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Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

27-301 Lecture 3 Fall, 2007 Profs. A. D. Rollett, M. de Graef Processing Performance

Microstructure

Properties

Objective

The objective of this lecture is to remind you of what a material property is. Strength and ductility are defined and used to illustrate the relationship between materials properties and microstructure. The measurement of a stress-strain curve is described. More specifically, this lecture explains the Taylor Equation that relates yield strength to dislocation content of a material (and other obstacles to dislocation flow):

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

y = M G b

Look at www.steeluniversity.org, or http://www.steeluniversity.org/content/html/eng/default.asp?ca tid=1&pageid=1016899460, and specifically Tensile Test, Hardness Test, for selflearning guides

Notation

L, l := := G (or ) := b := r := f VV() := := := u := A := := := <L3> := := F := A := m := M := 2 := , := specimen length strain shear modulus Burgers vector Particle size (radius) volume fraction (of precipitates) stress (macroscopic) shear stress (critical value, in some cases) displacement area (cross section of specimen) geometrical constant (~1) angle between dislocation and line perpendicular to the obstacle line mean intercept length (of precipitates) mean spacing (of dislocations, precipitates) force area (cross section of specimen) Schmid factor Taylor factor nearest neighbor distance angles between tensile axis and slip direction, slip plane normal, respectively

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

Key Concepts

Stress, yield strength, typical values, extreme values Strain, engineering versus logarithmic strain Stress-strain curves Ductility, necking limit, relationship to hardening parameters, Considres Criterion Dislocation loops, obstacle spacings Critical resolved shear stress, relationship to shear modulus Schmid factors, average Taylor factor for polyxtal

Objective Example

Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

A Material Property is some quantifiable behavior of a material. For a property to be a material property, it should be a characteristic of the material, not the configuration in which it is used. Example: the load carrying capacity of a beam depends on the cross-section of the beam, therefore is not a material property. The yield strength is a material property because it is the same no matter how the material is tested.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

Why are [some] properties dependent on microstructure? Many properties are controlled by the propagation of defects within the material. The defect propagation is an example of a mechanism that controls the property. Example: yield strength measures the resistance to plastic flow, which is controlled by the mechanism of dislocation motion. Dislocations are line defects whose motion is more sensitive to precipitates, grain boundaries etc. than to the lattice. The latter constitutes microstructure, as previously discussed.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

The following new ideas or concepts have been introduced. 1. Strength Properties 2. Hardness 3. Ductility 4. Military non-diffusional transformations 5. Martensite (a lower symmetry crystal structure, formed as a result of a military transformation) 6. The Fe-C phase diagram (not completely new) 7. Diffusional transformations, decomposition 8. Pearlite (a two-phase structure, formed as a result of a diffusional transformation) Processes 9. Tempering

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

Strength

Strength is very basic to the value of a structural material. We measure it in terms of force per unit area: = F/A Strength means resistance to irreversible deformation or, if you prefer, the upper limit of elastic stress that is safe to apply to a material. Strength is highly dependent on microstructure because it is proportional to the difficulty of moving dislocations through (and between) the grains. Typical values? Most useful structural metals have strengths in the range 100-1000 MPa; ultra-high strength steel wire can be produced up to 5,500 MPa! Engineers are often taught strength as being related to (chemical) composition. Materials engineers study strengthening mechanisms and therefore understand how to control strength. Strength is typically measured in a tension test, but we will also examine this test when we discuss ductility.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

Comparisons

http://www.time-travellers.org/Historian/Rome2001/romephotos.html

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield HARD: Comparison of high strength (pearlitic) steels, used for bridges, tyre cord

Processing and mechanical behavior of hypereutectoid steel wires, D. Lesuer et al., Metallurgy, Processing and Applications of Metal Wires, TMS, 1996.

www.brantacan.co.uk/ suspension.htm www.brantacan.co.uk/ suspension.htm

10

Types of Strength

Later in the course, we will study stress and strength as tensor quantities. For now, we will treat them as scalar quantities, i.e. a single number. There are different modes of loading materials:

Yield Strength: ambient conditions, low strain rate Dynamic Strength: ambient conditions, high strain rate Creep Strength: high temperature strength, low strain rate Torsion Strength: strength in twisting Fatigue Strength: alternating stresses

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

The strength value is highly dependent on the loading mode. Each type of strength is controlled by a variety of strengthening mechanisms.

