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Boiler is a device used for generating steam for power, processing or heating purposes. Boiler are designed to transmit heat from an external combustion source (usually fuel combustion to a fluid) contained within the boiler itself. The heat generating unit includes a furnace in which the fuel is burned. With the advantage of water cooled surface walls, super heaters, air heaters and economizers, the term steam generator has evolved as a better description of the apparatus. Boiler may be classified on the basis of the following characteristics:             Use Pressure Material size Tube content Tube shape and position Firing heat source Fuel fluid Circulations Furnace position Furnace type General shape Special features

All the above stated points are given in detail below:

y Use

The characteristics of the boiler vary according to the nature of service performed. Customarily boilers are called either stationary or mobile. Large units used primarily for electric power generation are known as control station steam generators or utility plants.
y Pressure

To provide safety control over construction feature, all boilers must be constructed in accordance with the Boiler codes, which differentiate boiler as per their characteristics.
y Materials

Selection of construction materials is controlled by boiler code material specifications. Power boilers are specially constructed of special steels.
y Size

Rating code for boiler standardize the size and ratings of boiler based on heating surfaces. The same is verified by performance tests.
y Tube contents

In addition to ordinary shell type of boiler, there are two general steel boiler classifications the fire tube and water tube boilers. Fire tube boilers are boilers with straight tubes that are surrounded by wat er and through the products of combustion pass. Water tube boilers are those in which the tubes themselves contain steam or water, the heat being applied to the outside surface.
y Firing

The boiler may be fired or unfired pressure vessel. In fired boilers, the heat applied is product of fuel combustion. An unknown fired boiler has a heat source other than combustion.

y Heat Source

The heat may be derived from: I. II. III. The combustion of fuel. The hot gases of other chemical reaction. The utilization of nuclear energy.

y Fuel

Boilers are often designated with respect to the fuel burn.

y Fluid

The general concept of a boiler is that of a vessel to generate steam. A few utility plants have installed mercury boilers.
y Circulation

Majorityof boilers operate with natural circulation. Some utilizes positive circulation in which operative fuel may be forced once through or controlled with partial circulation.
y Furnace Position

The boiler is an external combustion device in which the combustion takes place outside the region of boiling water. The relative location of the furnace to the boiler is indicated asbeing internally or externally fired. The furnace is internally fired if the furnace region iscompletely surrounded by the water cooled surfaces. The furnace is externally fired if the furnace is auxiliary to the boiler.
y Furnace Type

The boiler can be described in terms of furnace type.

y General Shape

During the evaluation of the boiler as a heat producer, many new shapes and designs have appeared and these are widely rec ognised in the trade.
y Trade Name

Many manufacturers famed their own name for each boiler and these names come into common usage as being descriptive of the boiler.
y Special Features

Sometimes the type of boiler like differential firing and tangential firin g are desciptant.

Categorisation of Boilers
Boilers are generally categorised as follows:
y y y y y y y y y

Steel Boiler Fire Tube type Water tube type Horizontal Straight Tube Bent Tube Natural circulation Positive Circulation Shell type Cast iron Boiler Special design boiler Nuclear reactor

End use classification

According to end use, Boilers can be classified into the following two categories viz :  Utility Boilers The utility boilers are large capacity steam generators used purely for the electric power generation.  Industrial Boilers The industrial boilers are mainly for use in the process industries and are categorized as follows: o Non Reheat Units o Bi-Drum boilers having partial steam generation in the boiler bank tubes.

