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NOTA KIMIA

Chemistry Form 4 Definition List 1. Element a substance consists of one type of atom. or ions). 3. Atom smallest particle of an element. 4. Molecule a group of two or more atoms. 5. Ion a positively charged / negatively charged particle. 6. Isotopes atoms of the same element with same proton number but different nucleonnumbers. 7. Relative atomic mass of an element = the average mass of one atom of an element/((1/12) x the mass of one carbon-12 atom) 8. Relative molecular mass of an element = the average mass of one atom of an molecule/((1/12) x the mass of one carbon-12 atom) 9. Molecule formula compound shows the actual number of atoms of each element that are present in a molecule of the compound 10. Empirical formula compound shows the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in the compound 11. Mole amount of substance that contains as many particles as the number of atoms inexactly 12 g of carbon-12 the symbol of mole is mol. 12. One mole Avogadro constant 6.02 x 1023 13. Group (Periodic Table) vertical columns of element (similar chemical properties). 14. Periods (Periodic Table) horizontal rows of element. 15. Valence electrons electrons that occupy the outermost shell. 16. Ionic bond bond formed through the transfer of electrons between atoms of metal andnonmetal to achieve the stable octet electron arrangement. 17. Ionic compound consist of positive ions and negative ions which are held by strong electrostatic forces of attraction. 18. Covalent bond bond formed through the sharing of non-metal electrons to achieve the stable duplet or octet electron arrangement. 19. Covalent compound (also simple molecular structure) consists of neutral molecules which are held by weak intermolecular forces (Van der Waals). 20. Alkali (base) chemical substance which ionizes in water to produce hydroxide ions, OH-. 21. Acid chemical substance which ionizes in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+ or hydroxonium ions, H3O+. 22. pH degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Scale ranges from 0 to 14. 23. pH value measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions, H+. 2. Compound a substance consists two or more elements that are chemically bonded(molecule

24. Strong alkali ionises (dissociates) completely in water to form hydroxide ions, OH- of high concentration. 25. Weak alkali ionises (dissociates) partially in water to form hydroxide ions, OH- of low concentration. 26. Strong acid ionises (dissociates) completely in water to form hydrogen ions, H+ of high concentration. 27. Weak acid ionises (dissociates) partially in water to form hydrogen ions, H+ of low concentration. 28. Polymer long chain molecules made up by monomer (repeating unit). SPM Form 4 Terminology and Concepts: The Structure of the Atom Important Terms Matter anything that occupies space and has mass. Compound a substance consists two or more elements that are chemically bonded (molecule or ions). Element a substance that cannot be made into anything simpler by chemical reaction. Atom smallest particle of an element. Molecule a group of two or more atoms. Ion a positively charged / negatively charged particle. Cations positively-charge ions. Example: H+, K+, NH4+ and Mg2+ Anions negatively-charge ions. Example: Br-, OH-, O2- and S2O32Velocity of the particle increases when
 

Temperature increases Kinetic energy increases

Diffusion movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of lowconcentration. Changes in the States of Matter 1. Freezing / Solidification liquid -> solid 2. Melting solid -> liquid 3. Evaporation liquid -> gas / vapour 4. Condensation gas / vapour -> liquid 5. Sublimation gas / vapour -> solid 6. Sublimation solid -> gas / vapour (Sublimation iodine, ammonium chloride and solid carbon dioxide) Important Scientist and Their Contributions

