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Jessica Nunez Survey World Art: one May 4, 2011

A Glance Back at the Ages It has been a long and torturous semester, jammed with facts and dates too numerous to memorize in what is collectively about a month. Though the weather changed, the speeches on politics and religion never did. They were available nearly every class with the same force and enthusiasm that could be easily mistaken for aggression. Through the ages, backwards, we all traveled. Learning first about the middle ages, what leads to the renaissance. Then to the Romans; finding the reason why roam wasnt built in a day, and back all the way to the Lithic era; where coveting first began. We all watched as societies rose and fell, followed royal and divine lineages and danced about the great monuments of the times that still stand today. The knowledge gathered will be presented here in a written timeline, contrary to the way it was all presented. First up, the lithic ages. The Stone Age. The man of the sections beginning was nomadic, called Australopithecus, and found with art-type. A manuport. A rock that resembled a face. It was noted as being important because in a time where humans were spending every day of their lives trying to survive, one human stopped to pick up the object and held onto it until it died. This act preludes to the appearance of art pieces. Dated at 28,000 BCE The Venus of Willandorf was found in 1908 by the archaeologist Josef Szombathy. She is a sculpted pieces, indicating that the nomadic peoples found time to become specialized in craft. Bison reliefs in the form of normal relief and clay additive are recovered. A sculpture of a Lion-man sculpted form a mammoth tooth, revealing that even then humans were making composite beasts. Later dated artifacts are found, this time on cave walls. Painted images are stained on the walls of Chauvet cave in France (the controversy behind this being dated between two different time periods. 30,000-28,000 BCE and 15,000-13,000BCE) Nine thousand BCE ends the Paleolithic age and begins Mesolithic age. Middle stone age, where man has formed tribes of distant family and continue hunter gatherer style lives, but now they have domesticated the dog and use more complex tools, such as needles made out of bones. By 9000 BCE the great city of Jericho is erected. The City walls are dated around 8000-7000BCE and were said to be 25 feet high. More interesting are the artifacts associated with Jericho. For one, The decorated skulls dated at approximately 70006000 BCE give historians a marker for the one of the first times a human looked at the dead and thought them precious enough to adorn with ornaments. In Chatal Hoyuk, modern day Turkey, the first depiction of a landscape with an erupting volcano is found on the wall(6150BCE). Also found, was a fertility idol, large women are still found the ideal. And in Malta, 3200-25000BCE

The Ruins of Hagar Quim, reveal the complexity capable of the people. As it was, Hagar Quim has the basic structure of a post and lentil, but the shape the building takes on is a double oval with a single entrance. It is one of the more attractive large stone buildings to come out of the stone age. In the Neolithic age, man becomes increasingly more ambitious in their building, forming huge Megaliths. From the marvel of the earthen mound found in New Grange, Ireland dated at 3000 BCE to Stone Henge in Great Britain. The tenacity of man moves on through the ages. Before we move on to rulings the world, we need more development; we have to start a citystate. Enter Mesopotamia. Our ancient Mesopotamian ancestors include the Sumerians, the Acadians, the Babylonians, the Assyrians, and the Persians. Each cultiure is a representation of the people in power at any given time and they are in respective order of rule. First off, the Sumarians were a people who existed between 3500 and 2332 BCE. They held a city-state and were governed by Gods of nature. They were the developers of cuneiform, the first writing system. They are also responsible for the first work of literature, The Epic of Gilgamesh. Their associated works of art are to include the Female Head Inanna found in Uruk, Iraq 3200-3000 BCE, the Warka vase, Presentation of offerings to Inanna, and the curiously wide-eyed Eshnunna worship statues of 2700 BCE. Reoccurring composite beasts showed the Sumerians mastery of the animals. The final piece attributed to the Sumarians before their defeat by the Acadians is an object they used to mark goods. It was a Cylinder seal 2600BCE and it was found inside the tomb of pu-abi. The item was rolled on clay and must have been a commonly used object. It isnt mentioned in Acadian sections. Sargon defeats the Sumarians in 2334 and the Acadians rise to power. Though there is no mention of the Cylinder seal associated with the Acadians, cuneiform is adopted by them. As something new, they introduced monarchy. Among the recovered artifacts of this time are The Victory stele of Naram-sin dated between 2254-2218, the alabaster Votive disk of Enduanna which depicts Enheduana, the first poet and auther, she also was a female. This fact is important and relevant, later in history, women are not allowed to learn to read. Who makes a comeback, but the new and improved Neo Sumerians! Only this time, they are known as the Ancient Babylonians and they want their city-states back. They stick around from 2150-1792BCE(though on a previous slide they are said to rule until 1600BCE, not sure what the discrepancy is there).The main works of art for this section is the headless statue of Geudea holding temple plan. In this time frame we have a celebrity by historical standards, Hammurabi, the man behind the brutal Code of Hammurabi and an art piece, being the Stele of Hammurabi. The stele is dated at 1780 BCE. Assyrian furry and might come about in 900BCE and they stay for about three hundred years. They create crazy composite beasts that are almost the only really memorable element