Arrangement of Main Boiler(200/210 MW)

The illustration given in the figure shows a symbolic arrangement of various accessories of a 200/210 MW boiler. These accessories include:         Economizer Boiler Drum Down Comers Water walls Water wall platen(used for low pressure boilers) Primary super heater Platen super heater Final super heater Reheater Burner ignitors

A brief note on some of the components shown in figure have been listed in the following paragraphs.
y Boiler structures

The boiler structures are divided into the following two par ts: - Supporting structure: Boiler supporting structure consists of a systematic arrangement of columns stiffened with horizontal beams and vertical diagonal bracing and comprises of low carbon steel material. It is co mposed of 18 main and 12 auxiliary columns. The main column support the main boiler components vizdrum,waterwallmemberane, panels, super heater, reheaters, economizer, air preheater, burners and galleries at various levels. -Galleries and stairways: Galleries and stairways around the combustion and heat recovery areas are provided for proper approach to the boiler . Stairways are provided on bath the sides of the boiler.
y Furnace

A boiler furnace is that space under or adjacent to a boiler in which fuel is burned and item which the combu stion products pass into the boiler proper. It provides a chamber in which the combustion reaction in which the combustion reaction can be isolated and confines so that reaction may remain in controlled force.

Furnaces are of many type and may be classifie d in many ways. Their names may be descriptive of a construction features or operating characteristics, their general shape or design purpose or the fuel they burn. Classified according to wall construction the furnace may be:  Solid refractory setting  Air cooled refractory setting  Water cooled walls The furnace must provide the following:  Proper installation operation and maintainance of fuel burning equipment.  Sufficient volume for combustion requirements.  Adequate refractory and insulation. Some significant concept relating to Boiler accessories are: o Boiler Drum The function of steam is to separate water from the steam generated in the furnace walls and to reduce the dissolved solid contents of the steam tobelow the priscribed limit of 1 ppm. The drum is located on the upper front of the boiler. o Economizer The purpose of economizer is to preheat the boiler feed water before it is introduced into the steam drum by recovering heat from the flue gases leaving the boiler. The economizer is located in the boiler : rear gas pass below the horizontal superheater. The economizer is continuous unfinned loop type and water flows in upward direction and gas in downward direction. o Superheater There are three stages of superheater beside the side walls and extended side walls. The first stage consists of horizontal superheater of Convection mixed flow type with upper and lower banks located above economizer assembly in the rear pass. The upper bank terminates int o hanger tubes which are connected to outlet header of the first stage superheater. The second stage superheater of pandent platen which, is, of radiant parallel flow type. The third stage superheater pendant space is of convection parallel flow. The outle t temperature

and pressure of the steam coming out from superheater is 540 C and 147kg/cmrespectively for H.P. units. o Reheater The function of reheater is to reheat the steam coming out of high pressure turbine to the temperature of 540C. The reheater is composed of two sections. The front pendent section and rear pendent section. The rear pendent section is located above the furnace arc and the rear water wall and front pendent section is located between the rear water hanger tubes and the superheater platen section. o Burners There are total 24 pulverised coal burner for corner fired C.E. type boilers and 12 oil burner provided each in between two pulverized fuel burner. The pulverised coal burners are arranged in such a way that six mill supply the coal to the burners at four corners, of the furnace. A ll the nozzels of the burners are inter linked and can be tilted as single unit for +30 to -30. The oil burners are feed with heavy fuel oil boiler load reaches to about 25%. There are 12 side eddy plate oil H.E. A ignitor per boiler. The atomizing air for ignitors are taken from plant air compressor at 7 kg/cm(gauge). The burners are located at three elevations. Each elevation has four oil burners and ignitors. These elevations are normal ly known as AB elevations, CD elevation and EE elevations. Ignitors are fired for lightning the mainoil gun. There are two ignitor air fan supplyfor combustion of ignitor oil. Mainly two types of ignitors are: -Eddy plate ignitor -High energy arc type ignitor