11

Yield strength

A yield strength is boundary between elastic and plastic flow.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

plastic

= yield

12

Ductility

Ductility measures the ability of a material to undergo plastic deformation without fracture intervening. Ductility is the hallmark of structural materials because it makes structures damage tolerant. If one element of a structure is overloaded, it will deform before it breaks and thus not jeopardize the entire structure. We cannot discuss ductility without first defining strain and then examining stress-strain behavior. Ranges of ductility: most oxides break (in tension) before they yield plastically. Useful structural metals have at least 5% ductility. Superplastic materials (not just metals!) can exhibit enormous ductilities, >500%!

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

High strain rate superplasticity of an Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo dualphase stainless steel. Grain refinement of (+) duplex structure up about 1m has established a large elongation over 1000% even at high-strain rates in the order of 0.1 s-1.

13

Strain

Strain measures the change in shape of a body. If you apply a force to a body, naturally there is a change in size. By normalizing the change in a given dimension by the original dimension, one arrives at a quantity that again can be used to characterize the properties of a material. For now, we'll simply state that strain, properly described is also a second rank tensor. strain = [change in length]/[original length]

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

=L/L0=(L-L0)/L0.

Reminder: strain is a tensor because a body can change shape in all three directions at once.

14

Strain - diagram

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

Courtney

15

Strain - notes

A better definition of strain is that of a gradient in displacement of points in a body. Take a tensile strain as an example: if we fix one end of the body and apply a tensile force, then the fixed point does not move. The point at the other end of the body moves the most. The change in position, i.e. the displacement, is then proportional to the distance away from the fixed point. The strain can then be defined as the gradient in displacement, u; = du/dx, where x is the position along the body. In order to measure strain, one must choose points on a specimen, measure their spacing, perform the test, and then re-measure. Since strain is always a ratio of lengths then it is dimensionless. Per-cent (%) is useful because many materials have ductilities less than 50%. Fractional strain is also used, however.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

16

Stress-Strain: measurement

The measurement of the stress-strain characteristics of a material, which we will perform in the second laboratory in 301, requires us to examine some practical aspects. At ambient conditions and easily attained strain rates (room temperature, one atmosphere of air, strain rates between 10-5 and 100 per second), the most straightforward test is the tensile test. A bar of constant cross section [area] is stretched at controlled displacement rate. The load required for the stretch is recorded. Essentially all materials exhibit a maximum strain, beyond which failure (fracture) occurs. Note that, although strength is a tensor quantity, one can only measure in one direction at once. In many cases, it is reasonable to assume isotropy.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

17

Stress-strain curves

If one applies a large enough load to a ductile material (of uniform cross-section) plastic deformation will result in the following (typical) behavior.

The elastic strain can be subtracted from the total strain in order to produce a curve of stress versus plastic strain only, which is useful for many problems. A linear stress-(elastic) strain response is assumed; for each data point, the elastic strain corresponding to that stress (stressmodulus) is subtracted (translate to the left, parallel to the strain axis). This procedure can also be used to correct for machine compliance.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

Plastic

Elastic

Courtney

18

Compliance Correction

Often, a tensile testing machine is not perfectly stiff and the lack of stiffness is evident in the test results as an apparent elastic modulus that is lower than the expected value (i.e. what you find in a handbook). The reason is that applying a load to the specimen produces elastic displacements in the machine as well as in the specimen. Displacement is measured at the cross-head and so additional, apparent strain occurs. This can be corrected for in a straightforward manner by measuring the difference in slope between the measured, Emeasuredl, and the known elastic modulus, Ematerial. The permits a machine displacement to be computed at any given load, and the resulting strain subtracted from the measured strain value.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

= "measured # = "measured

$e

19

Stress-strain characteristics

The initial part of the curve represents the elastic regime of the material. If the load is released, the strain of the specimen will return to zero and no permanent deformation occurs. The slope of this part of the curve is called Young's modulus or Modulus of Elasticity. Further imposed strain results in a drastic change in slope of the curve which signals the onset of permanent plastic deformation. The yield strength is a measure of the stress required for permanent plastic flow. The usual definition of this property is the offset yield strength determined by the stress corresponding to the intersection of the curve and a line parallel to the elastic part but offset by a specific strain (usually 0.2%). Beyond this point, the material work hardens until the ultimate tensile strength is attained. At this point, the incremental increases in stress due to decrease in crosssectional area becomes greater than the increase in load carrying ability due to strain hardening. Starting at this point, all further strain is concentrated in the "necked" portion of the specimen.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

