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Sedimentary Basins & their Sedimentation Pattern

Rajesh Singh Shekhawat MSc (Prev.) 2011 Under the guidance of Professor D. K. Pandey

INTRODUCTION
Sedimentary basins are regions of prolonged subsidence of Earth's surface. Driving Mechanisms Plate Tectonics, & other tectonic and Dynamic activities - result in isostatic adjustments, loading & unloading. Earth's crust About 20 rigid plates, whose movement result in Divergence, Convergence, & Strike-slip Basin formation.

Major & Minor Plates of Earths Lithosphere

Tectonic Elements of Earth

Factors affecting depositional processes & resulting sedimentary facies

Wilson Cycle

5. Suturi ng

1.

Rift Basin

2. Proto-Ocean & Ocean Basin 4. Ocean Closure 3. Arc-Trench Formation

Classification of Sedimentary Basins


Many classifications given. In general, the basis of classification are Type of Crust on which the basins rest, Position of basin with respect to plate margins, Type of plate interactions during sedimentation for basins lying close to a plate margin.

Most Comprehensive Basin Classification by Busby & Ingersoll (1995) Divergent Settings Terrestrial rift Rifts within continental crust commonly valleys associated with bimodal volcanism. Ex Rio Grand rift (New Mexico) Proto-oceanic rift troughs Incipient oceanic basins floored by new oceanic crust & flanked by young rifted continental margins. ExRed Sea

Intraplate Settings Passive Mature rifted continental margins in intraplate Margin basin settings at OC interfaces. ExEast Coast of USA Continental Progradational sediment wedges constructed off embankmen edges of rifted continental margins. Ex ts Mississippi Gulf Coast Intracratonic Broad cratonic basins floored by fossil rifts in basins axial zones. ExChad Basin (Africa) Continental Stable cratons covered with thin & laterally platforms extensive sedimentary strata. Ex Barents Sea (Asia) Active ocean At divergent plate boundaries (spreading still basins active). Ex Pacific Ocean Oceanic Is, aseismic ridges, Sedimentary aprons & platforms; In intraoceanic settings other than magmatic arcs. ExEmperorHawaii seamounts

Convergent settings Trenches Deep troughs; By subduction of oceanic lithosphere. ExChile Trench Trench-slope Local depressions upper part of Trenches. ExCentral basins America Trench Forearc basins Within arc-trench gaps. ExSumatra Intraarc basins Along arc platform. ExLago de Nicaragua Backarc basins Oceanic behind intraoceanic magmatic arcs(O-O). Ex Marianas. Continental behind continental-margin magmatic arcs without foreland fold-thrust belts(C-C). ExJapan Sea. Retroarc Foreland basins on subducting plate in C-C/C-O formed foreland basins by subduction-generated compression &/or collision). ExAndes foothills Remnant oceanShrinking ocean basins caught b/w colliding continental basins margins &/or arc-trench systems. ExBay of Bengal Peripheral Foreland basins above subducted continental margins foreland basins during C-C collisions. ExPersian Gulf

Transform/Strike-Slip settings Transtensio By extension along strike-slip fault systems. Ex nal Salton Sea. Transpressio By compression. ExSanta Barbara Basin. nal Transrotatio By rotation of crustal blocks about vertical axes. Ex nal Western Aleutian. settings Hybrid B/W ends of 2 sub-parallel strike-slip fault segments. Overstep IntracontinentaDiverse basins form due to distant collisional Ex Dead Sea Basin l wrench processes. ExQaidam Basin (China). basins Aulacogens Failed rifts at high angles to continental margins. ExNorth Sea. Impactogens Rifts at high angles to orogenic belts, without preorogenic history (in contrast with aulacogens). ExBaikal rift (Siberia). Successor Form in intermontane settings following cessation of local orogenic activity. ExS. Basin & Range basins

Strike-Slip Basins
Form in a wide variety of geodynamical settings; Varied structural history, active seismicity & low heat flow. High Subsidence & Sedimentatiion rates. Relatively narrow, high syndepositional relief . Sedimentary Fill Rapid lateral facies changes Marginal Fans(breccias, Conglmerates) tight up against the fault; Axial lacustrine facies mud, shale; Streamflow-dominated fans(fluviatile sandstone & conglomerate) along opposite margin;

Strike-Slip Basins Continued.