Boiler MaintainanceDivison
Boiler maintainance division looks after the maintenance of equipment and other related equipment. The main parts of boiler are the furnace of the boiler where burning of fuel is taking place. Steam is generated from water and is being sent to the turbine. There should be n o water in steam as it might damage the blades of the turbine. So the steam generated is sent to superheater, where it is superheated. This superheated steam is then sent to turbines for generating electricity. At B.T.P.S there are three 100 MW units and two 210 MW units. Height of boiler for 100 MW unit= 36m Height of boiler for 210 MW unit=56m Walls of the furnace of boiler are made up of water wall tubes. These water wall tubes are connected to each other with the help of fins. These tubes have Outer diameter= 63.5m Thickness= 5.2m These tubes are used to carry the water and the temperature of the water is being raised due to coal burning. The water flow is naturally circulating due to density difference in boiler tubes. This is helpful as normal circulation of water takes place. In the furnace vacuum pressur e of -5mm Hg is maintained by increasing the capacity of I.D. If the boiler was working under same pressure, the air would have led to the condition where flame would have been coming out of the boiler which is dangerous. In one circulation of water through the furnace, only some amount of water is converted into steam as specific volume of steam is much higher than that of water so if whole volume of water is converted into steam, there can be pressure increase inside tubes which all affect the performance of boiler. So only part of the water is converted to steam. The water lost due to some sort of leakage made up by make up water. The furnace of the boiler is divided into1st and 2 nd pass. These passes have been named merely to show the change in direction of flue gases - gases move upwards in 1st pass and downwards in 2nd pass. The interior of boiler furnace is a unit consisting of platen super heate r, reheater, final superheater, economiser. They are placed inside the furnace of boiler and cant be seen from outside. Furnace has been supported from the top due to high temperatu re occurring at

the bottomof the furnace. If it were supported at the bottom , then there would have been no room for expansion to occur(which can be upto 180 mm).
Mode Of Firing

In case of 210MW unit, direct firing of coal takes place. Tangential firing as in 210MW unit is advantageous firing as localized burning of coal occurs, so temperature increase is more.

Burners are used to focus the flame so as to burn the coal. There are 24 burners placed among four corners from 18 to 26m height.
Oil gun

It is being used to initiate and sustain the flame which is necessary for burning of the coal. Oil gun is used to provide oil to the burners and is placed between two burners.
Soot blowers

Soot blowers are placed at the surface of the furnace so as to blow the soot or deposits along the water tubes. The soot reduces the efficiency of the transfer of heat to the water from the heat produced by the burning of coal. Soot blowers are placed on all sides of the furnace at different elevations. They produce a jet of air which blows away the soot. Deareation This component removes the oxygen from the feed water for the boiler, which can cause corrosion in the boiler and it also work as a storage tank for the boiler. Boiler drum The boiler drum is made up of carbon steel metal. It is used to separate steam from water-steam mixture. It is situated at the top of the furnace. The water sent back to the furnace with the help of down corners while steam is sent to superheater for superheating. Water to boiler drum is sen ty through the water tube inside the furnace and from the water coming from the economizer. The water which is coming from the economizer is the water which has been converted into steam and then has gone to condenser from turbines. This

condensed water is then sent back to the drum with the help of boiler feed pump through economizer. Steam from drum comes out at about150 kg/cm while the temperature of the drum is 342 degrees. Downcomers They transfer the water from the boiler drum to the bottom of the f urnace. As the furnace is working under vacuum, this water is then lifted up and its tempetrature increases and steam is being formed. This is sent to the boiler drum where steam separation takes place. There are downcomers and at the bottom of thefurnace, it is connected to BOTTOM RING HEADER on all four sides. The opening in bottom ring header is dipped in water so that air cannot enter through these openings. Superheaters It is a surface heat exchanger in which heat of the products is used first to dry the wet steam and to raise its temperature. Temperature of steam required in turbines is about 540 degrees. In superheater, there is no change in pressure of steam. Its volume increases as temperature is raised. Temperature of steam in boiler drum is 330 degrees and increases to 535 degrees after passing through the superheater. The flue gases provide heat to the superheater. Low temperature superheater This has a temperature lower than other superheater. Temperature of steam rises by a little amount aftewr passing this supreheater. Flue gases reach thissuperheater after passing through the other two superheaters and hence give a small amount of heat to this superheater. Platen superheater This increases the temperature of the stem after it has passed through the low temperature superheater. Flue gases increase the temperature of steam after it has passed through water plates. Final superheater This gives the steam a final temperature of about 535 degrees.