20

Ductility measures

The reduction of area at fracture and the elongation to fracture are used as percent reduction of the original area and percentage increase of the original gage length. The percentage reduction of area at fracture is only slightly affected by the shape of the tensile test specimen. As long as the ratio of the width to thickness does not exceed about 5:1, for a rectangular cross-section, the percent reduction of area remains the same as for circular cross-sections. Elongation to failure = f = (lnal-l0)/l0 x 100% Reduction in Area = (Anal-A0)/A0 x 100% The reduction of area is usually larger than the elongation to fracture.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

21

Derived Quantities

The Gauge Length is the length between the shoulders of the specimen Elongation to fracture is usually measured by fitting the broken specimen back together and measuring the distance between punch or scribe marks. Elongation may also be calculated from the load-extension diagram; the two do not necessarily agree. Elongation is so much affected by the gauge length over which it is measured that the gauge length must always be specified when reporting data. Tensile Strength, or, Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) is the maximum stress that the material experiences during the test. Work Hardening or Strain Hardening is the increase in stress during the test.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

22

One important technical issue in tensile (and compression) tests arises from the change in area. Load-displacement curves are all that can be measured in a tensile test. Load must be divided by area to arrive at stress. Displacement must be divided by an initial length (such as a gauge length) to arrive at a strain. If the initial cross-sectional area, A0, is used to calculate stress, then this is known as nominal or engineering stress. n = F/A0 Engineering stress -strain plots are useful because they show the maximum load carrying capacity of the material by the change in sign of the slope (peak in the curve at dn/d=0). Similarly, use of linear strain based on the initial length is known as nominal or engineering strain. n = l / l0

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

23

If the stress is divided by the current area, A, then the current, or true stress is obtained. The current area is easily obtained from the length. Constancy of volume: it is an experimental fact that the volume change experienced in ductile flow is negligible. This is a result of plastic flow being accommodated by shear/slip. Therefore,

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

Al = A0l0

This permits us to write,

True, or logarithmic strain is defined as,

l

! = ln(1+ ! n )

24

Why Ductility?

Why do materials exhibit ductility? The reason for ductility in metals is that they work harden.

The key concept is the re-distribution of strain. That is to say, if one sub-region of a material hardens as a result of the accumulation of dislocations then its load carrying capacity is higher than that of the neighboring regions. More specifically, the flow stress is lower in the non-hardened regions than in the hardened region. Therefore plastic flow is larger in the nonhardened region(s) and, in effect, the strain is redistributed to a different part of the specimen.

Many polymer systems also exhibit bulk ductility because the long chain molecules are present in folded form, either regularly arranged as in the semi-crystalline polymers, or irregularly as in the amorphous polymers. This conformation of the long chain molecules allows for considerable stretching during plastic deformation and often to a few hundred percent.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

25

Ductility is limited because the rate of work hardening decreases with strain.

Straining does not continue indefinitely. There are several ways in which plastic deformation will cease; collectively, the various phenomena are discussed as fracture. One limit to straining comes when the material exhausts its ability to redistribute strain. This exhaustion is dependent on the geometry of the test, however. For example, the tensile deformation results in a steady decrease in the cross section which sets up a competition between strain hardening and geometric softening from the perspective of load carrying capacity of a given element of material. When the strain hardening no longer "keeps up with" the geometric softening then strain redistribution ceases and a neck will start to form.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

26

Analysis of ductility

Consider the load on the tensile specimen:

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

F=A

Differentiate:

dF = dA + dA

The criterion for instability is that the increase in load in any given element of material is less than or equal to zero, dF=0. The load increase is positive from work hardening (and dominates at first) but negative from the change in area. Note that we must work with current values, i.e. the true stress.

27

Analysis, contd.

dF = 0 dA + dA = 0 dT/T = -dA/A

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

In words, the hardening rate (of the true stress) is equal to the (true) stress at the point at which the material can no longer support an increasing load. Beyond this point on the stressstrain curve, the deformation will tend to localize in a (diffuse) neck.