Berry Berry Teacher thinks that it will be good if students can link the contribution of each great scientists to their findings. This will allow a chronological understanding of the discoveries (for easier understanding) and to appreciate the work of these fine scientist. John Dalton (1808) atomic theory 1. Atoms small indivisible particles. 2. Atoms neither created nor destroyed. 3. Atoms an element are alike. 4. Atoms it combine in simple ratio. 5. Atoms chemical reactions result from combination / separation of atoms. J. J. Thomson (1897) 1. Electrons negatively-charged particles. 2. Atoms positively-charged sphere. Ernest Rutherford (1911) 1. Atoms consists of a positively-charged nucleus with a cloud of electrons surrounding nucleus. 2. Protons positively-charged particles. Niels Bohr (1913) 1. 1. Electrons surrounding the nucleus (orbit). Neutrons electrically neutral subatomic particles. James Cadwick (1932) 2. Neutrons mass almost the same with a proton. 3. Nucleus of an atom consists of protons and neutrons. Concepts of the Atomic Model Modern Atomic Model 1. Nucleus of an atom consists of protons and neutrons. 2. Electrons moving around the nucleus (orbits / electron shells/ quantum shells) Proton number / Atomic number / Number of protons 1. Number of protons in its atom. 2. Number of electrons (neutral atom). Nucleon number / Mass number / Number of nucleon 1. Sum of the number protons and neutrons.

Isotopes atoms of the same element with same proton number but different nucleonnumbers. (Further clarification on isotopes as there are still students who are confused with this concept Isotopes for any elements simply means that it is another element with the same number of proton and electron but different number of neutrons. It is important to note that the atomic number of

isotopes are the same, although the mass number is different. If you can understand this concept, you should be okay) SPM Form 4 Terminology and Concepts: Chemical Formulae and Equations Part 1 1. Relative atomic mass, Ar is the atomic mass of an atom when compared to a standardatom 2. Standard atom: Hydrogen scale: hydrogen is the lightest atom of all and the mass of one hydrogen atom was assigned 1 unit. Weakness of Hydrogen scale: not too many elements can react readily with hydrogen, the reactive masses of some elements were not accurate, hydrogen exists as a gas at room temperature and has a number of isotopes with different masses.

   

Helium scale: the second lightest atom of all and the mass of one helium atom was assigned 1 unit. Weakness of Helium scale: Mass of 1 helium atom = 4 times the mass of a hydrogen atom So, mass of 1 helium atom = 4 times 1/12 mass of a carbon atom helium exists as a gas at room temperature and helium is an inert gas.

   

Oxygen scale: chose as the standard atom to compare the masses of atoms Weakness of Oxygen scale: the existence of three isotopes of oxygen were discovered, natural oxygen (containing all the three isotopes) as the standard (Chemist) and used the isotopes oxygen-16 as the standard (Physicists). a carbon-12 atom is 12 times heavier than an atom of hydrogen, used as the reference standard in mass spectrometers, exists as a solid at room temperature, most abundant carbon isotope, happening about 98.89% and carbon-12 is close to the agreement based on oxygen.

       

Carbon scale: standard atom of comparison internationally.

3. Relative molecular mass, Mr of a substances is the average mass of a molecule (two or more atoms) of the substances when compared 1/12 with of the mass of a carbon-12 atom. 4. Relative formula mass, Fr is for ionic compound which is calculated by adding up therelative atomic masses of all the atoms. 5. Example:

   

Relative atomic mass, Ar of helium = 4 Relative molecular mass, Mr of CO2 = 12 + 2(16) = 44 Relative formula mass, Fr of NaCl = 23 + 35.5 = 58.5 Relative formula mass, Na2CO310H2O = 2(23) + 12 + 3(16) + 10 [2(1) + 16] = 286

Try to solve some of the examples without looking at the answers. If you can understand this, then stay tune and log in again for Part 2 of this topics notes. If you cannot understand the examples, try and try and try and try and try again until you are good with it. Till then. Italian physicist Amedeo Avogadro (Name at birth: Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro)
   

Born: 9 August 1776 Birthplace: Turin, Piedmont, Italy Died: 9 July 1856 Best Known As: The guy they named Avogadros number after

1. Avogadro constant / Avogadros number is 6.02 x 1023 2. Atomic substances


        

