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Summary

Piping Pressure Drop Template -- For Liquids or Gases


Version 2.19a
by Stephen M. Hall, PE
Copyright 1999, 2000

All cells are locked except user-defined data; unlock sheet from Tools menu (no password required)
VIEW-COMMENTS to see some additional explanations.
DATA INPUT

Prepared by
Date
English

Project Data
S. Hall
Client
15-Mar-2003
W.O.
Unit
SI
Area
Line ID

Line Number:
Service:
Pipe Material Specification:

Sample
10314
Process
Tank Farm

Liquid Example
General Pipeline Data
Raw Material Transfer
<< 150 lb Carbon Steel
A
None

Insulation
Ambient Temp

(deg F)

80.00
Process Data

Fluid Name
Molecular Weight
Actual Flow
Maximum Flow
Flowing Temperature
Nominal Pressure
Specific Gravity
Absolute Viscosity

Optional Pulldown List of Fluids

Toluene
Liquid
(Entry Ignored>>>)
92.13
(gallons/minute)
100.00
Gas
(gallons/minute)
100.00
(deg F)
70.00
(psia)
14.70
0.87 (<<< Entry Ignored)
(centipoise)
0.779 (<<< Entry Ignored)
Size Selection Criteria

Toluene

Conversion from scfm to pph


Desired scfm:

150

Molecular weight:

92.13

Actual Flow (lb/h):

2,310

Conversion from acfm to pph


Economic

Specific Diameter

Target Velocity

Desired acfm:

Molecular weight:
Pressure (psia):

Physical Layout
Length of pipeline
90 deg Ell
Long Rad. Ell
45 deg Ell
180 deg Bend
TEE-Line Flow
TEE-Branch Flow
Bell Mouth Inlet
Square Mouth Inlet

(feet)
0 Globe Valve
0 Gate Valve
0 Ball Valve (reduced port)
0 Butterfly Valve
0 Plug Valve
0 Angle Valve
0 Swing Check Valve
0 Re-Entrant Pipe
Report Selection

Results Summary

LIQFLOW

Datasheet Style

EquivLength

Instructions

OPTLIQ

Page 1

Temperature (deg F):

1000
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Actual Flow (lb/h):

150
92.13
14.7
70
2,144

3/15/2003

PIPELINE SIZING CALCULATION


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PREPARED BY
S. Hall

DATE
15-Mar-2003

Fluid Service
Pipe Specification
Surface Roughness
Insulation
Ambient Temperature

Fluid Pumped
Design Flow Rate
Maximum Flow Rate
Flowing Temperature
Nominal Pressure
Specific Gravity
Viscosity

CLIENT
LINE NO.
Sample
Liquid Example
W.O.
REQUISITION NO.
SPECIFICATION NO.
10314
18103
UNIT
AREA
PROCURED BY
INSTALLED BY
Process
Tank Farm

APPROVAL

General
Raw Material Transfer
A: 150 lb Carbon Steel
0.00015
None
80

(feet)
(deg F)

Process Data
Toluene (liquid)
100
100
70
14.7
(= 54.10 lb/cu.ft.)
0.867
0.583587

(gallons/minute)
(gallons/minute)
(deg F)
(psia)
(centipoise)

Basis for Sizing: Optimum Economic Diameter

===>

Nom.
Size
2
3
4

Sched
80
40
40

O.D.
(in.)
2.375
3.500
4.500

Wall
(in.)
0.218
0.216
0.237

I.D.
(in.)
1.939
3.068
4.026

Reynolds
Number
2.42E+05
1.53E+05
1.17E+05

Friction
Factor
0.0207
0.0199
0.0198

Physical Layout
90 deg Ell
- TEE-Line Flow
- Globe Valve
Long Rad. Ell
- TEE-Brnch Flow
- Gate Valve
45 deg Ell
- Bell Mouth Inlet
- Ball Valve (red. port)
180 deg Bend
- Sq. Mouth Inlet
- Butterfly Valve
Straight Feet of Pipe (measured through centerline of fittings):

Pressure Drop/100 equiv ft


(psi)
(ft water)
(ft liq)
8.81
20.36
23.48
0.85
1.97
2.27
0.22
0.51
0.58

1000

Velocity
(ft/sec)
10.87
4.34
2.52

Plug Valve
Angle Valve
Swing Check Valve
Re-Entrant Pipe
feet

Heat Loss

===>

Nom.
Size
2
3
4

units
Btu/hr-ft
Btu/hr-ft
Btu/hr-ft

Bare
(7)
(11)
(13)

