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ABSTRACT

While teaching art at Schoo Middle School, I have found that student achievement and motivation start to decline at the middle school age. I found this especially true in the art classroom and other electives that students feel are less important than core subjects. The primary question for the study is: What effect does triangulated assessment have on student motivation and achievement? The three guiding questions in the study are: 1. What effect does assessment have on student motivation and achievement? 2. What effect does self-assessment have on student motivation and achievement? 3. What effect does external assessment have on student motivation and achievement? The specific design for this study involved content analysis of students grades determined by the rubric used by the students and myself. Student exit questionnaires and the checklist filled out by the assistant principal were also used in the content analysis of the research. The data collected during the study shows that triangulated assessment increased student motivation and achievement across the class. 1

CONTEXT District Lincoln Public Schools (LPS) is the only public school district in Lincoln, Nebraska, USA. It is the second largest of Nebraska's 596 school districts, surpassed only by Omaha Public Schools. LPS educates more than 32,100 students in 54 schools. The current superintendent is Steve Joel, who was recently selected in March 2010. Joel was the superintendent for Grand Island Public Schools for ten years prior to accepting his position at LPS. Minority groups make up 28% of the student population in LPS, with 39% of students receiving free or reduced price lunch and a graduation rate of 81% (Community News, 2010). The LPS mission is student learning, based on a curriculum that provides essential knowledge and skills to succeed in school, higher education, and the world of work. Student achievement, increased student learning and increased graduation rates are the main goals of the district (Important Information, 2010). Building Schoo Middle School opened in 2009 serving grades six through eight. Schoo is located in the northwest corner of Lincoln, situated in Fallbrook, a very wealthy neighborhood. Although Schoo is located in a wealthy community, the majority of students live in neighboring, middle to lower class communities.

INTRODUCTION

Schoo Middle School is a $35 million building that has a current population of 767 students with a capacity of 900. A full 35% of Schoo students families live in poverty, 24% of students are of minority groups, 6% of students are English language learners (ELL), 15% of students are in special education programs, and 16% of students are in gifted programs (personal communication, Principal Linda Hix, 2010). Classroom Being the only art teacher at Schoo, I get the opportunity to teach almost every student. Students who are in intervention, ELL, and special education programs are often not in art. I taught approximately 500 students during the 2009- 2010 school year. These students are not in my classroom for the entire year. I teach sixth grade students in 12-week sections and see the students every-other day, 7th grade every day for a quarter, and 8th grade for a semester. I encourage a creative atmosphere. There are often students working on different stages of projects in my classroom. Students are allowed to work together on projects, listen to music, and converse during work time. I attempt to make a comfortable atmosphere where students can be themselves and explore creative problem-solving through research and creation of the aesthetic. Personal Philosophy In recent years the aims of education have shifted in schools due to government regulations. More and more teachers are finding themselves aiming to have high test scores so their students will be considered proficient and continue to receive government funding. Those distant from the frontlines of

education see this as a perfect way to ensure that no child is left behind. Students MUST meet testing levels of proficiency or they dont receive money. In theory, this seems like a sound strategy. But many school teachers, administrators, and parents wonder how many students are being left behind when teachers are forced to flutter through curriculum and teach to tests to ensure scores are high enough? Is a teachers main goal to have a class full of proficient test takers? I would argue that this is steering education in the wrong direction. I believe

the main goal of education is to educate students. Groundbreaking notion, I know. But what are we teaching students, as teachers, when we tell them that the most important thing in school is to do well on a test? There are much more important things than exams percentages and numbers. Im not saying that testing holds no value, and we shouldnt use the data to help shape our decisions about instruction, but I feel that there is too much emphasis on test scores and not enough stress on reaching our students on a personal level and making a connection that will help them not only succeed in academics but life after education. My main goal for educating my students is not that they will memorize facts and be able to recite them on a test, but rather to immerse them in a culture of inclusive interactions and relationships, which foster the exploration of art in our world. Teaching art gives me the unique advantage of developing my own curriculum. To help students explore art I have developed a curriculum that gives my students several personal choices in developing and creating their projects. Rather than give students implicit instructions on completing an assignment, I will give them a multitude of resources and possibilities on how one could complete the project and examples of work from

