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Jouko Kurki:

Optical amplifiers in single channel and WDM systems; nonlinear effects in fiber

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Optical Fiber Amplifier Operation Principle


1550 nm Signal Amplified 1550 nm Signal

Erbium Doped Fiber

980 or 1480 nm Pump Laser

Residual Pump Power

Amplification is based on stmulated emission (as in laser)


Electron energy Level 2 Level 1

Level 0 Upconversion (pumping) using pump energy OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004) Spontaneous emission (noise) Stimulated emission (signal amplification)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Optical Amplifier classification by their application


Booster ( or Power ) Amplifier In most cases the best solution to increase a hoplength. It is used in the transmitting end of a optical link, right after the transmitter. Typical output powers range from +10...+16 dBm, with input -6..+2 dBm. Booster is operated in saturated mode, so max. output power depends mostly on amplifier model, not the input power. (In-)Line Amplifier Located somewhere between Regenerator stations. Combination of a preamplifier (high gain) and booster amplifier (high power output). Rises the optical level of the signal typically by 30 dB. In most cases requires some kind of additional optical service channel to regenerator stations to carry the management traffic of the amplifier equipment. Preamplifier Amplifies the optical signal arriving to receiver. The achieved amplification advantage rises with the transmission speed. At 2.5 Gbit/s a sensitivity of about -39 dBm is achieved (normal STM-16 receiver by it self gives about -30 dBm). Unlike booster, preamplifier needs a narrowband filter in its output (typically around 0.5 nm) to filter the amplified spontaneous emission band generated by the OFA. In some cases a WDM mux can serve as a fixed filter. This requires a fixed wavelength signal laser source
OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Amplifier types and typ. distances for STM16 (2488 Mb/s)


STM-16
24 dB (80 km) OT -2 dBm
1 dB Penalty

No amplifier

-27 dBm

OR

STM-16
Booster 37dB (120 km)
2 dB Penalty

OT

+12 dBm

-27 dBm

OR

Booster (power) amplifier

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Amplifier types, cont.


STM-16
Booster 47/51 dB (160 km)
3 dB Penalty

Preamp.
Booster and Preamplifier

OT

+12 dBm +16 dBm

-38 dBm

OR

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) allows several fixed wavelengths to be transmitted over one fiber. One optical amplifier amplifies all wavelengths simultaneously ! but power / wavelength decreases with number of wavelengths.
WDM Tx Tx Tx Tx 1 2 3 4 Booster 120 km 1,2,3,4 WDM 1 2 3 4 Rx Rx Rx Rx

4 Channel WDM With Booster. ~40 km without amplifier, 80-120 km with amplifier.

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Optical Amplifier Definitions


Optical amplifier
A device which amplifies optical signal and rises optical power level. The amplification is purely optical, no conversion to electricity occurs (opposite to an conventional regenerator). Advantages: Independent of transferred data speed or format, so the same OFA can be used when the transmitting line equipment is upgraded. Increases hoplengths. Main types: Optical Fiber Amplifiers (OFA), amplification happens in a fiber. Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) is the most popular type today. Amplification happens in Erbium doped silica fiber at 1550 nm wavelength range. Another type using Prasedymium as active material amplifies at 1310 nm wavelength range (not commercialized). Raman amplifiers. High power pumping causes amplification in a fiber. Raman amplifiers are used sometimes together with EDFAs to get very long spans. Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOA), a device that has similarity with a laser. SOAs cab be used as no-loss switches.

Optical Fiber Amplifier (OFA) Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA)


The most common OFA type. Pump light of 980nm or 1480 nm converts into signal amplification in erbium fiber. The operational region of this type of amplifier i typically 1530-1565 nm (C-band) of s 1570-1610 nm (L-band).