28

Considres Criterion

Considre developed an elegant geometrical construction for determining the maximum load in a tensile test. The true stress is plotted against the engineering strain. A straight line is drawn through the point A, (-1,0), and tangent to the curve. The stress at the tangent point is the maximum stress/load. If the stress-strain curve can be described as a power-law relationship with exponent n, T = Kn , then the engineering strain at the maximum load, eu = n.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

29

Ductility-Microstructure

How does microstructure influence ductility? Provided that dislocations move easily through the material and macroscopic instabilities (such as necking) do not intervene, ductility can be very large. Any microstructural element that leads to local cracking will tend to lower ductility by decreasing the load carrying capacity of the material. Inclusions, second phase particles, grain boundaries, for example, are all potential fracture sites. Qualitatively, cleaner, purer materials have higher ductility.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

30

Example Problem

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

[Courtney]

31

Summary (intermediate)

Tensile strength and ductility have been explained. Standards methods of calculating these quantities from the load-displacement curve from a tensile testing machine have been described.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

32

Dislocation Motion

Dislocations control most aspects of strength and ductility in structural (crystalline) materials. Our objective in reviewing the characteristics of dislocations is so that we can understand and control strengthening mechanisms. The strength of a material is controlled by the density of defects (dislocations, second phase particles, boundaries). For a polycrystal:

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

33

Dislocation glide

Recall the effect of dislocation motion in a crystal: passage causes one half of the crystal to be displaced relative to the other. This is a shear displacement, giving rise to a shear strain.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

[Dieter]

34

Straight lines are not a good approximation for the shape of dislocations, however: dislocations really move as expanding loops.

[Dieter]

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

The essential feature of yield strength is the density of obstacles that dislocations encounter as they move across the slip plane. Higher obstacle density higher strength.

35

One might think that dislocation flow is something like elasticity: larger stresses imply longer distances for dislocation motion. This is not the case: dislocations only move large distances once the stress rises above a threshold or critical value (hence the term critical resolved shear stress). Consider the expansion of a dislocation loop under a shear stress between two pinning points (Frank-Read source).

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

[Dieter]

36

2

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

If you consider the three consecutive 1 2r positions of the dislocation loop, it is not hard to see that the shear stress ! required to support the line tension of the dislocation is roughly equal for positions 1 and 3, but higher for position 2. Moreover, the largest shear stress required is at position 2, because this has the smallest radius of curvature. A simple force balance (ignoring edge-screw differences) between the force on the dislocation versus the line tension force on each obstacle then gives maxb = (Gb2/2), max = Gb/ where is the separation between the obstacles (strictly speaking one subtracts their diameter), b is the Burgers vector and G is the shear modulus (Gb2/2 is the approximate dislocation line tension).

37

To see how the force balance applies, consider the relationship between the shape of the dislocation loop and the force on the dislocation. Line tension = Gb2/2 Force resolved in the vertical direction = 2cos Gb2/2 Force exerted on the dislocation per unit length (Peach-Koehler Eq.) = b Force on dislocation per obstacle (only the length perpendicular to the shear stress matters) = b At each position of the dislocation, the forces balance, so = cos Gb2/b The maximum force occurs when the angle = 0, which is when the dislocation is bowed out into a complete semicircle between the obstacle pair: = Gb/

Gb2/2 Gb2/2

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

Gb2/2 Gb2/2

=0

MOVIES: http://www.gpm2.inpg.fr/axes/plast/MicroPlast/ddd/

38

Critical stress

It should now be apparent that dislocations will only move short distances if the stress on the crystal is less than the Orowan bowing stress. Once the stress rises above this value then any dislocation can move past all obstacles and will travel across the crystal or grain. This explains why plastic deformation is highly non-linear. This analysis is correct for all types of obstacles, including second phase particles (precipitates) and dislocations (that intersect the slip plane). For weak obstacles, the shape of the critical configuration is not the semi-circle shown above (to be discussed later) - the dislocation does not bow out so far before it breaks through.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

39

Arrays of Obstacles

In reality, obstacles are not uniformly distributed and so there is a spectrum of obstacle strengths. Again, it turns out that this makes a relatively minor difference to the critical resolved shear stress, crss, which can be estimated from a knowledge of the average obstacle spacing, , the Burgers vector magnitude, b, and the shear modulus, G, of the material, and a geometrical factor, , that takes account of the flexibility of the dislocations (i.e. that they do not have to bow out to the maximum stress semi-circular position:

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

crss = Gb/.