past students. In my resources I give students artists from various backgrounds to investigate, and ask them how they can take aspects from famous artwork and incorporate these findings into their own creations. Allowing students to help develop their own projects promotes self

motivated research and more personal investment in the artwork. Working in small groups to attain this information helps students problem solve in a diverse atmosphere advocating social development that will benefit them beyond the years of education (Schwaninger, 2010). PURPOSE I have found that student achievement and motivation start to decline at the

middle school age. I found this especially true in the art classroom and other electives that students feel are less important than core subjects. The purpose of this study is to research the result of student self-assessment coupled with assessment conducted by the Assistant Principal at Schoo, Bill Schulenburg, in addition to my own assessment. INNOVATION I will be using an experimental assessment design referred to as triangulated assessment. This form of assessment uses observations and evaluations from three sources. The three sources in my study will be the students themselves, the Assistant Principal at our school, and me as the art teacher. I will be conducting this research with 6th grade students, working on a papier-mch project. I teach two to four 6th grade classes in three, 12-week rotations. I see the classes every other day. 5

The control group will see the rubric that I use to evaluate the process, but will have no involvement in the assessment process. The experimental group will receive a copy of the rubric used for assessment. They will assess themselves as they work through each section; I will grade students as they complete the steps of the project using the same rubric. Schulenburg will assess the students in small groups using a checklist that corresponds with the grading rubric. I will have students from both groups fill out a questionnaire regarding their comfort, confidence, and understanding of the expectations of the lesson as dictated by the assessment method. SIGNIFICANCE Triangulated assessment is time-consuming. Another goal of this study will be to determine whether the triangulated assessment process is worth the extra time needed from the students and Schulenburg or another cooperating administrator. I am also interested to see if student motivation and effort increase when

they are aware that they are in control of their assessment and an administrator will be seeing and evaluating their work.

REASEARCH QUESTIONS OBSERVATION I have found that student achievement and motivation start to decline at the middle school age. I found this especially true in the art classroom and other electives that students feel are less important than core subjects PRIMARY QUESTION What effect does triangulated assessment have on student motivation and

achievement? GUIDING QUESTION #1 What effect does assessment have on student motivation and achievement? GUIDING QUESTION #2 What effect does self-assessment have on student motivation and achievement? GUIDING QUESTION #3 What effect does external assessment have on student motivation and

achievement?

LITERARY REVIEW

TEACHER ASSESSMENT Assessment has always been a topic of interest among educators. Teachers want to know what their students know, and what they have learned as a result of their teaching. Boud argues, There are two main purposes of student assessment. The first intends

to improve the quality of learning. He also states that when, students engage in the problems and discourse of a given area and are given encouragement, response and feedback on what they do, as appropriate, with a view to them becoming more effective in their learning. This is formative assessment, or assessment for learning Another type of assessment, concerns the accreditation of knowledge or performance: students are assessed to certify their achievements. This occurs primarily for the award of a degree or diploma, though various components of assessment are usually taken into account in making this [judgement]. This is summative assessment, or assessment for the record (1990, p. 101). The former, formative assessment has been thought to be essential for comprehension of learning and provides teachers with an understanding of what students are grasping and which concepts need further attention. An ongoing practice of internal assessment enables teachers to monitor learning as part of their teaching process. It indicates how to adjust instructional strategies to accommodate the different needs and learning styles of students, and aids students in self-assessment by providing them with critical feedback (http://finearts.esc20.net). It is important to vary assessment to compensate for the different intelligences in the classroom. Multiple assessments provide more complete information on student achievement than any

one type of assessment alone (http://finearts.esc20.net). Shepard supports this notion with research suggesting, The content of assessments should match challenging subject matter standards and serve to instantiate what it means to know and learn in each of the disciplines. Therefore, a broader range of assessment tools is needed to capture important learning goals and processes and to more directly connect assessment to ongoing instruction (2009, p. 99). Formative assessment has been shown to increase academic performance,

