal Parameters Production System", Proposed American National Standard, SMPTE 240M, SMPTE Journal, November, 1987, pp 1150-1152 M S Proposal UE
J Ninomiya, Ohtsuka, Izumi; "A S i n g l e Channel " Broadcast System The Muse"; NHK Laboratories Note 304, Tokyo, Japan, September, 1984

B e l l Laboratories Proposal
"A Compatible High-Definition Rzeszewski; Television System"; B e l l System Technical Journal , September , 1983

Lo Cicero, Pazarci, Rzeszewski; "A Compatible High-Definition Television System (SLSC) w i t h Chrominance and Aspect R a t i o Improvements"; SMPTE Journal, May, 1985

CBS Proposal
Rossi, Goldberg, Broadcast System"; McMann; "A Compatible HDTV NAB Convention, Proceedings of

I s n a r d i , Fuhrer , Smith Koslov , Roeder , Wedam; "A S i n g l e Channel , NTSC Compatible Widescreen WI'V System"; Third International Colloquium on Advanced Television Systems, Ottawa, October, 1987

BIOGRAPHY

Robert Hopkins received t h e Bachelor of Science i n Electrical Engineering from Purdue University i n West Lafayette, Indiana and t h e PhD from Rutgers H e was University i n New Brunswick, New J e r s e y . employed by t h e RCA David Sarnoff Research Center i n Princeton, New J e r s e y where he received two RCA Laboratories Outstanding Achievement Awards. He t r a n s f e r r e d t o RCA Broadcast Systems i n Gibbsboro, New Jersey, and then RCA Jersey Limited, Jersey Channel I s l a n d s , Great B r i t a i n . He j o i n e d ATSC as Executive D i r e c t o r i n January, 1985. H i s a p a s t e chairman of t h e SMPTE Standards Committee, SMPTE Committee on New Technology, and SMPTE Working Group on D i g i t a l Video Standards.

Hopkins: Advanced Television Systems

11

3-TUBE

+ )

ONE HORIZONTAL SCAN L I N E

-A

I - 455/2 t -

CYCLES COLOR SUBCARRIER

1 -

0 . 5 YHZ

1 . 5 UHZ LINE LINE LINE FIGuIIl:

P H A W OF COLOR SUBCARRIER

CHWUINANCE SIGNAL 4.2 YHZ

LWINANCE SIGNAL

OUTPUT FIGURE 1 NTSC ENCODER

IN

>

1H DELAY

1H DELAY

Q
PICTURE CARRIER

COLOR
SUBCARRIER SOUND CARRIER

OUT

FIGURE

CO=

FILTER

FIGURE

SPECTRUM O F TRINSIIITTED NTSC SIGNAL

(n-l)f. FIGURE
6
CCW F I L T E R

nfM

(n+l)f.

OUTPUT S P E C T R W

UHZ 2.3-4.2 BAND REJECT

2.3-4.2

YHZ

corn

A ) D I S P U Y I N G EACH L I N E TWO TIMS I N SVCCESSION (POOR APPROXIIUTION OF "YISEING" L I N E , DISTURTS DIAGONAL L I N E S )

B) D I S P U Y I N G T I E AVERAGE O F THE LINE ABOVE AIR) THE L I N E BELOW THE "UISSING" LINE (SETTER. BUT S T I L L HAS DISTORTION OF
D T A G O N A L 1.lWSRl C ) DISPLAYIIIG THE " U I S E I N G " L I N E USING A F I E W STORE (VERY M O D FOR S T I L L PICTlJFCZS S U I MOTION COYPENSATION CIRCUITRY IS REOUIRED) FIGURE