Elements all the particles are atoms. Example: zinc (Zn), sodium (Na), aluminium (Al) and all noble gases, argon (Ar), helium (He) and neon (Ne). RAM (Relative Atomic Mass) of Na = 23 Covalent compounds the particles are molecules. Example: carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O) and non-metal elements, iodine (I2), nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2). RMM (Relative Molecular Mass) of I2 = 127 + 127 = 254 Ionic compounds the particles are ions. Example: sodium chloride (NaCl), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and potassium iodide (KI). RFM (Relative Formula Mass) of HCl = 1 + 35.5 = 36.5

3. Molecular substances

4. Ionic substances

5. Avogadros Law / Gas Law states that equal volumes of all gases contain the same numberof molecules under the same temperature and pressure.


Example: equal volumes of molecular hydrogen and nitrogen would contain the same number of molecules under the same temperature and pressure.

6. Volume of gas (dm3) = Number of moles of gas x Molar volume 7. Room temperature and pressure (r.t.p.) = 24 dm3 mol-1 (25C and 1 atm)
 

Example: What is the volume of 5.0 mol helium gas at s.t.p.? Volume of gas = Number of moles x Molar gas volume = 5.0 mol x 24 dm3 mol-1 = 120 dm3

8. Standard temperature and pressure (s.t.p.) = 22.4 dm3 mol-1 (0C and 1 atm)

 

Example: What is the volume of 5.0 mol helium gas at s.t.p.? Volume of gas = Number of moles x Molar gas volume = 5.0 mol x 22.4 dm3 mol-1 = 112 dm3

9. Mass (g) = Number of moles x Molar mass 10. Number of particles = Number of moles x Avogadro constant 11. Volume (dm3) = Number of moles x Molar volume

SPM Chemistry Form 5 Definition List: 1. Effective collision (Collision theory) collision that results in a chemical reaction where the particles collide with the correct orientation and are able to achieve the activation energy. 2. Homologous series organic compounds (families) with similar formulae and properties. 3. Catalyst a chemical that alter the rate of reaction. 4. Positive catalyst increases the rate of reaction & lower the activation energy. 5. Negative catalyst decreases the rate of reaction & higher the activation energy 6. Organic compounds carbon-containing compound. Carbon atoms form covalent bonds. 7. Inorganic compounds compounds from non-living things which do not contain the element carbon. 8. Saturated hydrocarbons hydrocarbons containing only single bonds between all carbon atoms. 9. Unsaturated hydrocarbons hydrocarbons containing at least one carboncarbondouble or triple bond. 10. Esterification esters are produced 11. Vulcanisation process which makes the natural rubber harder and increases its elasticity by adding sulphur. 12. Redox reaction chemical reactions involving oxidation and reduction occurring simultaneously. 13. Flavouring improve the taste or smell of food and restore taste loss due to food processing. 14. Stabilisers help to mix two liquids that usually do not mix together so that they form an emulsion. 15. Thickeners substances that thicken food and give the food a firm, smooth and uniform texture. 16. Precipitation the heat change when one mole of a precipitate is formed from their ions in aqueous solution. 17. Displacement the heat change when one mole of a metal is displaced from its salt solution by a more electropositive metal.

18. Neutralisation the heat change when one mole of water is formed from the reaction between an acid and an alkali. 19. Combustion the heat change when one mole of a substance is completely burnt in oxygen under standard conditions.

SPM Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Rate of Reaction Chemical reaction can be observed by 1. Volume of gas liberated (Laboratory Work 1.2, Experiment 1.1) 2. Pressure changes 3. Precipitate formation (Experiment 1.2) 4. Change in the concentration of a liquid reactant 5. Change in the pH value 6. Change in mass during the reaction 7. Colour changes / Change on the colour of intensity 8. Temperature changes (Experiment 1.3) Rate of reaction is the measurement of the speed which reactants are converted into products in a chemical reaction. Average rate of reaction is the average value of the rate of reaction over an interval of time. Instantaneous rate of reaction / Rate of reaction at a given time are the actual rate of reaction at that instant. Factors Affecting the Rate of Reaction 1. Total surface area of solid reactant 2. Concentration of reactant 3. Temperature of reactant 4. Use of catalyst 5. Pressure of gaseous reactant Effect of total surface area of solid reactant on the rate of reaction 1. Smaller the size (increase the total surface area), cm3, of the solid reactant, the higher the rate of reaction, cm3 s-1 or cm3 min-1. Effect of concentration of a liquid reactant on the rate of reaction 1. Higher the concentration, mol dm-3, of a liquid reactant, the higher the rate of reaction, mol dm3