McMillan (2010) argues that formative assessment can also increase student motivation. In his study, McMillan investigated different aspects of formative assessment, to determine teachers self-reported formative assessment practices, and relate these practices to student self-reported motivation. The statistically significant positive relationships between overall formative practices and class averages of student motivation, suggests an association between at least some formative practices and student motivation. When teachers reported using several types of formative assessments practices, students were more likely to report higher levels of motivation. The fact that many student-perceived teacher practices were correlated to student motivation suggests that some teacher practices are important. This includes praising hard work when wrong, stressing the importance of learning, and making written comments (McMillan et al., 2010, p. 18). I used a rubric to evaluate my students work, and regularly went though the

rubric and project expectations as the students were working. I have found that, Rubrics communicate a clear continuum of performance levels in art and help

students learn to critique their knowledge and skills and to assess their growth. Though rubrics can take many forms, they are often shown in a table (http://finearts.esc20.net). When testing self-efficacy using rubrics for self- assessment in writing Andrade found, Girls self-efficacy ratings appear to be particularly susceptible to rubric-referenced assessment. The research shows that middle school girls tend to hold task (or mastery) goals, whereas boys tend to hold performance-approach (or ego) goals, in writing and mathematics. That is, girls tend to be more concerned with mastering a writing task than do boys, who, on average, tend to be more concerned with showing someone else that they are capable (2009, p. 295). SELF-ASSESSMENT Nicol (2006) states, Self-regulated learning is an active constructive process whereby learners set goals for their learning and monitor, regulate, and control their cognition, motivation, and behavior, guided and constrained by their goals and the contextual features of the environment (p. 202). Self-assessment is about more than test scores; its about self-improvement. In very real terms, meaningful self- assessment is education (Bingham, Holbrook, & Meyers, 2010, p 60). When looking at higher education Nicol argued that, Conceptions of assessment have lagged behind conceptions of learning in higher education. While students have been given more responsibility for learning in recent years, there has been far greater reluctance to give them increased responsibility for assessment processes (even low-stakes formative processes). Yet, if students are to be prepared for learning throughout life, they must be provided with opportunities to develop the capacity to

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regulate their own learning as they progress through higher education (2006, p. 213) Nicol (2006) defines seven principles good feedback process as: Helps clarify what good performance is Facilitates the development of self-assessment (reflection) in learning Delivers high quality information to students about their learning Encourages teacher and peer dialogue around learning Encourages positive motivational beliefs and self-esteem Provides opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance Provides information to teachers that can be used to help shape the teaching

Although this is information about higher education I believe that these principles of good feedback apply to self-assessment in all levels of education. In a study involving elementary students Bingham et al. found Self-assessment practices can help elementary students early development as critical and reflective thinkers. The research indicates that students who engage in well-designed self-assessment tasks experience a deep understanding of content, value their educational experiences, and actively participate in activities. Developing the metacognitive awareness of students through self-assessment is at the heart of powerful, effective, and transformational teaching (p 60). When studying high school students, McDonald & Boud found, The study indicates that the introduction of self-assessment practices was well accepted by teachers and by students. Students reported that not only was it relevant for preparation for external examinations, but that it had wider

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impacts on their perceptions of their careers and the learning they were undertaking. Of particular importance is that self-assessment training had a significant impact on the performance of those who had been exposed to it. On average, students with self-assessment training outperformed their peers who had been exposed to teaching without such training in all curriculum areas (2003, p.209). One thing that prevents some instructors from having their students

participate in self-assessment is a lack of time. Chen (2010) studied high school students who used PDAs to evaluate themselves and their peers. He found, The research shows that the self- and peer- assessment system was an efficient use of time, allowing more opportunities for student reflection on learning and assessment. (Chen, 2010, p.235) Research concludes that self-assessment results in higher achievement from

students but there is little research proving that self-assessment can actually increase student motivation. When studying high school students Reeves found, Practically meaningful growth in both active and dynamic self-regulation was observed throughout the course of the intervention. However, attempts to explain growth by motivational factors and indicators of intervention exposure were largely unsuccessful (2009, p.73) Similarly with graduate students Tan reports, Student participation in grading their work may not necessarily mean that students are empowered (Tan, 2008, p.2). Race (1995 in Tan, 2008) points out that, if students know that tutors will intervene if they think that the marking process is unsatisfactory, then summative self-assessment cannot be claimed to be