- What is this distance, ? For dislocations that are flexible (or, the obstacles are strong), we need the nearest neighbor distance, 2. - The geometrical factor, , is generally taken to be 0.5. This is a because dislocations break through obstacles, on average, at an angle, , less than 90.

40

The nearest neighbor distance (in a plane), 2, can be obtained from the point density in a plane, PA. The probability density, P(r), is given by considering successive shells of radius, r: the density is the shell area, multiplied by the point density , PA, multiplied by the remaining fraction of the cumulative probability. For strictly 1D objects such as dislocations, 2 may be used as the mean free distance between intersection points on a plane.

0

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

%

!#r 2 PA

r dr

Ref: Underwood, pp 84,85,185.

Not examinable

41

Dislocations as obstacles

Dislocations can be considered either as a set of randomly oriented lines within a crystal, or as a set of parallel, straight lines. The latter is easier to work with whereas the former is more realistic. Dislocation density, , is defined as either line length per unit volume, LV. It can also be defined by the areal density of intersections of dislocations with a plane, PA. For randomly oriented dislocations, use standard stereology: = LV = 2PA; 2 = (2PA)-1/2; thus = (2{LV/2})-1 (2{/2})-1. is the obstacle spacing in any plane. Straight, parallel dislocations: use = L V = PA where PA applies to the plane perpendicular to the dislocation lines only; 2=(PA)-1/2; thus = 1/LV 1/ where is the obstacle spacing in the plane orthogonal to the dislocation lines only. Thus, we can write crss

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

= G b

42

To make the connection between dislocation behavior and yield strength as measured in tension, consider the deformation of a single crystal. Given an orientation for single slip, i.e. the resolved shear stress reaches the critical value on one system ahead of all others, then one obtains a pack-of-cards straining.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

[Dieter]

43

Geometry of slip: how big an applied stress is required for slip? To obtain the resolved shear stress based on an applied tensile stress, take the component of the stress along the slip direction which is given by Fcos, and divide by the area over which the (shear) force is applied, A/cos. Note that the two angles are not complementary unless the slip direction, slip plane normal and tensile direction happen to be co-planar. = F/A cos cos = cos cos = m Schmid factor = m

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

44

The experimental evidence of Schmids Law is that there is a critical resolved shear stress. This is verified by measuring the yield stress of single crystals as a function of orientation. The example below is for Mg which is hexagonal and slips most readily on the basal plane (all other crss are much larger).

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

= /coscos

Soft orientation, with slip plane at 45to tensile axis Hard orientation, with slip plane at ~90to tensile axis

45

This brief review of single slip in crystals raises the question of how to determine the Schmid factor for an arbitrarily oriented crystal. Recall the general formula for how to resolve a general (tensor) stress onto a slip plane: = b n = bi ij nj Then simplify this formula for the case where the stress is a tensile stress parallel to a direction, A: = bA nA = cos cos It is best to use a spreadsheet (e.g. Excel), or a Math program such as Mathematica or Maple, and make a list of all possible combinations of slip plane (111, -111, 1-11, -111) and slip direction (e.g. 111 is orthogonal to 110, -101 and 0-11), taking only positive versions of each (unit) vector. This will give you a table with 12 rows, one for each slip system (3 X 4 = 12 combinations of plane and direction). Then calculate the dot products of the tensile axis, A, with each combination of plane+direction in turn in order to obtain cos and cos respectively (2 more columns). Then calculate the Schmid factor as cos*cos (1 more column). Finally, identify the row with the largest absolute value of the Schmid factor in it (i.e. positive or negative). You can expand the table to include the negatives of each slip direction in addition: this will give you 24 rows (e.g. 111 is orthogonal to 110, -101, 0-11, 1-10, 10-1 and 01-1). If you use the 24 row version, you will nd that you obtain a pair of positive and negative Schmid factors for each pair of positive and negative slip directions. This positive/negative pairing corresponds to positive and negative directions of slip.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