s-1 or mol dm-3 min-1.

Effect of temperature on the rate of reaction 1. 1. Increase in temperature, the higher the rate of reaction. Alters the rate of reaction Effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction

2. It is specific in its action. It can only catalyse a particular reaction 3. Does not change the quantity of products formed 4. Only small amount of catalyst is needed to increases the rate of reaction. (An increase in the quantity of catalyst will increase the rate of reaction but only a very slight increase.) 5. Catalyst remains chemically unchanged but may undergo physical changes. Effect of pressure on the rate of reaction 1. Increase in pressure, the higher the rate of reaction (reversible reaction and gaseous reactants and gaseous product). Collision Theory and Activation Energy Collision theory states a reaction occur when the particle of the reactant collide with each other with the correct orientation and achieve activation energy. Effective collision is the particles collide with the correct orientation and achieve activationenergy which result in a reaction. Ineffective collision is the particles that collide with energy less than activation energy orwrong orientation. Activation energy, Ea, is the minimum kinetic energy that colliding particles of the reactantsmust possess. It can be visualised by energy profile diagram. Keywords: frequency of the collision; frequency of effective collision, rate of reaction Common Mistakes (SPM Form 5 Rate of Reaction)
     

Never use word: faster the rate of reaction or slower the rate of reaction. (use word such as increases, decreases, higher or lower. Average rate of reaction is berry different from instantaneous rate of reaction. (Instantaneous can be determined by drawing a tangent on the graphs curve). Time reading: 1 decimal point. (It also depends on the measurement apparatus either a normal stopwatch or digital stopwatch) Example: 21.0 seconds and 45.5 seconds. Measuring cylinder reading: 1 decimal point. Example: 5.0 cm3 and 4.5 cm3. Burette reading: 2 decimal points. Example: 50.00 cm3 and 45.25 cm3. Pipette reading: 1 decimal point: Example: 25.0 cm3 and 10.0 cm3.

Important Tips SPM Rate of Reaction Rate of Reaction will be Berry Important Topic (BIT) for the Paper 2 (essay) and Paper 3 that young berries could not skip as one of your revision routine. Do take notes on the graphs and these few experiments that listed below. Experiment 1.1 Effect of surface area on the rate of reaction. Experiment 1.2 Effect of concentration on the rate of reaction. Experiment 1.3 Effect of temperature on the rate of reaction.

Experiment 1.5: Effect of the amount of catalyst on the rate of reaction. Activity: Factors affecting the rate of reaction. SPM Chemistry Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds 1. Organic compounds carbon containing compounds with covalent bonds. containing inorganic compounds such as CO2, CaCO3 and KCN. 3. Hydrocarbons organic compounds that contain hydrogen and carbon atom only. 4. Non-hydrocarbons organic compounds that contain other elements (oxygen, nitrogen, iodine, phosphorus) 5. Saturated hydrocarbons only single bonded (Carbon-Carbon) hydrocarbons. 6. Unsaturated hydrocarbons at least one double / triple bonded (Carbon-Carbon) hydrocarbons. 7. Complete combustion organic compounds burn completely which form CO2 and H2O. Example: C2H5OH (l) + O2 (g) > 2CO2 (g) + 3H2O (l) 8. Incomplete combustion organic compounds burn with limited supply of O2 which form C (soot), CO, CO2 and H2O. Homologous Series Homologous series organic compounds with similar formulae and properties. It have thephysical properties that change gradually as the number of carbon atoms in a molecule increases. 2. Inorganic compounds non-living things and usually do not contain carbon but few carbon