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participative nor empowering. These researchers argue that student self- assessment does not guarantee that students are empowered in the assessment process. Chen noticed another issue with self-assessment, The correlation analysis indicated a lack of consistency between teacher-grading and student- grading (2010, p.235). EXTERNAL ASSESSMENT External Assessment, or standardized assessment, refers to all student testing developed and used by sources outside of the student's school. (http://finearts.esc20.net) In the context of my research, the external assessment takes place inside the, but is conducted by the assistant principal, who is an external source to the classroom. A common form of external assessment used in the workplace is SWOT analysis. SWOT is an acronym standing for: Strengths: attributes of the person or company that are helpful to achieving the objective(s). Weaknesses: attributes of the person or company that are harmful to achieving the objective(s). Opportunities: external conditions that are helpful to achieving the objective(s). Threats: external conditions which could do damage to the objective(s).

A SWOT framework is generally used to systematically characterize a particular situation with regards to its internal strengths and weakness as well as its external opportunities and threats. Such a systematic characterization allows for the identification of appropriate strategies for utilizing the strengths, addressing the

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weaknesses, exploiting the opportunities and mitigating the threats (Schroeder, Minocha, & Schneider, 2010, p. 161). This provides valid information on how assessment from an external source can be beneficial in helping identify attributes and conditions of a situation to maximize the potential for success. The way this study used external assessment is somewhat experimental. I could find not research that supported the use of external assessement in the format that I used. I reviewed the process of external assessment in my context and collected data, gathered information, recorded observations on its effects on students achievement and motivation. WRITERS CONNECTION In reflection, the articles presented in the literature review provided several

indications that triangulated assessment will raise students academic achievement. There is little supporting evidence that the various forms of assessment effect student motivation. External assessment in for context that I used in my research was not

researched prior to this study. Although there were some studies relating to the advantages of external assessment and SWOT analysis, my research is unique in its application of external assessment and its effect on student achievement, success, and motivation.

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RESEARCH DESIGN PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of triangulated

assessment on students achievement and motivation. I have added to the knowledge base of information regarding formative assessment and student self- assessment through the use of a rubric. I have gained a voice by gathering information on the effect of informal external assessment through the use of Schulenburg evaluating students with a checklist that mirrored the main objectives of the rubric. RESEARCH TRADITION I have used qualitative as well as quantitative results in this study.

Qualitative results are represented in the form of student grades. I have incorporated not only the final grade given, but also the grade the students self- assigned and the grade indicated by the assistant principal in the external assessment. I gathered qualitative information through the use of anecdotal notes and a written interview competed by the students. RESEARCH DESIGN The specific design for this study involved content analysis of students

grades determined by the rubric used by the students and myself. Student exit questionnaires and the checklist filled out by the assistant principal were also used in the content analysis of the research.

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SAMPLING PROCEDURES This purposive sample was of two sixth grade classes (experimental and

control), in complete enumeration, taught in the first 12 weeks of the 2010 - 2011 school year at Schoo Middle School in Lincoln, Nebraska. RELIABILITY The students all completed the same project using an identical rubric. The

control group was shown the rubric that I used to grade them on. The experimental group was given the rubric to evaluate themselves and was assessed by me using this rubric. All students were given the same exit questionnaire to evaluate the students understanding of the project expectations, their motivation for completing the project, and their thoughts on the grade they received for the project. VALIDITY Using Andersons (et al.) criteria for validity I ensured democratic validity by

taking information provided in the exit questionnaire by every student in the sample. I also used information from the assistant principals assessment and the self-assessment of the students. Outcome validity was gained though the examination of student success

though their grades and motivation in relation to triangulated assessment. Process validity was confirmed through consistent use of identical rubrics for

assessment and self-assessment. Also, students motivation and understanding of expectations was measured though identical exit questionnaires. Catalytic validity was achieved by students increased motivation and

understanding of expectations through triangulated assessment.