46

Polycrystal Deformation

Consider how a polycrystal deforms with slips in individual grains, each of which has a different orientation. (a) undeformed (b) single slip, leading to gaps and overlaps (hypothetical) (c) creation of geometrically necessary dislocations (d) compatible deformed grains Note varying orientations of slip planes

[Dieter]

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

47

In a later discussion, we will see in more detail how slip at the single crystal level is related to (ductile) deformation of a polycrystal. In polycrystals, each grain must deform in multiple slip, meaning that several slip systems have to be active at once in order for an individual grain to change shape in the same way as the bulk material. Each grain has a Taylor factor, M, which is analogous to (but generally larger than) the reciprocal of the Schmid factor, 1/cos cos = 1/m. The Taylor factors can be averaged over all the grains. For a polycrystal, yield = <M> crss = M G b Typical value of <> = 3.1, i.e. the apparent hardness of the polycrystal is approximately three times the critical resolved shear stress.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

48

Work Hardening

Where does the stress-strain curve come from? Why does the flow stress (critical resolved shear stress) increase with strain? As slip takes place in a crystal, even in cases where only one slip system appears to be active (macroscopically), more than one system (or set of dislocations) is in fact active. Whenever two slip systems cross each other (intersect), the dislocations react with each other, leading to tangling. This tangling up of dislocations means that dislocation line length is left behind in the crystal, thus generating more obstacles to dislocation motion (and raising the critical resolved shear stress). Work hardening is still a very difficult theoretical problem, so we rely on empirical descriptions such as the power law mentioned earlier:

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

T = yield + Kn

49

The following points are useful as a summary of important features of plasticity from a material perspective. Stress-strain curves provide a straightforward way to measure yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and ductility. The maximum load and maximum uniform elongation are predictable from the stress-strain curve (e.g. power law), which is known as Considres construction. Single crystal behavior reflects the anisotropy of the crystal for both elastic (see lecture on elasticity) and plastic behavior. Single crystal plastic behavior is controlled by dislocation movement; deformation twinning can supplement dislocation glide, however, and is more common in lower symmetry crystals. The presence of dislocations that can glide at low (critical resolved) shear stresses means that metals yield plastically at stresses far below the theoretical strength.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

50

Summary, contd.

There is a critical shear stress for dislocation flow on any given slip system; this phenomenon is known as Schmid's Law. The response is elastic if all resolved shear stresses are less than the critical value:

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

Mechanical tests on single crystals generally activate only one slip system and work hardening is low. Larger strains in single crystal tests, or coincidence of the principal stress with a high symmetry axis leads to multiple slip (slip on more than one system); in this case the stress-strain behavior is polycrystallike. A polycrystals can be thought of as a composite of single crystals. The appropriate model for this composite is the iso-strain model (equivalent to the affine deformation assumption discussed previously for polymers). By averaging the stresses (or strains) required for multiple slip in each crystal, an average for the "inverse Schmid factor", or (more usually) "Taylor factor", can be obtained whose value is 3.07 for cubic materials deformed in tension or compression with {111}<110> (or {110}<111>) slip systems.

51

Summary

The concept of material property has been explored. An illustration of the dependence of structural properties on microstructure has been given. Basic mechanical properties (strength, hardness, ductility) have been defined and illustrated with respect to practical methods for measurement. The Taylor Equation that relates yield strength to dislocation content of a material has been explained.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

52

Sample Problem

From Dieter, p219 (adapted): Question: Al-4%Cu (by wt.) has a yield stress of 600MPa. Estimate the particle size and spacing. Solution: recognize that this stress relates to age hardening beyond the peak hardness. Therefore use the Orowan bowing stress to estimate the stress. = <M> crss = <M> Gb/ G=27.6GPa; b=0.25nm; <M>=3.1: spacing = 3.1*27,600*0.25.10-9/ 600= 35.7 nm Now we must estimate the volume fraction of particles for which we use the phase diagram, assuming that we are dealing with the equilibrium phase, , which is 54 w/o Cu, and the in equilibrium with it, 0.5 w/o Cu. Wt. % Al = (54-4)/(54-0.5) = 93.5; wt. % = 4-0.5/(54-0.5)=6.5 Volume of = 93.5gm/2.7 gm/cm3 =34.6 cm3 Volume of = 6.5/ 4.443 gm/cm3 = 1.5 cm3 Volume fraction of = 0.96; volume fraction of = 0.04. Use =4r(1-f)/3f (slide 22): r =3*0.04*35.7/4/(1-0.04) = 1.12 nm.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

53

" = L3

1# (VV )$

(VV )$

=4

=4

!