UODUUTED 1.0 I

>
FIGURE FIGURE

corn
FILTER

>

78

CHUOUINANCE "PRE-CO)(B" C I R C U I T S TO "PRE-COKB" NTSC

5 2 5 LINE 2:l

I N 5 R L A C E SCAN

12

IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 34, No. 1, FEBRUARY 1988

FIELDS

SCANNING L I n s

COLORDIFFERENCE

LWINANCE

PHASE

BURST

DATA

PHASE OF HIGH RESOLUTION INFOPMATION SUBCARRIER THE N W E R OF C W C K PERIODS F O R EACH W R T I O N OF THE WAVEFORM IS INDICATED. THERE ARE 1365 TOTAL CLOCK PERIODS IN THE LINE. THREE CLOCK PERIODS ARE REQUIRED FOR EACH DATA SYIlBOL. ! M BITS. THE DIGITAL DATA EACH DATA SYIlBOL CARRIES T RATE IS 910 BITS PER LINE. LUMINANCE SIGNAL COWRESSION RATIO = 3:2 COLOR-DIFFERENCE SIGNAL COKPRESSION RATIO = 3:Z FIGURE 1 1 8-UAC HORIZONTAL LINE

1/60
8

2/60

3/60

4/60

FIGURE

SCANNING LINE STRUCTURE. PHASE OF COLOR SUBCARRIER. PHASE OF HIGH RESOLUTION INFORUATION -- FUKINUKI PROPOSAL

mum
INFORUATION

VIDEO HIGH PASS FILTER 2.0 MHZ 1125 TOTAL LINES PER FRAKE FIELD FREQUENCY INTERLACE FACTOR ASPECT RATIO ACTIVE LINES PER FRAUE ANALOG BANDWIDTH FOR PRIUARY SIGNAL6 SAKPLING FREQUENCY FOR DIGITAL PROCESSING

60 HZ
2:1

U
HIGH RESOLUTION LUMINANCE INFORUATION

16:9 1035 30 YHZ 74.25 NHZ 2200 1920 960


280

ITSC SIGNAL IICTURE

hDD IT IONAL INFOPMATION SIGNAL

FIGURE 9

EXTRACTION OF COLOR INFORUATION AND HIGH RESOLUTION LUMINANCE INFORUATION -- FUKINUKI

SAYPLES PER TOTAL LINE


LUMINANCE SAUPLES PER ACTIVE LINE COWR-DIFFERENCE SAUPLES PER ACTIVE LINE BLINKING SAMPLES PER LINE FIGURE 12 1125/60/2:1 STUDIO SYSTEM

>

FIGURE 101 PICTURE CARRIER

W U O D U U T I N G CIRCUIT

PICTURE CARRIER

4
I ,
I

FIGURE 108

BAND LIMIT FILTER CHARACTERISTIC PICTURE CARRIER A

FIGURE 1OC

NYQUIST FILTER CHARACTERISTIC

COLOR SUBCARRIER

SOUND CARRIER

INNER RECTANGLE ASPECT RATIO = OUTER RECTANGLE ASPECT RATIO -1.25


fp,

+1.25

3.50

4.2

= 1.770

FIGURE 1OD

SPECTRUU OF THE QWSIGNAL

NOTE THAT 16:9 = 1.7777 FIGURE 13 SHOOT AND PROTECT WITH 16:q ASPECT RATIO

FIGURE 1 0

QW

PRocEss

Hopkins: Advanced Television Systems

13

PICTURE CARRIER

COLOR SUBCARRIER SOUND CARRIER

4
NEGATIVE-GOING EDGE USED FOR TIMING FIGURE 1 4 1 HSZ,

-T5 2 5 / 6 0 TIMING WAVEFORM H.