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Dialogic Validity happened though the conversations with the assistant

principal and the presentation of the results with the Schoo Middle School staff. RESEARCH STEPS & TIMELINE Date August 20th August 23rd -September 3rd Steps Introduce papier-mch project Discuss assessment procedure Student work time with formative assessment using rubric Experimental group self-assessed using the rubric September 6th & 7th Students shared their artwork in a class critique and receive their final grades Experimental group participated in a small group sharing activity and will by Schulenburg using a checklist September 8th Students completed the exit questionnaire

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ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS All study participants information was used in formulating the resulting

statistics. Students in the ELL program were offered alternative ways to share their work, and were not forced to speak in front of the class during the critique if they were not comfortable doing so.

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DATA COLLECTION / INFORMATION GATHERING INTRODUCITON I used a variety of methods to gather information and collect data for the

completion of this project concerning triangulated assessment. Triangulation is accomplished using diverse data sources and tools. (See matrix below): DATA COLLECTION / INFORMATION GATHERING MATRIX Primary Question: What effect does triangulated assessment have on student motivation and achievement? Anecdotal Notes Assessment & Observations Tools 1 2 Anecdotal notes & Rubric observations (Completed by during class instructor)

Exit Questionnaire

What effect does Questionnaire assessment have on filled out by student motivation student regarding and achievement? assessment A What effect does self-assessment have Anecdotal notes & Rubric Questionnaire on student observations (Completed by filled out by motivation and during class student) student regarding achievement? self-assessment B What effect does Questionnaire external assessment Anecdotal notes & Checklist filled out by have on student observations (Completed by student regarding motivation and during class Assistant Principal) external achievement? assessment C

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TRIANGULATION OF DATA Each section of the data collection/information gathering matrix is described in detail according to the corresponding letter/number combination assigned to the sections of the matrix. (A,1) Anecdotal notes and observations were recorded during class regarding the effect formative/summative rubric assessment has on the students. (A,2) Data regarding the students performance based on the instructors evaluation using the rubric were collected. (A,3) The students completed an exit questionnaire regarding rubric assessment completed by the instructor. (B,1) Anecdotal notes and observations were recorded during class regarding the effect formative/summative rubric self-assessment has on the students. (B,2) Data regarding the students performance based on their evaluation using the rubric were collected. (B,3) The students completed an exit questionnaire regarding rubric assessment they completed. (C,1) Anecdotal notes and observations were recorded during class regarding the effect summative, external; checklist assessment has on the students. (C,2) Data regarding the students performance, based the external assessment performed by the assistant principal, using the checklist were collected. (C,3) The students completed an exit questionnaire regarding the external assessment completed by the assistant principal.

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DATA COLLECTION / INFORMATION GATHERING TOOLS The data collection and information gathering tools used in this study are

listed below: 1. Rubric (see Appendix A) 2. Checklist (see Appendix B) 3. Exit Questionnaire, Likert Scale (see Appendix C1 and C2) 4. Anecdotal notes and observations recorded during and after class 5. Discussion with colleagues and administration DATA ANALYSIS This study explored the effect of triangulated assessment on student motivation and achievement. Three sources that were used to collect data and gather information were: anecdotal notes and observations, student rubric grades, and students responses on an exit questionnaire. The means of the rubric grades were calculated using the measuring and comparing central tendency technique with interval measurement. Patterns in student questionnaires were coded to identify common themes and patterns in the students responses. Finally, data and observations were compared and contrasted between the control and experimental groups.