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Erbium doped fiber enrgy levels for EDFA


EDFA levels allow pumping at 1480 nm or at 980 nm. 1480 nm pumping is at the same wavelength as downward transitions. Thus pumping itself causes stimulated emissions and very high population inversion is difficult to achieve. Result is more noise. 980 nm uses 3 rd level with fast decay to the metastable level 2. Very high population inversion and low noise performance can be achieved. 980 nm pumping is used in preamplifiers and first stage of line amplifers.
OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

EDFA gain block components


Input-monitor IN Coupler Isolator Pumplaser Output-monitor Electrical interface Isolator WDM Er-fiber Coupler OUT

Main components of the EDFA are: Pump laser provides pumping power. Power several hundred mW or more. Very expensive. Erbium doped fiber (120 m depending on type ) amplification occurs in Erdoped fiber. Other components for coupling monitoring, In power amplifiers additionally isolators are used in input /output. Typical size of gain block: 1 cm thick (to fit on PCB), w x d =(5..10) x (5..10) cm Typical price range a few thousand Euros 20.000 Eur depending on power and other parameters
OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Amplifier variations and components


Isolators prevent reflections from causing noise to the EDFA. Normally they are used with high power levels (above around 15 dBm). In In-Line amplifiers and high power amplifiers, two gain stages are often used: 1.First amplifier uses 980 nm pumping and works as high gain preamplifier. A gain equalizing filter or dispersion compensating fiber could be inserted after first stage. 2.Second stage uses 1480 nm pumping and boosts power (not so much gain needed). For high output power two pumps can be used (forward / backward pumping). Adding two polarizations for both; four pumps are possible for very high power.

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

WDM Wavelengths - Optical Amplifier bands


WDM channels

Gain 10 - 30 dB in 1530 - 1565 nm band Amplifier noise an Gain tilt sets limit for cascading amplifiers High power can cause non-linear effects Width of flat part of amplifying band sets limit to no. channels Narrow channel spacing 3.2, 1.6 or 0.8 nm (0.8 nm =100 GHz) C-band: 1530-1565 nm, 30 nm => 32 ch @100 GHz spacing ad 64 @50 GHz spacing L-band: 1570-1625 nm, e.g. additional 64 ch. For WDM: Possible to do 50 GHz (0.4 nm -> ~ 80 wavelengths at C-bad) channel spacing at 2.5 Gb/s and 100 GHz at 10 Gb/s. 50 GHz spacing at 10 Gb/s also available.
1500 30-50 nm optical band 1550 1600 Wavelength [nm] Fiber attenuation [dB]

Amplifier gain

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Optical fiber amplifier parameters (OFA)


Output power; strongly affects link budget Wavelength ranges and flatness of amplification and output power; affects number of channels and maximum number of cascaded amplifiers Noise performance in preamplifiers and line amplifiers Typical values: OFA provides a 10-30 dB amplification at 1530-1565 nm band; transparent to signal, bitrate etc. Output power, typ. 12-25 dBm Amplifier noise (NF typ. 4-7 dB) sets limitations for cascaded chains; optical filter needed after preamplifier to filter Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise OFA gain tilt can cause problems in WDM-systems (increased WDM-isolation requirement)

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

EDFA parameters, cont.


Gain flatness is important when cascading many amplifiers to avoid power of some channels to be far lower than others (this could cause crosstalk). Typical gain flatness for good EDFA is shown here. Note wavelength dependence especially at high gain.

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Power level calculation in WDM system


In WDM system the total power is divided by N wavelengths. Thus if Booster output power is P, the output power / wavelength is P/N, where N is number of wavelengths. E.g, if P = 100 mW and N= 8 then P/ = 12.5 mW. This power is used in link power budget calculations (each has to get through). When calculationg with dBm, each dubling of the number of wavelenghts reduces the power / wavelength by 3 dB. So for 2 wavelengths 3 dB, for 4 wavelengths dB, for 8 wavelengths 9 dB and so on. For very big number of wavelengths total power gets very high. This makes amplifiers difficult to make and very expensive.

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

ADVANCED READING OPTICAL AMPLIFIER

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Noise in EDFA
The signal gets amplified by the stimulated emission process producing photons having same wavelength as incoming photons. In addition spontaneous emissions occur over a broad wavelength spectrum. These spontaneous emissions get further amplified causing noise called Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) noise. The effect can be seen in fig b) The noise is modeled with Noise Figure F defined as ratio of signal to noise ration S/N at input (i) dived by output (o)

a)

For high gain amplifiers:

b)
OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Here N1 and N2 are the populations of higher and lower energy levels. The minimum F is obtained when N2>>N1, I.e strong population inversion. In EDFAs this is achieved by 980 nm pumping and resulting noise figure with adequate pumping in good amplifiers is nearly 3 dB (factor 2 degradation in noise figure). Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