Carbon General Formula Compounds Alkane CnH2n+2 Alkene Alkynes Arenes CnH2n CnHn CnH2n-6

Functional group n = 1, 2, 3, n = 2, 3, 4, n = 2, 3, 4, n = 6, 7, 8, Carbon-carbon single bond -CCCarbon-carbon double bond -C=CCarbon-carbon triple bond -C=C-C=Cdelocalised / free to move around the ring Hydroxyl group - OH Carboxyl group - COOH Carboxylate group - COO -

Alcohol Carboxylic Acids Esters

CnH2n+1OH CnH2n+1COOH

n = 1, 2, 3, n = 0, 1, 2

CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 n = 0, 1, 2, m = 1, 2, 3,

Sources of Hydrocarbon:

1.

Coal from the lush vegetation that grew in warm shallow coastal swamps or dead

plantsslowly become rock. Mainly contains of hydrocarbon and some sulphur and nitrogen. It is used to produce: fertiliser, nylon, explosives and plastics. 2. Natural gas from plants and animals and trapped between the layers of impervious rocks (on top of petroleum). Mainly contains of methane gas and other gas such as propane andbutane. It is used for: cooking, vehicle and generate electrical power. 3. Petroleum from plants and animals and trapped between the layers of impervious rocks. It is a complex mixture of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons and sulphurcompound. These compounds can be separated by using fractional distillation.
       

< 35C petroleum gas 35C 75C Petrol (gasoline) 75C 170C Naphtha 170C 230C Kerosene 230C 250C Diesel 250C 300C Lubricating oil 300C 350C Fuel oil > 350C Bitumen

SPM Chemistry Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds (Part 2) A) IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) is used to nameorganic compound. Organic compound is divided into three portions which is Prefix + Root + Suffix. 1. Prefix name of the branch or side chain. General formula: CnH2n+1 Where n = 1, 2, 3, (n = number of carbon)

Formula CH3 C2H5 C3H7 C4H9 C5H11 -

Branch or name of group methyl ethyl propyl butyl pentyl

2. Alkyl group signifies that it is not part of the main chain. 3. Two or more types of branches are present, name them in alphabetical order.

Number of side chain 2 3 4 5 6

Prefix DiTriTetraPentaHexa-

4. More than one side chains are present, prefixes are used. 5. Root the parent hydrocarbon (denotes the longest carbon chain).

Number of carbon atoms

Root name

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
 

methethpropbutpenthexheptoctnandecThe longest continuous (straight chain) carbon chain is selected. Identify the number of carbon.

6. Suffix functional group.

Homologous series Alkane Alkene Alcohol Carboxylic acid Ester

Functional group -CC-C=C OH COOH COO

Suffix -ane -ene -ol -oic -oate

7. Example: 4-methylhept-2-ene. 8. Prefix + Root + Suffix B) Family of Hydrocarbon Alkane 1. General formula: CnH2n+2 Where n = 1, 2, 3, (n = number of carbon) 2. Each carbon atom in alkanes is bonded to four other atoms by single covalent bonds. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbon.

Name of alkane Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane
elements

Molecular formula of alkane CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22

Molecular formula is a chemical formula that shows the actual number of atoms of each type of present in a molecule of the compound.

Example: molecular formula of butane is C4H24+2 = C4H10

Name Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane

Condensed structural formula of alkane CH4 CH3CH3 CH3CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3

Structural formula is a chemical formula that shows the atoms of elements are bonded(arrangement of atoms) together in a molecule by what types of bond. 3. Physical properties of alkanes

Name Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane

Molecularformula RMM CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10 C5H12 C6H14 C7H16 C8H18 C9H20 C10H22 16 30 44 58 72 86 100 114 128 142

Density(g cm-3) 0.63 0.66 0.68 0.70 0.72 0.73

Physical state at 25C Gas Gas Gas Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid

Alkanes with more than 17 carbon atoms are solid. Solubility in water all members in alkanes are insoluble in water but soluble in many organic solvent (benzene and ether).