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FINDINGS & DISCUSSION The data collected in the exit questionnaire (appendix C1/C2) provided the

majority of the information regarding the students disposition and motivation concerning the project. The following pie charts depict the students answers to each individual question in the exit questionnaire. The experimental and control group questionnaires were slightly different considering the groups were assessed differently. The control group was asked questions about triangulated assessment in a hypothetical manner, to see if the students thought they would have felt differently about the project if they had been evaluated using triangulated assessment. The questions for each group are displayed in the heading of each pie graph; the control and experimental groups are labeled accordingly. Experimental Group Control Group The data shows that students in the experimental felt they understood the project requirements slightly more than the control group. 62% of students in the experimental group recorded that they strongly agreed they understood the project 22

expectations as compared to 35% of students in the control group who strongly agreed with this statement. The students in the experimental group had a copy of the grading rubric and were continually checking the rubric to comply with the self- assessment portion of the triangulated assessment. The extra exposure and interaction with the grading rubric most likely resulted in a higher percentage of understanding across the class. Experimental Group Control Group This question was an attempt to capture the initial level of interest and motivation of students in both groups. Sixty-eight percent of students in the experimental group agreed they were excited about the project while 69% of students in the control group marked agree or strongly agree. The similarity in response to this question was beneficial to tracking the effectiveness of the triangulated assessment model between classes.

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Experimental Group Control Group As seen in the last question there was a striking similarity between the two groups in terms of motivation. Seventy-one percent of students in the experimental group agreed they were motivated to complete the project while 70% of the students in the control group agreed to being motivated. Experimental Group Control Group 24

Students responses regarding initial motivation continued to be strikingly

similar. Ninety percent of the students in the experimental group agreed with the statement and 92% of the students in the control group were in agreeance. Of the last three statements regarding initial motivation, the students of both groups answered within a 2 percentage points of each other. Experimental Group Control Group Both groups were assessed by a rubric, which is why the question is identical on each survey. The experimental group had more exposure and interaction with the rubric because they self-assessed using the same rubric that I used in the assessment of both groups. This may explain the disparity in responses between groups. All of the students in the experimental group agreed that rubric assessment from the instructor helped them be successful, while only 60% of the students in the control group agreed with the statement. Again, the overwhelming agreement

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depicted in the experimental group may have been a direct correlation of their increased use of the assessment tool. Experimental Group Control Group This is the first statement on the questionnaire that was different for each group. The control group was presented with a hypothetical situation to recorded their thoughts on self-assessment. All but one student (95%) agreed that self- assessment with a rubric was instrumental in completing the project successfully. Of the control group 82% agreed that if they had the opportunity to assess themselves with a rubric it would have helped them be more successful. 26

Experimental Group Control Group Again, the groups were presented with different statements on the questionnaire. Surprisingly, only 37% of students in the experimental group and 35% of students in the control group believed that external assessment form the assistant principal, Mr. Schulenburg, was instrumental in increasing their achievement. Experimental Group Control Group 27

This statement along with the two proceeding, are the same as the three

previous statements but the word want has been added. The goal of these statements was to calculate achievement against motivation. The three previous statements asked students if the different modes of assessment helped, or would have helped, them do better, while this triplet asks students if the assessment techniques made them want, or would have wanted, to do better. In the experimental group, all but one student (95%) recorded that rubric

assessment from their instructor made them want to do better. This is a decrease from 100% of students that indicated assessment from their instructor helped them do better. In the control group, 77% of students agreed with the statement that rubric assessment from their instructor made them want to do better, which is an increase from 60% that recorded rubric assessment from their instructor helped them to do better. I expected the level of agreement to be lower with this statement than the previous statement regarding achievement. 28

Experimental Group Control Group In the experimental group, the number of students that agreed with the statement that self-assessment with a rubric helped them achieve, agreed that the evaluation of self with a rubric also made them want to do better. Interestingly, there was one student who responded neutral to the statement regarding achievement, and one student recorded that they disagreed with the statement regarding motivation. The questionnaires were anonyms so it is unclear if it was the same student that did not agree with the two statements. Similarly, there was the same number of students in the control group that

agreed with both statements. There were two students that responded neutral to the earlier statement regarding achievement, while all that did not agree, disagreed in the statement above regarding motivation. Again, names were not recorded on the questionnaires, so it is impossible to tell if the same four students did not agree with both statements. 29