3zs

eH , ,

-- y ----c -

-yC- H1 I

2s

+
It STANDARD
NTSC CHANNEL

1
ZERO-CROSSING USED FOR TIMING FIGURE
14

1 1 1 1 U
H11,.
1125/60

ADDITIONAL COLOR AND LLMINANCE CHANNEL

ADJACENT CHANNEL IS NOT REOUIRED FIGURE 17 TRANSMITTED S P E C T R U I

- BELL

LASS

FIGURE 148

-7 TIMING WAVEFORII
iiz5/60

NHK P m w s A L

m R

SYNC WAVEFORM

I1 I1

INCREASING COUF'ATISILITY LEVEL 5 LEVEL 4 LEVEL 3 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 1 LEVEL 0 HDTV RECEIVED AND DISPLAYED AS HDTV ON NTSC RECEIVER HDTV RECEIVED AND DISPLAYED AS HIGHEST OUALITY NTSC ON NTSC RECEIVER HDTV RECEIVED AND DISPLAYED AS REDUCED OUALITY NTSC ON NTSC RECEIVER HDTV RECEIVED WITH INEXPENSIVE ADAPTOR FOR DISPLAY ON NTSC RECEIVER HDTV RECEIVED WITH EXPENSIVE ADAPTOR FOR DISPLAY ON NTSC RECEIVER HDTV CANNOT S E RECEIVED FOR DISPLAY I N ANY FORM ON NTSC RECEIVER AND HDTV RECEIVER CANNOT DISPLAY NTSC

1! II

1 '

HIGH FREQUENCY LUMINANCE ENCODER

NTSC ENCODER

HIGH FREOUENCY CHROIlINANCE ENCODER

GENERAL RULE OF THUMB

HIGHER LEVELS O F COWPATISILITY P m B m L Y RESULT I N LOWER PEWORUANCE LEVELS FOR THE HDTV SYSTEM COMPATIBILITY LEVELS

FIGURE 15

4 -

-0

4
f

- - - * - - - + - - - * - - - U - - -Y
4

- - - U - - - * - - - * - - - * - - -

---*---+---*---+--313 ACTUAL
4

---+---*---+---*-----*---e---*---+--4

LUMINANCE SAMPLES TRANSMITTED EACH L I N E

CHANNEL 1 "COWATISLE"

/
STANDARD 1050 L I N E S

5 2 5 LINES 4:3

\
7

HOUEHzCEIVER

- - - + - - - * - - - U - - - * - - -

- PICTURE
1500

WIDTH

- PICTURE
1035

HEIGHT

i o 5 0 LINES/ 5:3

scm

LINES
FIRST FIELD SECOND F I E L D

SAUTLE TRANSMISSION
0

------

0
0

FIELD FIELD FIELD FIELD

4n (4n+l) (4n+Z) (4n+3)

CHANNEL 2 AUXILIARY FIGURE 19 DBS HDTV 2-CHANNEL SYSTEM

FIGURE 16

MUSE B A W L I N G PATTERN

- CLIS

IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, Vol. 34, No. 1, FEBRUARY 1988

f +

4:3
A+S

TFANSMISSION LINK EACH CHANNEL ONE F I E L D 525 L I N E S INTERLACED

1
A+B

,
5:)
4:3

NTSC NTSC NTSC NTSC NTSC NTSC PIXEL PIXEL PIXEL PIXEL PIXEL PIXEL

+FIELD

ONE SCAN L I N E

I
NTSC NTSC NTSC PIXEL PIXEL PIXEL

I
+FIELD

W O SCAN LINE

zt-----i

--+ v++--H
5:) +4:3* 2
3

*
t ;

31

I
1 I

A+B

l
I
1

--y y

NTSC NTSC NTSC PIXEL PIXEL PIXEL

ABOUT 440 LUMINANCE SAMPLES TRANSMITTED EACH L I N E

I ; 1 262 - 1 1
I
CHANNEL 1 CHANNEL 2

2v
3

TO FIELDS SIXTRANSMITREauxffiD EVERY SAWLE

A
Y

*
t+1

5:3

4:3

---y y

T.
NOTE: DEL REY GROUP USES 424 OF THE 525 L I N E S FOR PICTURE INFoRUATION. EACH L I N E CONTAINS ABOUT 440 NTSC PICTURE ELEYENTS ( P I X E U ) . FIGURE 23
1

B
H m
B

yxlc

x - -

H
RECEIVER

1320
1
Y - -

SAUPLE TRANSYISSION A F I E L D 6n B F I E L D (6n+l) C F I E L D (6n+2) D F I E L D (6n+3)

TRANSYITTER ONE F I E L D 1050 L I N E S INTERLACED

828

E
F

FIELD (6n+4)
FIELD ( 6 N i 5 )