If the dislocations are relatively inflexible and therefore straight (or the obstacles are weak) then we need the mean free distance, , between obstacles, instead of the nearest neighbor distance. This applies to any kind of obstacle (dislocations or particles). The mean free distance, , between particle edges is given by the above equation. Note that it is closely related to the mean intercept distance, <L3>. Finite volume fraction, (Vv), or f, decreases the distance between particle edges. Alpha () represents the particle phase. Thus, for mono-disperse spheres we can write for the c.r.s.s.:

crss = Gb3f/2D.

Compare with the nearest neighbor distance for particles:

crss = Gb2(6f/)/D.

These two formulae differ only by a numerical factor, and the presence of the volume fraction in a square root term.

Ref: Underwood, pp 80-85.

54

References

Materials Principles & Practice, Butterworth Heinemann, Edited by C. Newey & G. Weaver. G.E. Dieter, Mechanical Metallurgy, McGrawHill, 3rd Ed. D. Hull and D. J. Bacon (1984). Introduction to Dislocations, Oxford, UK, Pergamon. T. H. Courtney (2000). Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Boston, McGraw-Hill.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

55

Summary: 3

The variation of mechanical behavior with temperature and strain rate depends on the kind of obstacle that dislocations have to move past. In fcc metals, yield is dominated by other dislocations (the "forest hardening model") such that the strain rate/temperature variation is dominated by the (weak) variation in shear modulus (with temperature) through the "Taylor equation", =MGb. In bcc metals, yield at low temperatures is dominated by lattice friction (i.e. the Peierls stress) and large strain rate/temperature sensitivities are observed. Most ceramics follow the bcc model because they too have high lattice frictions at low temperatures (but become plastic and ductile at elevated temperatures). Single crystals are important because many high temperature applications require single crystal or coarse polycrystals in order to maximize creep resistance, i.e. by minimizing grain boundary area. Microelectronic applications use single crystals of Si where the absence of grain boundaries is not important unless MEMS devices are being designed.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

56

Summary: 4

The work hardening behavior of single crystals is summarized by four stages: stage I is known as "easy glide"; stage II as "linear, athermal hardening"; stage III as "dynamic recovery"; and stage IV as "linear hardening". For a polycrystal to exhibit ductility, it must be possible for every grain to deform plastically in an arbitrary manner. This is summarized as von Mises criterion which states that a minimum of ve independent systems are required for ductility. This can be understood most easily by considering that an arbitrary strain has ve independent components: there is an equation (linear) that links the slip on an individual slip system (or twinning system) to the macroscopic shape change (i.e. strain); therefore ve independent systems are needed in order to satisfy the ve independent strain components.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

57

Summary: 5

Dislocation ow in a polycrystal is quite heterogeneous. Dislocations get entangled in one another as they expand over their slip planes. The major consequence of this is that any dislocation motion (over a distance larger than the mean spacing) leaves behind a certain amount of dislocation; this is called dislocation storage and hardens the crystal. By a combination of collapse of tangles and cross-slip (switching of slip planes by screw-conguration segments), however, dislocations of opposite sign can meet and annihilate; this is called dynamic recovery (because it only happens during continuing straining) and decreases the hardening rate (i.e. the net storage rate of dislocations decreases because of dynamic recovery). Eventually dynamic recovery balances storage and the ow stress saturates, or nearly so. At high temperatures, dynamic recovery occurs early on in straining and, with the ease of non-conservative motion (climb), the work hardening becomes negligible. With rapid dynamic (and static) recovery, the dislocation structure becomes a sub-grain structure with well dened, low angle boundaries. If a single crystal is bent, then the dislocations left behind after the deformation tend to re-arrange themselves into walls of edge dislocations of the same type and sign. Such a recovered or polygonized structure is a clear example of geometrically necessary dislocations.

Objective Example Strength Hardness Ductility Orowan Bowing Single Crystal Yield Polyxtal Yield

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