Experimental Group Control Group The final statement on the questionnaire depicts the most drastic change between the students attitudes in relation to external assessment and its effects on motivation. 90% of the students in the experimental group expressed that assessment from Mr. Schulenburg made them want to do better, while only 37% of the same students recorded that the external assessment helped them be successful. In parallel, 96% of the students in the control group recorded they thought

external assessment from Mr. Schulenburg would had made them want to do better while only 35% of the same students expressed agreement that assessment from Mr. Schulenburg would have helped them do better. The statements recorded from the students regarding external assessment

were the most dramatic on the questionnaire. It was interesting to see that although students did not agree that external assessment would help them on the project, the overwhelming majority found it to be very motivating. Do the students see a

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correlation between motivation and achievement? As an educator I believe that motivation has a great deal to do with the level of achievement of an individual student or an entire class. Although the students did not see the external assessment as helpful, I believe that inclusion of the external assessment helped not only motivate students but also increased achievement across the class in the experimental group. The students in the experimental group were held accountable by themselves, the instructor, and an external source. The triangulated assessment model provides a much more comprehensive, summative assessment of the students work. 31

the project.

The following pie charts depict a breakdown of the students final grades for

In the experimental group, 17 out of 21 (81%) students received a 90% or

higher with an astonishing 48% receiving all points possible. Eighty percent was the lowest score in the class. In the control group 11 of 24 (46%) students received a 90% or higher with 13% receiving all points possible. The lowest score in the control group was a 70%. 32

Although the class average is not astoundingly different, the number of students receiving all points possible is substantial. The increased exposure and interaction with the assessment rubric and process increased the students awareness of the project expectations resulting in higher achievement. The external assessment provided by Mr. Schulenburg increased the students motivation which also was instrumental in producing extremely high rates of success among the experimental group. SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS In review, the research may have been more comprehensive if a larger sample were used. Including multiple grade levels and different projects would provide a better look at triangulated assessment in the middle school setting. Conducting the study in multiple subject areas would also provide a larger scope of the effectiveness of triangulated assessment in the promotion of motivation and achievement. 33

References Andrade, H., Wang, X., Du, Y., & Akawi, R. (2009). Rubric-Referenced Self- Assessment and Self-Efficacy for Writing. Journal of Educational Research, 102(4), 287-302. Astin, A. (1991). Assessment for Excellence: The Philosophy and Practice of Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group. Berdrow, I., & Evers, F. (2010). Bases of competence: an instrument for self and institutional assessment. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(4), 419-434. Bingham, G., Holbrook, T., & Meyers, L. (2010). Using Self-Assessments in Elementary Classrooms. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(5), 59-61. Boud, D. (1990). Assessment and the promotion of academic values. Studies in Higher Education, 15(1), 101. Chen, C. (2010). The implementation and evaluation of a mobile self- and peer- assessment system. Computers & Education, 55(1), 229-236. External Assessment. (2003). Retrieved from http://finearts.esc20.net/art/art_assessment/art_as_external.html Lincoln Public Schools Important Information Booklet. (2010). Retrived from http://www.lps.org Internal Assessment. (2003). Retrieved from http://finearts.esc20.net/art/art_assessment/art_as_internal.html Mcdonald, B., & Boud, D. (2003). The Impact of Self-assessment on Achievement: the 34

effects of self-assessment training on performance in external examinations. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 10(2), 209. McMillan, J., Cohen, J., Abrams, L., Cauley, K., Pannozzo, G., & Hearn, J. (2010) Understanding Secondary Teachers Formative Assessment Practices and Their Relationship to Student Motivation. Metropolitian Educaitonal Research Consortium, (online submission), 1-20 Nicol, D., & Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199-218. Performance Assessment in Art. (2003). Retrieved from http://finearts.esc20.net/art/art_assessment/art_as_perform.html Reeves, T. (2009) Toward a Treatment Effect of an Intervetion to Foster Self- Regulated Learning (SRL): An Application of the Rasch Model. M.A. Thesis, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, (online submission), 1-136. Roth, M. (2010). Lincoln Public Schools Community News: Connecting with our Commmunity. Retrieved from http://www.lps.org Schroeder, A., Minocha, S., & Schneider, C. (2010). The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of using social software in higher and further education teaching and learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(3), 159-174. Shepard, L. (2008). The Role of Assessment in a Learning Culture. Journal of Education, 189(1/2), 95-106. Tan, K. (2008). Qualitatively different ways of experiencing student self-assessment. 35