3-

ONE FIELD 1050 LINES INTERLACED

DEL REY GROUP S A W L I N G PATTERN

262 1
FIGURE 20

VERTICAL BLANKING

S I W L I F I E D SCANNING GEOI(ETRY

--

42 L I N E S

CBS

35 L I N E S

4:3
ASPECT

RATIO

34 L I N E S
HORIZONTAL BLANKING
A TOTAL OF 69 L I N E S TAKEN FROY THE TOP AND BOTTOU OF E THE PICTURE COULD ; USED FOR D I G I T A L SOUND DURING

HIGH D E F I N I ~ O N TELEVISION
FIGURE 24

TRANSMISSIONS.

14:9 ASPECT RATIO

--

DEL REY GROUP

us

3.5
FIGURE 21

lls
TUC FORUATS

--

CBS

4 1 5 )

;
1 I

I
E
F

I I I

ONE FRAHE 525 L I N E S PROGRESSIVE SCAN

D E T A I L LVWINANCE

%\ -HIGH RESOLUTION DETAIL COLOR

PROGRESSIVE D I G I T A L

*F

7.5 FRAI(ES/SEC PFSGRESSIVE SCAN

+
COLOR CAI(ERA 525 L I N E S 60 HZ INTERLACED G WITRIX

+
R-Y mumRAL _3 F I L T E R

Y -

R-Y
8-Y

>

NTSC ENCODER

25
CHANNEL 1 ONE F I E L D 525 L I N E S INTERLACED FIGURE 25

_ L

A CHANNEL 2 ONE F I E L D 525 L I N E S INTERUCED

-+
B

B-Y

4
HDTV ENCODER

FIGURE 22

- GLENN

Tvo NTSC CHANNEL TRANSMISSION SYSTEY

--

N.A.PHILIPS

Hopkins: Advanced Television Systems

15

RESOLUTION Y n (n+l) (n+Z) (nt3) (n+4) (n+5) (n+6) LINE (n+?) LINE LINE LINE LINE LINE LINE LINE 56% 28% 100% 28% 56% 28% 100% 28% U 14% V PICTURE CARRIER

28%

4 I

NEW SUBCARRIER

4 4 COLOR
I

' '

SUBCARRIER SOUND CARRIER

28%

VERTICAL (TVL/PH) 480

T
0

120
0

140 280 (4.75 MHZ) (9.5 U H Z ) HORIZONTAL RESOLUTION (TVL/PH)

14%
I I )

I
-1.25
f,,

MHZ

f1.25

3.1

3.58

4.2

PROGRESSIVE SCAN INFORUATION FIGURE 29

SIDE PANEL HIGHER RESOLUTION INFOWUTION AND EXTRA HORIZONTAL DETAIL SPECTRUM OF THE NBC SIGNAL

490 (16.8 MHZ)

TO CONSERVE SPECTRVII THE N.A.PHILIPS W C SYSTEM TRANSMITS ONLY A PORTION OF THE CONTENTS OF SONE LINES BY FIRST USING A LOW PASS FILTER. THE TABLE SHOWS THE RESOLUTION OF EACH LUMINANCE AND COLOR-DIFFERENCE LINE. THIS PATTERN REPEATS EVERY 8 LINES. THE LWINANCE PATTERN noms up ONE LIWE EVERY F M . THE COLOR-DIFFERENCE SIGNAL PATTERN UJVES UP N O LINES EVERY FRAME. THE SIGNAL IS 525 LINE PROGRESSIVE SCAN. THE RESULTING LUMINANCE TEMPORAL-SPATIAL RESOLUTION IS ALSO SHOWN. FIGURE 26 SPATIAL A N D TEMF-JRAL RESOLUTION HD-MAC SYSTEM -- N.A.PH1LIPS UUSE

BANDWIDTH H-RES V-RES FULL FULL INTEG SEP FLD IMPR UHZ TVL/PH TVL/PH DIAG TEUP SIDES COLOR S M R AUD 8.1 555 720 NO
NO
YES