Best known intracontinental transform San Andreas system, & 1 of the best documented pull apart basins in this system Ridge Basin, California.

Basins in Convergent Setting


Compressive regime inhomogeneous stress distribution & thermal effects produces both, Extensional & Compressional Basins.

Backarc Basin
Extensional; Typically underfilled, containing mainly deep-water sediment of volcaniclastic & pelagic origin. Initially, volcaniclastics interfinger with a background of pelagic clays. As subsidence continues & outstrips sediment supply, seafloor descends below CCD accumulates siliceous rather than calcareous clays. Clastic wedges into landward edge of basin from continent.

Back-arc Basin

Back-arc region floored by continental lithosphere flexural subsidence coupled with major fold & thrust tectonics. Contains 4 depositional zones Wedge top/ Piggy Back Basins Foredeep Forebulge Backbulge Foredeep & Piggy-back Basins most common.

Foreland Basins

Foreland Basins Sediment Fill


Early Stage deposits Limestones, deep-water muds & interbedded turbidite sandstones Flysch" Later Stage Transition to coarse-grained (upward coarsening) fluvial/alluvial clastic rocks Molasse".

Retro-arc foreland basins

Peripheral foreland Basin

Cycle/continental break-up . Long, narrow, linear; No or poor connection with sea. Mechanisms Active Rifting East African Rift Passive Rifting Sediment Fill Coarse, non-marine, alluvial, fluvial & lacustrine siliciclastics & volcaniclastics texturally & mineralogically immature. Where periodic connection with sea(esp. in rift climax phase) Evaporites (Jurassic of Gulf of Mexico & Texas).

Basins in Intraplate Settings Within continental; Rift Basins of Wilson Opening stage

East African Rift Basin

Proto Oceanic Rift Basins


Post-rift phase Basin floored with Oceanic crust. Ex Red Sea, b/w Africa & Arabia; Southern Red Sea young (5Ma) oceanic crust along its axial zone, with flanking shelves underlain by stretched continental lithosphere. To South, transition to continental Afar Rift; To North, Gulf of Suez Rift. Sediment Fill Subsidence outpaces sediment supply. Number of distinctive facies associations indicative of sediment starvation Evaporites, Black organic-rich shale

Red Sea Proto Oceanic Rift Basins

Cross Section of Red Sea Rift

Passive Margin Basins Areas of high sedimentation rates large-listric gravity-driven faults common. In areas of low clastic sediment input Carbonate factories. Eustasy, Tectonics & other factors(Climate, etc) control accomodation space & sediment availability, & hence sediment diistribution pattern

References
OCW MIT Basin Analysis: Principles & Applications Allen & Allen (2005) Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift & Mountain Building Frisch, Meschede & Blakey (2011) Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis A.D.Miall (2000) Sedimentary Basins: Evolution, Facies & Sediemntary Budget Gerhard Einsele (2000) Global tectonics Kearney, Klepeis & Vine (2009) Physical Principles of Sedimentary Basins Magnus Wangen (2010) Petroleum Geoscience J.Gluyas & R.Swarbrick (2006) Petroleum Geoscience: From Sedimentary Environments to Rock Physics K.Bjorlykke (2010) Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks Sam Boggs Jr. (2009) Principles of Sedimentology & Stratigraphy Sam Boggs Jr. (2005) Sedimentology & Stratigraphy Gary Nichols (2009) Applied Sedimentology Richard C. Selley (2000) Earths Dynamic Systems W.K.Hamblin & E.H.Christiansen Earth Structure: An Intro to Structural geology & Tectonics Pluijm & Marshak (2004)

Thank You