about them. The Lamassu is the cross of man and winged bull. Aside from that, They have the threatening reliefs and the Citadel of Sargon II(720-705BCE). A walled up city, he boasts was built by the people he defeated. Thankfully the Neo Babylonians are more worth mentioning at least art wise. There people give us the Tower of Bable and the hanging gardens. King Nebuchadnezzar was the ruler of the time so I suppose he receives all the credit. Next in the order of business is Egypt, land of the pharoses. The first stone columbs are made here, their design inspired by papyrus around 2630( Neo-Sumarians are ruling their slice of heaven at this time.). After the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt in the Predynastic period here major dates For the ages are 2575BCE for Old Kingdome, 2040BCE for Middle Kingdom and 1550BCE for New Kingdom. In Old Kingdom we are introduced to mummification, the great Pyramids of Gizzeh: Menkara(2490-2472BCE);Khaffe(2520-2494BCE); and Kufu, the largest and oldest pyramids (2551-2528BCE), and the statues of the pharoses and royal scribes. Middle Kingdom depicts Sensuret II with a look of concern on a staue as a piece of political propaganda. Mingling with the Mesopotamians brings chariot drawn horses and compound bows to Egypt. Architecturally beautiful tombs are cut from rock and have purely decorative columns. Old Kingdom, is where everything gets a little crazy. The political government is not really stable. The first woman pharoe takes power for 15 years. Then Ramses II came and went. Next in line was Akhenaten, who changed the uniformity of statues and hieroglyphics, and getting rid of all the gods, ruled from 1353-1335BCE. Finally, Tutankhamen ,Akhenatens son, came to power and the old way was restored to Egypt. This is great because that other guy was a diva and probably a Taurus or a Sagittarius, gross, I know. In Archaic Greek art such as Kouros of 600BCE, Calf bearer of 560BCE, and Kroisos Kuros of 530BCE three things about their make up stand out. These being their humanistic look, their archaic smile and their obvious Egyptian influence. The vases however, are brilliant in design and imagery. We even have an artists name. Two in fact! Euthymides, who made Three Revelers and Andokides, who made Achelles& Ajax. The temples of the Time rely on Either doric or ionic columns to hold the houses of the gods upright. It would seem that the only thing truly Greek was the need to be godlike. Early and high classic periods deal with Kritios boy in 480BCE was the fruit of their labors, but it wasnt grand enough, they abandoned that fancy until 460BCEs hollow bronze casting of Warrior. Like the Venues of Willandorf, an exaduration and an ideal. The Etruscans bridge the gap between the Greeks and Romans. While The perfect boy was made, Double flute player was painted on the walls of the tomb of leopards. Their temples were psudoperipteral, having one set of stairs at the front of the temple. Women were important again for a small blip in time, or at least enough so to show up as a statue next to a man. Inside the tombs, all the accommodations were made for the dead in the form of painting and reliefs. All of these great things were absorbed by the Romans, who ruled from 753BCE to 337 Curent Era! For the first 726 of rule the government was a monarchy and republic, the great mind Archimedes was part of that republic. Architecturally speaking, we see the tholos for the first

time in the early 1st century BCE. And buildings everywhere are concrete. The Barrel vault and groin vault are created birthing new and beautiful building designs. And the oculus is made in this time as well, a key element to a later Byzantine holy building. In the sculptures that complete the first piece of Roman rule we find that politics are making important people old, yet eerily muscular as a bit of propaganda. In the Early Empire the republic falls with the murder of Julius Caeser in 44BCE. Under Agustus, Egypt becomes a Roman province in 30 BCE Augustus puts out statues of him as a strong youthful leader with god on his side. The Coliseum is erected in 70 or80 CE Then the Flavians took over. Verism makes an ugly comeback, kind of like leggings today. The High Empire begins 96 CE and is the Apex of power. In great structures we have Trajans tower and its lovely spiral frieze in 112CE Hadrian, rocked the Greek look, though he was a Spanish man. The Pantheon was built around 118CE Late Epire soon arrives and The firce looking Caracalla rules around112CE-217CE and hes significant because he is African. A slip back into less magnificent looking sculptures marks the Beginning of Byzantine. Under the law of Justinian the Eastern Christian Roman Empire(527-726CE) created a magnificent church that was squat and humble on the outside and grand in gold on the inside. The Hagia Sophea was the first time domes were placed over squares. We see a sort of uniformed way of making mosaics so that the images are simple and there is no overlapping scenery. Later Leo III of 717-741CE began the iconoclasm that nearly destroyed all forms of divine pictures. This went on for over one hundred years. The period known as the late Byzantine Era goes through a post iconoclasm and mosaics such as the Virgin and Child are restored. Understanding that I have gained from my time in Art History class is worth about as much as I paid to take the class, so I suppose I got what I wanted out of it all. There was definitely more than I thought there would be to the coarse so I am glad I survived as long as I did before snapping a little. From the very first class (which I showed up late to because the schedules was changed professors knowledge) I have had the understanding that art appreciation can be done by any joe of the street, its feelings, mostly. Art History on the other hand, is nothing but facts and dates and has everything to do with understanding. Learning Art History backwards was a backwards way of doing things and also counterproductive. The class was describes as being one long story, but you dont start a story at the end of a book and expect all the oh! moments to still happen. And as a final note on what I have learned, I learned that you can get yelled at for ten minutes for coming to class even though the guy in charge knows hes preaching to the choire.