0.5 in
n/a
n/a
n/a

Pipe is Uninsulated
1 in
1-1/2 in
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a

2 in
n/a
n/a
n/a

3 in
n/a
n/a
n/a

Heat Loss (Gain), But/hr


1 in
1-1/2 in
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a
n/a

2 in
n/a
n/a
n/a

3 in
n/a
n/a
n/a

Summary of Results

===>

Nom. Eq Lgth
Size
(ft)
2
1,000
3
1,000
4
1,000

Pressure Drop
(psi) (ft water) (ft liq)
88.13 203.58 234.8
8.54
19.73
22.7
2.19
5.06
5.8

Bare
(7,363)
(11,336)
(13,417)

0.5 in
n/a
n/a
n/a

EFFECT OF FLOW VARIATION


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PREPARED BY
S. Hall

DATE
15-Mar-2003

Fluid Service
Pipe Specification
Surface Roughness
Insulation
Ambient Temperature

Fluid Pumped
Design Flow Rate
Maximum Flow Rate
Flowing Temperature
Nominal Pressure
Specific Gravity
Viscosity
Smaller Pipe Size
Schedule
Outside Diameter
Wall Thickness
Inside Diameter

Selected Pipe Size


Schedule
Outside Diameter
Wall Thickness
Inside Diameter

APPROVAL

General
Raw Material Transfer
A: 150 lb Carbon Steel
0.00015
None
80

(feet)
(deg F)

(gallons/minute)
(gallons/minute)
(deg F)
(psia)
(centipoise)

(in.)
(in.)
(in.)

(in.)
(in.)
(in.)

Next Larger Pipe Size


Schedule
Outside Diameter
(in.)
Wall Thickness
(in.)
Inside Diameter
(in.)

CLIENT
LINE NO.
Sample
Liquid Example
W.O.
REQUISITION NO. SPECIFICATION NO.
10314
18103
UNIT
AREA
PROCURED BY
INSTALLED BY
Process Tank Farm

2 in.
80
2.375
0.218
1.939

3 in.
40
3.500
0.216
3.068

4 in.
40
4.500
0.237
4.026

Process Data
Toluene (liquid)
100
100
70
14.7
0.867
(= 54.10 lb/cu.ft.)
0.58359
Flow
(gpm)
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Flow
(gpm)
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Flow
(gpm)
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

Reynolds
Number
24,192
48,384
72,576
96,768
120,960
145,152
169,344
193,536
217,727
241,919

Reynolds
Number
15,289
30,579
45,868
61,158
76,447
91,737
107,026
122,316
137,605
152,895

Reynolds
Number
11,651
23,303
34,954
46,605
58,257
69,908
81,559
93,210
104,862
116,513

Friction
DeltaP/100 equiv ft Velocity
Factor
(psi)
(ft water) (ft/sec)
0.26
0.0270
0.11
1.09
0.95
0.0241
0.41
2.17
2.02
0.0229
0.87
3.26
3.48
0.0222
1.51
4.35
5.33
0.0217
2.31
5.43
7.56
0.0214
3.27
6.52
10.17
0.0211
4.40
7.61
13.17
0.0210
5.70
8.69
16.54
0.0208
7.16
9.78
20.30
0.0207
8.79
10.87
Friction
DeltaP/100 equiv ft Velocity
Factor
(psi)
(ft water) (ft/sec)
0.03
0.0289
0.01
0.43
0.10
0.0250
0.04
0.87
0.21
0.0233
0.09
1.30
0.35
0.0222
0.15
1.74
0.53
0.0215
0.23
2.17
0.75
0.0210
0.32
2.60
1.00
0.0206
0.43
3.04
1.29
0.0203
0.56
3.47
1.61
0.0201
0.70
3.91
1.97
0.0199
0.85
4.34
Friction
DeltaP/100 equiv ft Velocity
Factor
(psi)
(ft water) (ft/sec)
0.01
0.0306
0.00
0.25
0.03
0.0260
0.01
0.50
0.05
0.0240
0.02
0.76
0.09
0.0227
0.04
1.01
0.14
0.0219
0.06
1.26
0.19
0.0213
0.08
1.51
0.26
0.0208
0.11
1.76
0.33
0.0204
0.14
2.02
0.41
0.0201
0.18
2.27
0.50
0.0198
0.22
2.52

EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF PIPE


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PREPARED BY
S. Hall

DATE
15-Mar-2003

APPROVAL

General
Raw Material Transfer
A: 150 lb Carbon Steel

Fluid Service
Pipe Specification

Pipe Size
Fittings
90 deg Ell
Long Rad. Ell
45 deg Ell
TEE-Line Flow
TEE-Branch Flow
180 deg Bend
Globe Valve
Gate Valve
Ball Valve (red. port)
Butterfly Valve
Plug Valve
Angle Valve
Swing Check Valve
Bell Mouth Inlet
Square Mouth Inlet
Re-Entrant Pipe

CLIENT
LINE NO.
Sample
Liquid Example
W.O.
REQUISITION NO. SPECIFICATION NO.
10314
18103
UNIT
AREA
PROCURED BY
INSTALLED BY
Process Tank Farm

Qty
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

2 inch
Equiv. Ft.
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Qty
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

3 inch
Equiv. Ft.
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Qty
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

4 inch
Equiv. Ft.
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Straight Pipe

1,000

1,000

1,000

Total Equiv Feet

1000

1000

1000

Equivalent lengths are calculated using a table of values.


If the fitting/size combination does not appear in the table, the "K Value" method is used.
"K Value" data are from the Hydraulic Institute, Pipe Friction Manual, regressed.

SELECTED PIPE DIAMETER


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DATE
15-Mar-2003

Fluid Service
Pipe Specification
Surface Roughness
Insulation
Ambient Temperature

Fluid Pumped
Design Flow Rate
Maximum Flow Rate
Flowing Temperature
Nominal Pressure
Specific Gravity
Viscosity

APPROVAL

(feet)
(deg F)

(gallons/minute)
(gallons/minute)
(deg F)
(psia)
(centipoise)

CLIENT
LINE NO.
Sample
Liquid Example
W.O.
REQUISITION NO. SPECIFICATION NO.
10314
18103
UNIT
AREA
PROCURED BY
INSTALLED BY
Process Tank Farm
General
Raw Material Transfer
A: 150 lb Carbon Steel
0.00015
None
80
Process Data
Toluene (liquid)
100
100
70
14.7
0.867
(= 54.10 lb/cu.ft.)
0.58359

Economic Data
Purchase cost of new pipe, 1 inch diameter, $/ft
Ratio of costs for fittings & installation to purch. cost of pipe
Factor relating pipe cost to diameter (exponential)
Frictional loss due to fittings and bends, % of straight pipe
Operation, hours/yr
Cost of electricity, $/kwhr
Efficiency of motor and pump, %
Annual fixed charges for maintenance, % of pipe cost

$1.75
5
1.30
35%
8,000
$0.15
60%
20%

Basis for Sizing: Optimum Economic Diameter


Optimum diameter calculated using Peters & Timmerhaus formula
Closest pipe size from specified material class
Smaller
Size
Actual Size
Velocity
Reynolds No.
Friction Factor
Pressure Drop

inch nominal size


2
inch actual inside diameter 1.939
feet/second
10.87
241,919
0.0207
psi/100 equiv ft
8.813

Selected
Size
3
3.068
4.34
152,895
0.0199
0.854

2.59
3
Next Larger
Size
4
4.026
2.52
116,513
0.0198
0.219

Calculated Costs, $ per year per foot of installed piping:


Pumping Cost
Initial Piping
Annual Piping
Total

Reference:

(power)
(capital expenditure)
(maintenance)

2
$11.02
$25.85
$5.17
$16.19

Peters & Timmerhaus


Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers

3
$1.20
$43.80
$8.76
$9.96

4
$0.32
$63.66
$12.73
$13.05

Insulation Material Data

Table may be modified or supplemented. If adding new insulation material, insert new row prior to end of table (at row 15 for instance), add new material, then sort the table alph

Insulation
Material

Min.
Thickness
(in)

Calcium Silicate
Cellular glass
Elastometric
foam
Fiberglass
Mineral Wool
Perlite,
expanded
Phenolic foam
Polystyrene
foam
Polyurethane/
Polyisocyanurat
e foams

Thermal Conductivity Coefficients

1
1

m
p
s
t
u
0.369 1.58E-04 3.92E-07 9.40E-11 0.00E+00
0.289 5.14E-04 4.36E-07 2.27E-10 2.76E-13

0.5
1
1

Maximum
Temperature

Minimum
Temperature

Thermal
Conductivity, K

(F)

(F)

[Btu*in/
(h*ft2*F)]