Vallerand, R., Koestner, R., & Pelletier, L. (2008). Reflections on Self-Determination Theory. Canadian Psychology, 49(3) Vallerand, R., Pelletier, L., Blais, M., Brire, N., Sencal, C., & Vallires, E. (1993). On the assessment of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education: Evidence on the concurrent and construct validity of the Academic Motivation Scale. Sage Social Science Collections, 53(4), 159-172.

Higher Education Research & Development, 27(1), 15-29.

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APPENDIX A: Rubric Name_______ ______________________________________________________Period________Day________

Papier-Mch Oaxacan Animal Rubric


This rubric will be used to grade your work. You are responsible for keeping this rubric in your folder to hand in with your completed project. You will grade yourself after completing each step of the project by circling the area that best describes your animal. If you are in between circle the blank space in between the descriptions. Once your have completed and graded each step I will grade the same step on a separate rubric. Once everyone is done with their project, Mr. Schulenburg will visit our class to help us grade our projects. He will be asking you questions in small groups to make sure you understand the project. All 3 grades will be used to form your final grade for the project. Be sure to ask questions and help your friends. Project Steps 5 4 3 2 1 Animal is Animal is The animal is recognizable, recognizable, There not covered with a is newspaper recognizable, Animal skin of tape, showing, joints little tape is Construction body parts are between parts are holding the attached weak/ flimsy structure properly together, body parts fall off 2 layers of 1 layer of papier- 1 layer of Papier- papier-mch, mch, animal is papier-mch mch Paper is smooth, mostly covered, with several Application covers the entire paper is wrinkled wrinkles and animal. in places many areas where tape is exposed, Animal is There are a few There are Paint completely small areas of several areas of covered with a white paper white paper (Base Coat) base coat of showing showing paint. There are 5 or There are 3 or 4 There are 1 to Paint more patterns patterns on the 2 patterns repeated on the animal, with 3 to 4 ideas on the Pattern & animal, at least 5 colors used in the animal, with Details different colors patterns only 1 to 2 are used colors used. Total Score______/20 37

Students will be able to use their rubrics during this time. A check will be given if the students exhibited the task or answered the question correctly. Students identified / described the 4 basic steps of the project as stated in the rubric Students could point out and describe the different patterns and colors they used on their animals. Students animals were identifiable. Q: What art form is this project based on? As: Oaxaca, Mexico; Wood-carved animals; Artist Zeny Fuentes

APPENDIX B: Checklist

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APPENDIX C1: Questionnaire WHAT ARE YOUR FEELINGS ABOUT THIS PROJECT? Please circle your feelings about this project and the way you were graded. You do not need to include your name. This will not be graded, please be honest, I want to know how you really feel. SA = Strongly Agree, A = Agree, N = Neutral, D = Disagree, SD = Strongly Disagree I understood what was expected of me in this project. SA A N D SD I was excited about this project. SA A N D SD I was motivated to complete this project. SA A N D SD I wanted to get a good grade on this project. SA A N D SD Having Mr. Schwaninger Grade me with a rubric helped me do better. SA A N D SD Grading myself with a rubric helped me do better. SA A N D SD Having Mr. Schulenburg grade me with a checklist helped me do better. SA A N D SD Having Mr. Schwaninger Grade me with a rubric made me want to do SA A N D SD better. Grading myself with a rubric made me want to do better. SA A N D SD Having Mr. Schulenburg Grade me with a checklist made me want to do SA A N D SD better. 39

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