Economiser It is a feed water heater, utilizing the heat of furnace gases. It is placed between boiler and ESP. It recovers some of the heat lost due to flue gases. A temperature rise of 5% or 5-6 degrees is achieved in the feed heater water by using economiser. It consists of horizontal or vertical tubes through which passes the feed water from the pump, while hot flue gases pass over the exterior of the tubes. Heating of feed water by 1 degree permits reducing temperature of flue gases by 2-3 degrees. At B.T.P.S. , integral type of economizers are used which are installed within the boiler setting. The following are the main advantages of using the economiser:
y Increased efficiency of the plant y Decreased range of temperature between differ ent parts of the boiler and reduces stresses due to uneven expansion y More rapid evaporation and quicker circulation of water making the heating surface more effective

Ejectors Two 100% capcity ejectors whose purpose is to air and other non - condensing gases from condensates and thus maintain to vacuum in the condenser. Steam from the deareators with 11atm header is used as the working medium for ejectors. Reheater It increases temperature of steam after it passes through H.P. turbine as there is loss of temperature and this low temperature steam cannot be used in L.P. and I.P. turbines. Temperature of steam is increased by passing it through reheater. It has vertical tubes through which steam is being passed through cold reheat line coming from the H.P. turbine, while more flue gases flow over exterior of tube. This steam is now transferred to I.P. turbine by hot reheat lines. The use of reheat increases efficiency o f turbines and reduces temperature of flue gases. The inlet temperature and pressure of reheater is 332C and 26.4 kg/cm while output temperature and pressure of reheater is 540C and 24.5kg/cm. Scrapper conveyer It removes 20% of ash generated during bu rning of coal. The ash removed by it is called HEAVY PARTICLE BOTTOM ASH. It is placed directly below the

boiler furnace. This bottom ash is collected in 200 mesh. It can remove upto 60-70% of the generated ash. It is filled with water so that air can not enter the furnace through it to maintain vacuum in the boiler. The furnace is opened from the bottom so that ash can be removed. It is necessary that an arrangement is made so that no air can enter the furnace, so water is used. Clinker grinder Ash lumps made into the burners are crushed by this grinder and power based is transferred to ash handling with the help of water convey system. Electrostatic precipitator About 20% of the remaining after scrapper conveyer is removed by +50 mesh situated at bends near air preheater and ESP +50 means that the ash which remains on sieve of 50*50 circular holes of diameter 1 inch. The remining ash called fly ash is removed by ESP. ESP is very important as ash cant be discharged into atmosphere as it can pollute the atmosphere. Ash separated from flue gases is sent to ash handling plant for further disposal. Chimney It is used to remove the flue gases. The height of the chimney is 150m. chimney has to be constructed of such a height, that harmful flue gases are dispos ed off to the upper atmosphere.


A boiler contains water. The energy released as heat by the process of combustion change water to steam. When steam is used to drive the turnine , heat energy is converted into mechanica l energy. A turbine turns the shaft of an electric generator , the energy becomes electricity for household and industrial use. Formerly the boilers in use were horizontal return tube boiler, but now water boilers are commonly in use. In these boilers, water travel in tubes and fire is outside. Now the cylinder holding the water has a diameter of 2 -3 inches instead of several feet. Each linear feet of tube has only a few square inches of internal surface of the steam to press against. So, steam pressure can go high. The next significant change was switching from start bent tubes, thus allowing more flexibility in their arrangement. This is more basic design, there are 2 steel drums. The upper drum collects the steam and lower allows the water to circulate. The water tubes extend between the 2 drums and are positioned in a furnace so they are directly exposed to fire. The hot gases from the fire travel through the bank of tubes on the way of stack. The fire radiation s are absorbed by the first row of water tubes. Heat carried by hot gases is called convection. Heat goes through each tube wall to the heater by the process of co nduction. As boiler design has developed, more tubes have been added around the furnace walls to enlarge the surface exposed to radiation. They are called water walls. The term radiation section or convection section or convection pass a re commonly used for boilers. Steam collects in the upper drum and travels through the turbine through main steam line. As steam leaves the boiler, a boiler feed pump adds an equivalent amount of water. The boiler feed pump must overcome the boiler pressure to force the water into the upper drum. Controlling the water level In the operation of any boiler, a minimum level of water must be maintained, in the upper drum. This ensures that tubes exposed to the fire are always filled with water. The water absorbs the heat from the fire and changes into steam, thus keeping the heat from overheating. Otherwise, temperature would reach the melting point of the metal and tubes would burst from the internal pressure. However, the water level should not be so high in the drum that the departing steam will carry water. This would cause severe damage to the turbine plate. When the amount of water entering the boiler is equivalent to the amount of