Density of alkane the density of water is higher than density of alkane. When going down the series, relative molecular mass of alkanes is higher due to the higher force of attraction between molecules and alkane molecules are packed closer together.

 

Electrical conductivity all members in alkanes do not conduct electricity. Alkanes are covalent compounds and do not contain freely moving ions. Boiling and melting points all alkanes in general have low boiling points and melting points. Alkanes are held together by weak intermolecular forces.

4. Chemical properties of alkanes




Reactivity of alkanes Alkanes are less reactive (saturated hydrocarbon).

Alkanes have strong carbon-carbon (C C) bonds and carbon-hydrogen (C H) bonds. All are single bonds which require a lot of energy to break. Alkanes do not react with chemicals such as oxidizing agents, reducing agents, acids and alkalis.


Combustion of alkanes Complete combustion of hydrocarbons CxHy + (x + y/4) O2 > xCO2 + y/2 H2O CH4 + 2O2 > CO2 + 2H2OIncomplete combustion occurs when insufficient supply of oxygen CH4 + O2 > C + H2O 2CH4 + 3O2 > 2CO + 4H2O

Substitution reaction of alkanes (Halogenation) Substitution reaction is one atom (or a group of atoms) in a molecule is replaced by another atom (or a group of atoms). Substitution reaction of alkanes take place in ultraviolet light. Example: Alkanes react with bromine vapour (or chlorine) in the presence of UV light. CH4 + Cl2 >HCl + CH3Cl (Chloromethane) CH3Cl + Cl2 >HCl + CH2Cl2 (Dichloromethane) CH2Cl2 + Cl2 >HCl + CHCl3 (Trichloromethane) CHCl3 + Cl2 >HCl + CCl4 (Tetrachloromethane) The rate of reaction between bromine and alkanes is slower than the rate of reaction between chlorine and alkanes.

SPM Chemistry Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds (Part 3) Family of Hydrocarbon Alkene 1. General formula: CnH2n Where n = 2, 3, 4 (n = number of carbon) 2. Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons which contain one or more carbon-carbon (C = C) double bonds in molecules. 3. The functional group in alkenes is carbon-carbon double (C = C) bond.

Name of alkene Ethene Propene Butene Pentene Hexene Heptene Octene Nonene

Molecular formula of alkene C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18

Decene


C10H20

Molecular formula is a chemical formula that shows the actual number of atoms of eachtype of elements present in a molecule of the compound. Example: molecular formula of butene is C4H2x4 = C4H8

4. Physical properties of alkenes

Name Ethene Propene Butene Pentene Hexene Heptene Octene Nonene Decene
 

Molecularformula RMM C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10 C6H12 C7H14 C8H16 C9H18 C10H20 28 42 56 70 84 98 112 126 140

Density(g cm-3) 0.0011 0.0018 0.0023 0.6430 0.6750 0.6980 0.7160 0.7310 0.7430

Physical state at 25C Gas Gas Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid

Solubility in water all members in alkenes are insoluble in water but soluble in many organic solvent (benzene and ether). Density of alkene the density of water is higher than density of alkene. When going down the series, relative molecular mass of alkenes is higher due to the higher force of attraction between molecules and alkene molecules are packed closer together.

 

Electrical conductivity all members in alkenes do not conduct electricity. Alkenes are covalent compounds and do not contain freely moving ions. Boiling and melting points all alkenes in general have low boiling points and melting points. Alkenes are held together by weak attractive forces between molecules (intermolecular forces) van der Waals force. When going down the series, more energy is required to overcome the attraction. Hence, the boiling and melting points increases.

