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: . (2) . . A. H. Zein, Beyond ldology and Theology: The Search for the Anthropology of lslam , in (4) Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 6, 1977 M. Gilsenan, Recogizing lslam, London : Croom Helm, n. d. (1983?). (5) E. Gellner , Muslim Society , Cambridge : Univ.Press, 1981. (6) J. Gulick , The Middle East: An Anthropological perspective, Pacific Palisades. California: (7) Goodyear Publishing Company lnc. 1976. D. F. Eickelman The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach, Englewood ciffs. New () Jersey: Prentice- Hall Inc. 1981. See. J. van Ess. From Wellhausen to Becker: the Emergence of Kulturgrschichte in Islamic (9) Studies in M. H.Kerr (ed). Islamic Studies: Atradition and its problems, Malibu, Saliofrnia: Undena publication. 1980. M.M.J. Fiseher, Iran: From Religious Dispute to Revolution, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Univ. (10) Press, 1980. Anthropologisal Coneeptions of Religion: Refleetion on Geertz . Man.vol.18.no 2.1983: (11) Nots on Body pain and Truth in Nedieval Christian Ritual , Economy and Sosiety , vol. 12 , no. 3, 1983; Medieval Heresy : An Anthropologisal View , Social History, vol. 11, no. 2. 1986. For example, G. von Grunebaum. Modern Islam, Berkely and los Angeles: California Univ. (12) Press, 1962, p.40. B. lewis. The Muslim Diseovery of Europe . in Islam in history, New york: The Kibrary (13) Press. 1973. p.l(x) B. Turner,Wber and Islam , London: rotledge and Kegan Paul, 1974, p. 70. (14) Adullah Hammoudi , Segmentarity, social stratification political power and sainthood: reflec- (15) Tions on Gellner s theses , Economy and Society, Vol, 9, 1980; V. J. Cornell, The logic of Analogy and the Role of the sufi shaykh in post Marinid Morocco lnt. J ournal of Middle East Studies, 15, 1983. B. Turnet , Marx and the End of Drientalism, London;George Allen and Unwin, 1978, p. 52. (16) The Kababish Arabs: Power , Authority and Consent in Nonmadic Tribe, London: Hurst and Co. , 1970; the Bedouin as Military Force , inc. Nelson (ed), The Desert and the Sown, Ber- keley : Univ. California Press, 1973: Equality in Nomaadic Systems? in equipe Ecologie et Anthropologie dos Societes pastorals (eds.) Pastoral production and Society, Cambridge, En- gland: Univ. Cambridge Press, 1979. A. M. Watson, Agricultural innovation in the early lslamic World, Cambridge: Cambridge (17) Univ Press, 1983. (1) ( ) in the iddle East (Princeton: Princeton Univ, Press, 1977 : ) . N. W. Dols, the Black Death .37-36

Press, 1968,p.11. (19) (20) ( 41 )

. . C. Geertz, lslam observed, New Haven: Yale Univ. . ( )

52 ) ) : Varieties of Urben Experience in.l. lapidus(ed) Middle Eastern cities, California Univ. Press, (1969). .

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: ( 68 ) (22) . ( )

. Modern Egyptian . : Lane, Man- ners and Customs of the Snouck Hurgonje, Mekka in the Later Part of the 19th Century.

) Liteacy in Theory and Practice, 1984 (23)

B. V. Street.

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222

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( : A. A. Bennigsen and S. E. Winbush, Muslim National Communism in the sovent Union, Chicago, Chicsgo Univ, Press, 1979.

. : : . . 26) .182 ) N. Keddie ,Scholas ,Saints,and Sufis,Berkeley and los Angeles:California Univ,Press,1972,p.13. (27) D. F. Eickelman, The Study of lslam in Local Contexts , Contexts to Asian Studies, vol. XVll (2 After Virtue (29) .1980 . . . (30) .15 (31) .( ) (25) .

. (32) .

B. Metcalf (ed) , Moral Conduct and Author it The Place of Adab in South Asian lslam, Berkeley: California Univ. Press, 1984, pp. 52-6 (33) (34) . 35) 33 ) See. Maclntyre, Epistemological Crises, Dramatic Narrative. and the Philosophy of Seien- (36) ce , in G. Gutting (ed) Paradigms and Revolitions, Notre Dame: Notre Dame Univ. press. 1980. pp. 64- 5. See j. Dixon and L. Stratta. Argumentand the teaching of English: A Critical Analysis in A. Wilkinson (ed) Writers Writing , Milton Keunes: Open University Publications. 1986. (37) Late Antiquity and lslam Parallels

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3) : R. Williams Television: Technology and Cultural form, London, Fontana,1974. (39) ) philosophie et les science, Paris, 1981, p. 68. (40) : : . : L lslam La

) .( 196 -192 1983 11 1973

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