YES

YES

YES,

THE ORIGINAL SIGNAL IS A 525 LINE PROGRESSIVE SCAN SIGNAL

8-MAC HAS
150

THE wnom THE FILTERED TO SIGNAL IS HIGHER FREQUENCY DIAGONAL COWONENTS

7 1
PER LINE x2 x2 x2 x2 x2 x2 x2 NWERS INDICATE X3 X4 X5 X3 X4 X5 X3 X4 X5 X3 X4 X5 X3 X4 X5 X3 X4 X5 X3 X4 XS ORIGINAL LINE LOCATION X3 x5

smLEs

KEY:

BANDWIDTH IS THE BASE-BAND BANDWIDTH OF THE SIGNAL IN UHZ.

OF THE SIGNAL GIVEN IN TV LINES PER PICTURE HEIGHT.

H-RES AND V-RES A R E THE HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL RESOLUTION DATA IS TAKEN, OR DERIVED, FROM PUBLISHED INFORUATION.

THE SIGNAL IS SAWLED IN A QUINCUNX FASHION DISCARDING EVERY OTHER


S A W LE

-- X3 -x 4 -- x 4 -- x5 -X2 X1 X2 -X4

x2

--

x2

-X3

-x5
X1 -X3

-x4

x2

--- xs
X2 -X4

-X3

--

MISSING SAMPLE

FULL DIAG W A N 6 THE SIGNAL HAS FULL DIAGONAL RESOLUTION. NOTE THAT NTSC DOES NOT HA- FULL DIAGONAL RESOLUTION BECAUSE OF THE PRESENCE OF THE COLOR SUBCARRIER. FULL TEUP WEANS THE SIGNAL IS FULLY UPDATED EVERY FRAU. INTEG SIDES NEANS THE WIDE ASPECT RATIO W R T I O N OF THE SIGNAL IS TRANSMITTED IN AN INTEGRAL W N N E R WITH THE CENTER OF THE PICTURE. SEP COLOR WEANS THE COLOR INFORMATION IS TRANSMITTED SEPARATE FROM THE LUMINANCE INFORUATION. FLD STOR NEANS THE SYSTEM REQUIRES A FIELD STORE (OR WORE ) IN THE RECEIVER. OPT NEANS OPTIONAL.

SAUPLES IN ALL EVEN

LINES A R E UJVED INTO THE EMPTY SPACE IN THE LINE ABOVE

-- -- -X3 X4 X3

XI

X1 -X3

FIGURE 27

ENCODING PROCEDURE M ENHANCE VERTICAL RESOLUTION WITH 0 - W C -- SCIENTIFIC ATLANTA

I W R AM WEANS THE SYSTEM OFFERE I n P m V E D AUDIO COMPARED WITH THE CURFSNT NTSC SYSTEM.
FIGURE 30 COILPARISON OF THE VARIOUS TRAYSMISSION SYSTEMS

I
NTSC SIGNAL SIDE PANELS) SIDE PANEL HIGHER FREQUENCY INFOWUTION LUMINANCE HIGHER FREQUENCY INFOlMTION

+r x
FILTER4

d G h

AVERAGE NTSC AREA=1


TV SET

IMPROVED NTSC AREA=2

1MPim-mA EENHANCED TV RA4 :

VERTICAL DETAIL

T
I
AREA-I 0 I n P m n D HDTV

FILTERS 1.2.3 A R E INTRA-FRAU FILTERS. FILTER 4 IS A 750 KHZ LOW PASS FILTER. QMl IS A QUADRATURE U O D U U M R WITH THE SUBCARRIER FREQUENCY ABOUT 3.1 UHZ AND ALL SIDEBANDS "HIDDEN" IN THE FUKINUKI HOLES. OM2 IS A QUADRATURE U J D U U T O R WHERE THE CARRIER IS THE NORUAL PICTURE CARRIER. FIGURE 28 FIGURE 31 SIGNAL ENCODER BLOCK DIAGRAM -- NBC

R E U T I V E SIZES OF I W G E S DISPLAYED WITH 6AU RESOLUTION ON VIEWER'S RETINA -- GLENN