steam leaving, the water level remains the same. However, variation in power demand cause changes in the water level. If water supply were accidently stopped while the fire continued to burn, the boiler would then dry in a few minutes.


Purpose of BMD II
 To provide powdered coal for burning.  To remove ash contents present in flue gases to maximum value.


Raw coal is fed directly to these bunkers . There are three boilers per bunker. Four and a half tonnes of coal is fed in one bunker in one hour. Depth of the bunker is 10m.


It transports pre-crust coal from the raw coal bunker to the mill. The quality of raw coal fed into the mill can be controlled effectively by speed control of the variator drive controlling variator change.



Hand operated bunker closures. Feed hopper. Tension head. Supporting base frames.

Chain wheel or driving shaft is provided with a shear pin, which will shear off the overload and disconnect the driving mechanism.

SALIENT FEATURES OF AN RAW COAL FEEDER S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. a. b. c. 5. 6. Description Number Type Speed Motor Rating Speed Voltage Depth of feed bed Capacity Value 3/ boiler Chain type 3.2-9.6 r.p.m.

75 kW 1430 r.p.m. 415V 120-200mm 13-40 tonnes/ hour


The ball mill shell is fabricated from thick steel plates provided with fabricated ends and flange from bolting the gear rim. The drum shell and dished ends are provided with a number of bolt holes for bolting the Armour plates. The plates are cast from manganese steel in each of them can be removed and replaced whenever necessary. The hollow journals on both sides of the mill drum are provided with insert and helix to present the coal and ball entries.

 High pressure motor.  Reduction gear box  Counter shaft with pinion one end fixed and other end free to take up aerial elongation.  Gear ribs.  Grid type flexible couplings.


It crushes raw coal. It carries raw coal to certain height and then allows it to fall down. The coal gets crushed due to the impact of the balls on the coal. Grinding is done by attraction as particles move over each other and Armour lines.

MILL SPECIFICATION: S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. a. b. c. 8. CLASSIFIER Description Number Type Size Length Speed Capacity Ball charging 40mm dia. Ball 50mm dia. Ball 60mm dia. Ball Drying medium Value 3/boiler Ball mills 3000mm Diameter 5790mm 18rpm 23.57 tons/hr 52.57 tons 22.57 tons 20.00 tons 10.00 tons Flue gases at 480 degrees

It is an equipment which serves the separation of fine pulverised coal particles from coarse medium. The pulverised coal along with the carrying medium strikes the impact plate through part. Some of the coarse particles get separated due to change in direction of f low after fitting the shell of centre part through adjustable means provided in the upper part of the classification. The coarse particles are further separated in this region due to change in velocity and centrifugal action. Large particles from the classifier are then transferred to the ball mill.

S.No. 1 2. 3. 4. 5.

Description Number Type Size Height Weight

Value 3/Boiler Raymond 3300mm Diameter 6320 mm 6700 kg


It is equipment used to distribute the pulverised coal from bunker of one system to the other system. When pulverized coal filling is not required the system is changed accordingly. The worm conveyers can be operated in both directions. S.No. 1. 2. 3. a. b. 4. a. b. c. d. e. f. Description Screw diameter Number of discharge branches Length B/W boiler1 &2 For boiler 3 Motor Rating Speed Voltage No.of phases Gear box reduction ratio Direction of rotation Value 500 mm 2/bunker

6400mm 16000mm 11.2 kW 1500 rpm 415 kV 3 1:25 Reversible