5. Chemical properties of alkenes




Reactivity of alkenes Alkenes are more reactive (unsaturated hydrocarbon). Alkenes have carbon-carbon (C = C) double bonds which is more reactive than carbon-carbon (C-C) single bonds. All the reaction occur at the double bonds.

Combustion of alkenes Complete combustion of hydrocarbons (alkenes) CxHy + (x + y/4) O2 > xCO2 + y/2 H2O C2H4 + 3O2 > 2CO2 + 2H2O (Alkenes burn with sootier flames than alkanes. It is because the percentage of carbon in alkene molecules is higher than alkane molecules and alkenes burn plenty of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water)

Incomplete combustion occurs when insufficient supply of oxygen C2H4 + O2 > 2C + 2H2O C2H4 + 2O2 > 2CO + 2H2O (The flame in the incomplete combustion of alkenes is more smoky than alkanes)


Polymerisation reaction of alkenes Polymers are substances that many monomers are bonded together in a repeating sequence. Polymerisation is small alkene molecules (monomers) are joined together to form a long chain (polymer). nCH2 = CH2 >-(- CH2 CH2 -)-n ethene (monomer)(unsaturated compound) >polyethene polymer (saturated compound) It must be carry out in high temperature and pressure.

Addition of hydrogen (Hydrogenation) Addition reaction is atoms (or a group of atoms) are added to each carbon atom of a carboncarbon multiple bond to a single bond. C2H4 + H2 > C2H6 (catalyst: nickel and condition: 200C) Example: margarine (produce from hydrogenation of vegetable oils).

Addition of halogen (Halogenation) Halogenation is the addition of halogens to alkenes (no catalyst of ultraviolet light is needed). Alkene + Halogen >Dihaloalkane C2H4 + Br2 > C2H4Br2 In this reaction the brown colour of bromine decolourised (immediately) to produce acolourless organic liquid. Bromination is also used to identify an unsaturated (presence of a carbon-carbon double bond) organic compound in a chemical test.

Addition of hydrogen halides Hydrogen halides (HX) are hydrogen chlorine, hydrogen bromide, hydrogen iodide and etc. This reaction takes place rapidly in room temperature and without catalyst. CnH2n + HX > CnH2n+1X C2H4 + HBr > C2H5Br (Bromoethane) (There are two products for additional of hydrogen halide to propene. The products are 1bromopropane and 2-bromopropane).

Addition of water (Hydration) Alkenes do not react with water under ordinary condition. It can react with a mixture ofalkene and steam pass over a catalyst (Phosphoric acid, H3PO4). The product is an alcohol. CnH2n + H2O > CnH2n+1OH C2H4 + H2O > C2H5OH

Additional of acidified potassium manganate(VII), KMnO4 CnH2n + [O] + H2O > CnH2n(OH)2

C2H4 + [O] + H2O > C2H5(OH)2 The purple colour of KMnO4 solution decolourised immediately to produce colourlessorganic liquid. Also used to identify the presence of a carbon-carbon double bond in a chemical test.
 

SPM Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds 1. Comparing (Similarities and Differences) Properties of Alkanes and Alkenes

Physical Properties Physical state

Alkanes

Alkenes

Electrical conductivity. Boiling points and melting points Density

Solubility in water Chemical Properties Reactivity Combustion

Physical state changes from Same with alkanes. gas to liquid when going down the series. Do not conduct electricity Same with alkanes. at any state. Low boiling points and Same with alkanes. melting points (number of carbon atoms per molecule increases). Low densities (number of Same with alkanes. carbon atom per molecule increases). Insoluble in water (soluble Same with alkanes. in organic solvent) Alkanes Alkenes (Substitution reaction) (Addition reaction) Unreactive Burn in air and produce yellow sooty flame. Reactive Burn in air and produce yellow and sootier flame compare to alkanes. Decolourise brown bromine solution. Decolourise purple acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution.

