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MUSCLE TISSUE Fxn: Movement / Locomotion - obvious sign of life General characteristics 1. Posses vital properties a.

Contractility - fundamental property of muscular protoplasm b. Irritability - ability to react to stimulus c. Conductivity - ability to spread or transmit impulse 2. Composed of muscle fiber (cells) 3. Exist in combination with areolar CT pulley force - serves as a harness so that the pull of muscle fiber during contraction can be applied effectively - vascular so it conveys blood vessels, nerves & lymphatic to the muscle Characteristics of muscle fiber 1. Always elongated in the direction of action 2. Nucleus conforms with the shape of the cell 3. Sarcoplasm is strongly acidophilic - imparted by myoglobin which is a red pigment Structures / Organelles of MF 1. Sarcolemma = CM 2. Sarcosomes = mitochondria - numerous to provide energy required during contraction 3. Sarcoplasmic reticulum = smooth ER Fxn: * spread of excitation & cell circulation * release of calcium during muscular contraction 4. Myofibrils - fibrils in sarcoplasm Fxn: responsible for longitudinal striations LM: smallest unit of contractile elements EM: microfilaments (actin & myosin) - smallest unit for contraction Classification is based on Function & Structure Smooth muscle Function Nervous control Structure Structural & functional unit Contraction Involuntary PNS or autonomous Unstriated Entire muscle fiber Slow Sustained - prolonged resistant to fatigue Wall of hollow organs: Respiratory tract (trachea to alveolar ducts) Digestive tract (esophagus to rectum) Skin (arrector pili - goose bumps) Eyes (intrinsic muscle) - ciliary muscle - pupiloconstrictor * Light regulator * Close pupils Urinary bladder Uterus Walls of blood vessels Ducts of glands Areola of mammary glands Dartus muscle of scrotum - only 1 - round - centrally located Voluntary CNS Striated sarcomere Fast Swift easy fatigability - form the flesh or main bulk of the body - attached to bones Except: * Tongue * Upper part of esophagus * Muscles for facial expression Entire flesh Pharynx Vagina - muscle control - regulate vaginal canal Eyes (extrinsic) - lateral rectus - medial rectus - superior oblique - inferior oblique Skin (scrotum) - multinucleated - flattened - at the periphery (found immediately beneath sarcolemma) - 2 nuclei in 1 cell - elongated - centrally located Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Involuntary PNS or autonomous Striated sarcomere Inherent Automaticity Rhythmicity Thickest walls of heart (myocardium): Superior & inferior vena cava

Occurrence

Nucleus

Long section a. Muscle Fiber

Smooth 1. Individual muscle fiber - spindle-shaped - elongated with thick middle portion & tapering ends (thick part is placed side by side with thin part of another cell) - fosrm a sheet because of off-set arrangement 2. Nexus / gap junction Fxns: cellular attachment & rapid spread of excitation Syncitium - smooth muscle function as a whole - not a true syncitium

Skeletal 1. MF appear as solitary band - cylindrical - larger than cardiac 2. Fibers wont branch - except: * muscle of tongue * muscles for facial expression because the edge of fiber will biforcate 3. MF is structurally a true syncitium because it consists of cells whose boundaries are lost

Cardiac 1. Elongated fibers will branch & anastomose to form network - adjoining cells are joined end to end 2. Intercalated disc / Band of Eberth - joined cellular units end to end - sarcolemma Purkinje fibers - endocardium - homogeneous, pale-staining, acidophilic - forms the impulse conducting system of the heart a. SinoAtrial node b. AtrioVentricular node c. bundle of Hiss d. internodal tracts

b. Cytoplasm 1. Fibrils - 2 types a. myofibrils - central contractile elements - homogenous & lack striations - parallel threads scattered throughout the MF b. myoglia / border fibrils - coarse fibrils located at the periphery of MF Fxns: * give support to MF * help in straightening the muscle after contraction 2. Contraction nodes / bands - transverse densities seen in MF when fixed during contraction - different from striations

1. Fibrils - only 1 type Myofibrils - longitudinal striations - may be arranged in groups or bundles Koellickers column (LS) Cohnheims field (x-sec) - fine dots Myofilaments - transverse cross striations Bands: A - anisotropic / dark - actin & myosin I - isotropic / light - only actin (thin) H - only myosin (thick) - transversing at the center of A-band * H & I bands change in width M line - origin (where muscle will be pulled) Z line - center of I-band - where ends of actin are attached 2. Sarcoplasmic reticulum - highly developed - bears constant relation with each band of myofibrils 3. Cistern - flattened - terminal expansions - form tubular networks at the center of the band - will drain to the cisternae 4. Transverse system - internal extensions of sarcolemma - invagination of sarcolemma to form tubes between 2 terminal cisternae 5. Sarcoplasmic triad (2 terminal cisternae + 1 t-tubule) - 2 triads in 1 sarcomere 6. Sarcomere - bounded by Z line - segment of myofibril which consists of 1 A band & of 2 contiguous I band

1. Myofibrils have same striations with those of skeletal but lighter T tubules - Z line 2. Sarcoplasmic reticulum 3. no terminal cisternae Thus no triads But has diads

Cross-section of MF

Smooth 1. Wide variations in fiber size 2. Irregular polygons of MF 3. Not all cells have nucleus - only larger cross sections have nucleus

Skeletal 1. minimal variation - fibers are almost of the same size 2. Sarcoplasm appear granular Organization: Epimysium - several group of fascicles - areolar/loose & dense CT Perimysium - loose CT Endomysium - reticular CT

Cardiac 1. Slight / moderate variations of the fibers 2. Fibers become large / bigger at the point of branching

(Embryology) Mesoderm - give rise to different types of muscle Parts: 1. Paraxial - will segment to form somites (segmental block of mesoderm) Component cells will differentiate into a. sclerotome - bones & cartilages b. dermatome - dermis of skin c. myotome - give rise to muscle 2. Intermediate 3. Lateral - give rise to muscle a. somatopleuric / somatic b. splanchnopleuric / splanchnic Smooth muscle 1. Splanchnic - GIT & respiratory tract 2. Mesenchyme - GUT & blood vessels Skeletal muscle 1. Myotome - back Limbs abdomen Anterior wall of thorax 2. Somatic - body wall 3. Branchial arch - neck & face 4. Mesenchyme - esophagus Extrinsic muscles of eyes Cardiac muscle 1. Cardiogenic plate - mass of mesoderm that develops in the 2. Splanchnic mesoderm of the extension of the coelum at the anterior margin of the embryonic disc in front of the neural plate

Myoepithelial cells - epithelia with myofibrils in the cytoplasm - capable of contraction Examples: * cells of Rouget - blood vessels - accompany capillaries which may help in propelling the blood through the capillaries * Basket cells - surround the acini of glands Mammary & sweat glands - help in expelling glandular secretions