WDM transmission with amplifiers and dispersion compensation


At very high bitrates and long distances dispersion can be compensated by dispersion compensating fiber. However, due to variation of dispersion over the WDM frequencies cumulated dispersion finally limits the length x bitrate product. Dispersion compensation can be achieved with negative dispersion dispersion compensating fibers (Disco) for case when 0 less than operating wavelength or with standard SMF when 0 > operating wavelength. Gain tilt of OFA (Different wavelengths are differently amplified) limits the number of cascaded amplifiers.

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Non-linear effects
High power at booster output can cause non-linear effects in fiber causing problems. The effects can be grouped to: a) ones causing signal distortion:Self Phase Modulation (SPM) and Cross Phase Modulation (XPM) due to Kerr-effect and b) Effects causing crosstalk in WDM-systems: Four Wave mixing (FWM), Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS). Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) sets limitation to power level and laser linewidth (Problem at 10 Gbit/s speed and beyond).

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Four Wave mixing (FWM)


Four Wave mixing (FWM) causes intermodulation products. If 1, 2, 3 are three signal frequencies propagating in a (non-linear) fiber, then FWM results in generation of frequencies given by: 1 +/- 2, +/- 3 If any of these frequencies hit an existing WDM-channel crosstalks causes transmission impairments if power level exceeds 15-20 dBm. FWM became a problem in dispersion shifted fiber, and therefore a fiber with slight dispersion was developed (NZ-DS, ITU-T G.655). In this fiber slight dispersion prevents phase matching of signal frequencies over long periods and FWM is suppressed. Still power levels need to be maintained moderate.

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Self Phase Modulation (SPM)


In silica fiber, when power is high the refractive index increases with light intensity (I) due to Kerr effect

Here intensity I = P/Aeff, where P is optical power and Aeff is effective area of the SM-fiber core. In typical SM-fiber

Thus intensity of the signal causes variation to the refractive index: The effect is called Self Phase Modulation (SPM) . The primary effect of SPM is to broaden the spectrum while pulse shape stays constant. The leading edge (beginning) of the pulse will have longer wavelengths and the trailing edge shorter wavelengths. Normally this together with fiber dispersion leads to pulse broadening.
gets shorter gets longer
OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Time

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

SPM and solitons


In silica fiber above zero dispersion wavelength the longer wavelengths travel slowlier, which in absence of SPM causes chirping so that during the pulse the instantaneous wavelength gets longer (slowlier s come later) . Due to SPM the pulse wavelength gets shorter during the pulse ( frequency spectrum of pulse gets broader). Dispersion causes temporal broadening of the pulse. With positive dispersion the shorter wavelengths travel faster and compensate for pulse broadening due to SPM. With proper choice of pulse shape and power level the effects can compensate each other. Such a pulse does not broaden in time domain (As in case of linear dispersion) nor in frequency domain (as in case of SPM). This kind of pulse is called a soliton. Soliton does not broaden during transmission and has therefore a high potential for super high bandwidth systems. The practical difficulty is to keep the required high power level all the way during propagation in ling distance systems. During time dispersed pulse wavelength gets longer SPM: (slowlier come later) gets shorter 1550 nm, positive dispersion

gets longer

Time

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Solitons

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Soliton power
For a soliton at 1550 nm wavelength, the peak power (P) in mW and FWHM pulse duration f in picoseconds (f ~1.18 t0 for a Gaussian pulse) with fiber dispersion D in ps/nm.km, are related as

E.g. for a 10 ps soliton in dispersion shifted fiber with D = 1 ps/nm.km, P ~15 mW (note that power for conventional SMF would be 270 mW)

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Demonstration of soliton transmission, Ref. Ghatak


Pulse power for solitions in SM-fiber 19 dBm in the experiment

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004

Cross Phase Modulation (XPM)

Cross Phase Modulation influences WDM systems. If power of on WDM channels is high enough to cause nonlinear change of refractive index, then this index changes is seen by other wavelengths. Net effect is crosstalk

OpticalAmplifiers.ppt (3.11.2004)

Copyright Jouko Kurki, 2004