1000
900

250
-450

0.383
0.330

0.195 4.25E-04 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00


0.228 3.72E-04 6.00E-07 0.00E+00 0.00E+00

200
850
1200

-40
42
42

0.290
0.227
0.259

1
0.388 4.73E-04 3.06E-07 -8.00E-11 0.00E+00
1 0.116667 6.67E-04

1000
300

250
75

0.425
0.167

165

-65

0.230

250

-200

0.165

0.174 -1.55E-04 -3.39E-07 8.38E-09 1.82E-11

Intermediate Calculations
Wind Factor
0
2*pi*(Ti-Ts)
-62.83185307
K factor, per inch
0.02160625
Average temperature (fluid to ambient)
75 deg F

Insulation Material Data

Table may be modified or supplemented. If adding new insulation material, insert new row prior to end of table (at row 15 for instance), add new material, then sort the table alph

Insulation
Material

Min.
Thickness
(in)

Calcium Silicate
Cellular glass
Elastometric
foam
Fiberglass
Mineral Wool
Perlite,
expanded
Phenolic foam
Polystyrene
foam
Polyurethane/
Polyisocyanurat
e foams

Thermal Conductivity Coefficients

1
1

m
p
s
t
u
0.369 1.58E-04 3.92E-07 9.40E-11 0.00E+00
0.289 5.14E-04 4.36E-07 2.27E-10 2.76E-13

0.5
1
1

Maximum
Temperature

Minimum
Temperature

Thermal
Conductivity, K

(F)

(F)

[Btu*in/
(h*ft2*F)]

1000
900

250
-450

0.383
0.330

0.195 4.25E-04 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 0.00E+00


0.228 3.72E-04 6.00E-07 0.00E+00 0.00E+00

200
850
1200

-40
42
42

0.290
0.227
0.259

1
0.388 4.73E-04 3.06E-07 -8.00E-11 0.00E+00
1 0.116667 6.67E-04

1000
300

250
75

0.425
0.167

165

-65

0.230

250

-200

0.165

0.174 -1.55E-04 -3.39E-07 8.38E-09 1.82E-11

Intermediate Calculations
Wind Factor
0
2*pi*(Ti-Ts)
-62.83185307
K factor, per inch
0.02160625
Average temperature (fluid to ambient)
75 deg F

Pipes

Standard Specifications
Modify this table to incorporate project- or company-specific pipe specification designations. Keep it in alphabetical order by Spec.
The column "Size Table" refers to the Pipe Specification Lookup Table section located below. Add additional columns if necessary, or edit the existing ones.
Cost Factors
Min Temp Max Temp Max Press Roughness Purchase
Ratio
Exponent
deg F
deg F
psig
ft
$/ft (1 inch) Fittings
150 lb Carbon Steel
-10
450
150
0.00015
$1.75
5
1.3
125 lb Carbon Steel
-10
450
125
0.00015
$1.75
5
1.3
300 lb Carbon Steel
-20
750
300
0.00015
$1.75
5
1.3
316L SS Pipe
-100
500
145
0.0001
$4.50
8
0.89
Copper Pipe
-100
250
110
0.000005
$4.50
8
0.89
316L SS Sanitary Tubing
-100
450
150
0.000001
$4.50
8
0.89
316L SS Zephyrweld Tubing -100
450
150
0.000005
$4.50
8
0.89
Teflon-Lined Pipe
-20
500
170
0.000005
$4.50
8
0.89
PVDF-Lined Pipe, Heavy Duty -20
275
150
0.000005
$4.50
8
0.89
PVDF-Lined Pipe, Thick Wall -20
275
150
0.000005
$4.50
8
0.89
Polypropylene-Line Pipe
0
225
150
0.000005
$4.50
8
0.89
FRP Pipe, Epoxy Lining
0
225
150
0.000005
$4.50
8
0.89
Glass-lined Steel
-20
450
150
0.000005
$4.50
8
0.89
CPVC Pipe
0
180
100
0.000005
$0.75
18
0.91
Polypropylene Pipe, SDR Sizes 0
200
150
0.000005
$4.50
8
0.89
Type K Copper Water Tube -100
250
110
0.000015
$4.50
8
0.89
Type L Copper Water Tube -100
250
110
0.000015
$4.50
8
0.89
Type M Copper Water Tube -100
250
110
0.000015
$4.50
8
0.89

Spec Code Description


A
A3
B
C
CU
D1
D2
F1
F2
F3
F4
G
GL
H1
H2
K
L
M

Page 1

Size
Table
2
2
2
8
6
15
14
9
10
11
12
13
7
16
17
3
4
5