Reaction with No reaction. bromine solution Reaction with No reaction. acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution
  

2. Isomerism Isomerism phenomenon that two or more molecules are found to have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae. Isomerism in alkanes

Molecular formula CH4 C2H6 C3H8 C4H10

Number of isomers - (no isomer) - (no isomer) - (no isomer) 2

Structure name Methane Ethane Propane Butane2-methylpropane

C5H12

Pentane2methylbutane2,2dimethylpropane Structure name Ethene Propene But-1-eneBut-2-ene2methylpropene Pent-1-enePent-2-ene2methylbut-1-ene 3-methylbut-1-ene 2-methylbut-2-ene

Isomerism in alkenes

Molecular formula C2H4 C3H6 C4H8 C5H10

Number of isomers - (no isomer) - (no isomer) 3 5

SPM Form 5 Terminology and Concepts: Carbon Compounds (Part 5) Non-Hydrocarbon Alcohol 1. General formula: CnH2n + 1OH


Where n = 1, 2, 3 (n = number of carbon)

2. Alcohols are non-hydrocarbons which contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. 3. The functional group in alcohols is hydroxyl group, OH.

Name of alcohol

Molecular formula of alcohol Methanol CH3OH Ethanol C2H5OH Propanol / Propan-1-ol C3H7OH Butanol / Butan-1-ol C4H9OH Pentanol / Pentan-1-ol C5H11OH Hexanol / Hexan-1-ol C6H13OH Heptanol / Heptan-1-ol C7H15OH Octanol / Octan-1-ol C8H17OH Nonanol / Nonan-1-ol C9H19OH Decanol / Decan-1-ol C10H21OH
4. Physical properties of alcohol

Name Methanol Ethanol Propanol Butanol Pentanol

Molecular formula CH3OH C2H3OH C3H5OH C4H7OH C5H9OH

Melting point (C) -97 -117 -127 -90 -79

Boiling point (C) 65 78 97 118 138

Physical state at 25C Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid

    

Solubility in water all members in alcohol are very soluble in water (miscible with water). Volatility all alcohols are highly volatile. Colour and Smell alcohols are colourless liquid and have sharp smell. Boiling and melting points all alcohols in general have low boiling points (78C). Combustion of alcohol Complete combustion of alcohol. C2H5OH + 3O2 > 2CO2 + 3H2O (Alcohol burns with clean blue flames. Alcohol burns plenty of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. This reaction releases a lot of heat. Therefore, it is a clean fuel as it does not pollute the air.) Other example: 2C3H7OH + 9O2 > 6CO2 + 8H2O

5. Chemical properties of alcohol

Oxidation of ethanol In the laboratory, two common oxidising agents are used for the oxidation of ethanol which are acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution (orange to green) and acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution (purple to colourless). C2H5OH + 2[O] > CH3COOH + H2O Ethanol oxidised to ethanoic acid (a member of the homologous series of carboxylic acids will be discussed in Part 6). Other example: C3H7OH + 2[O] > C2H5COOH + H2O

Removal of water (Dehydration) Alcohol can change to alkene by removal of water molecules (dehydration). It results in the formation of a C=C double bond. CnH2n+1OH > CnH2n + H2O C2H5OH > C2H4 + H2O Two methods are being used to carry out a dehydration in the laboratory. a) Ethanol vapour is passed over a heated catalyst such asaluminium oxide, unglazed porcelain chips, pumice stone or porous pot. b) Ethanol is heated under reflux at 180C with excess concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4. Other example: C3H7OH > C3H6 + H2O

6. Uses of Alcohol
      

Alcohol as a solvent (cosmetics, toiletries, thinners, varnishes, perfumes). Alcohol as a fuel (fuel for racing car, clean fuel, alternative fuel). Alcohol as a source of chemicals (polymer, explosives, vinegar, fiber). Alcohol as a source of medical product (antiseptics for skin disinfection, rubbing alcohol). Depressant drug Alcoholic drinks Addictive drug

7. Misuse and Abuse