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KMCH Goes Green - Wins national energy conservation award !!

U K Ananthapadmanabhan President

According to U.S Energy Information Administration, buildings are the single largest contributor to global warming. They account for 30% of the energy produced and consumed world over. Large buildings account for almost half of all greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. annually. Carbon neutral buildings reduce carbon emissions to help mitigate climate change, reduce dependence on oil power, fuel imports and provide a measure of energy security. Studies have also indicated that although people are often aware of the benefits of using energy more efficiently, a variety of social, cultural and economic factors often prevent them from doing so. Even when high efficiency technologies have been installed, 30 per cent or more of the energy savings that could potentially be realized through such technologies is lost according to the American Council for an Energy- Efficient Economy (ACEEE). As a sector, hospitals and health facilities account for a disproportionate amount of energy use and emissions. Hospitals use about 2.5 times the amount of energy as similar sized commercial buildings like hotels, malls, apartment buildings etc because they are open 24 hours a day and have extra commitments on medical equipments, air filtration and circulation, air cooling and waste management. The new buildings can be designed to substantially reduce overall energy consumption. By taking a hard look at the operating costs of healthcare utilities and facilities, engineers can find substantial saving opportunities especially in energy costs which is typically up to 3% of the hospital operating expenditure (Table 1). KMCH Energy management programme A case study In 2009, Kovai Medical Center and Hospital (KMCH) facilities engineering department embarked on an extensive energy audit programme in their 500 bed Hospital facility with its 6,00,000 sq. ft built up area and it proved to be a real eye-opener. It revealed that adoption of good energy conservation programme, innovative energy efficiency practices and use of renewable energy sources in the existing hospital buildings provide many saving opportunities and can lead to saving up to 20% on average annual energy costs with little initial investments.
Energy conservation and efficiency improvement initiatives at KMCH
1. Building management system

Building management system. This has enabled the hospital to switch on/off all the above equipments from a remote central control room all the 24 hrs. This has greatly reduced the requirement of man power and also helped in monitoring the running time of these equipments. The temperature and humidity monitoring facility available in this system for critical areas like 25 operation theatres and 20 medical equipment areas has helped to cut down the energy cost related to air conditioning of these areas. (Fig. 2)
2. Energy management system

Information technology has a great role to play in effective energy management. Today very sophisticated IT enabled Energy management system software is available which is capable of monitoring, calculating and controlling the use of energy consumption. Digital energy measuring instruments help to measure the energy load (Table 2). Once the accurate measurement is available, it is possible to detect wastage or excesses in specific areas. Anything that cannot be measured, cannot be controlled. Integration of the power, lighting, electrical distribution, fire safety, HVAC and
0 % Heating 3 % Ventilation 37 % Cooling, Airconditioning 4 % Refrigeration
18 % Room light 4 % Out door light 2 % Public areas 1 % Equipment rooms 3 1 3 2 % % % % Water pumping equipment Water treatment equipment Lifts Effluent treatment plant

HVAC 44%

Electricity 100%

Lighting 25%

Electricity 100%

Utilities 11%

Electricity 88%

2 % Water heating equipment Medical Equipment & Office Equipment 11% Support Service Equipment 9% 7 1 2 1 1 3 3 2 % % % % % % % % Diagnostic equipment Therapeutic equipment Rehabilitation equipment Office equipment Kitchen * CSSD * Laundry * Central oxygen/ air supply system

Solar 12% Electricity 100%

Electricity 89% Consumable 11%

A typical building management system integrates Chiller plants, Air handling units, Lighting controls and Energy management system at Kovai Medical Center & Hospital. Two of its 500 tons Trane Centrifugal chiller plants, their pumps, motors and 35 air handling units have been integrated through Siemens software, Desigo Insight Version 3

Table1. Percentage of energy consumption at various Utilities / Equipment / Support service areas at KMCH
* Use of steam produced by using diesel in CSSD, Laundry and Kitchen areas could lead to higher percentage of consumables.

KMCH Online Power consumption table

Load Center Name HT-METER WEST-LIGHTING CC-BLOCK MED-POWER-EQP CSSD OLD-CATHLAB PROJECTS NEW-CATHLAB LINEN-ETP CHILLERPLANT-1 CHILLERPLANT-2 CANTEENBLOCK LINAC 3RDNORTH RADIOLOGY LIGHTING BANK CANCER-BLK-AHU NEW-LAUNDRY Type Incomer Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder A 50.20 29.435 18.268 105.661 49.696 113.925 49.729 54.686 33.367 0 140.538 31.381 57.256 37.856 112.626 177.064 11.876 50.556 14.863 VLL 10768.711 407.012 406.091 406.123 406.08 406.248 406.8 406.472 406.345 406.584 407.723 407.208 407.135 408.644 393.865 406.179 406.285 407.491 408.131 kW 920.12 17.524 12.274 66.748 28.982 73.347 13.737 35.592 14.723 0 88.081 21.633 29.761 17.944 59 116.702 6.815 31.264 5.83 kVA 942.34 20.495 12.785 74.382 34.882 80.275 14.262 39.539 23.5 Nil 99.197 22.141 40.407 18.705 76.773 124.378 8.325 31.784 10.489 Demand Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil kWh(Utility) kWAh (Utility) 490680.375 504403.031 23401.416 26886.842 11352.878 11777.002 77691.062 86550.266 134766.312 172786.906 52446.238 64102.445 9866.399 10743.599 22411.123 26383.297 13532.989 18492.35 25155.242 30915.863 187178.188 224476 19199.652 19999.838 2722.865 4112.233 19664.787 20277.787 5310.283 8177.995 100676.023 109544.008 15766.845 19569.742 2165.814 2544.237 293.804 149.934

certain technologies or by restricting the duration of operation etc. Table 1 indicates the energy consumption details for a particular day at Kovai Medical Center and Hospital.
3. Lighting energy saver 300 KVA

Lighting load in the hospital which accounts for about 25% of the total energy consumed is connected to lighting Coolite energy saver equipment supplied by Schneider Electric Company (Conzerv). This equipment is designed for 2 levels of savings 10% and 12%. The entire lighting load is connected through this equipment in 10% saving mode which has resulted in a saving of Rs. 50,000 per month. (Fig. 7)
4. APFC Panels for optimum power factor

Table 2 KMCH Daily energy consumption chart on 15.10.2010

9% 25% 11%



Lighting HVAC Medical / Office eqt. Utilities Support service

Maintaining a consistent Power Factor (PF), close to unity, leads to considerable saving in electricity consumption. As per Tamil nadu electricity board (TNEB) rules, maintaining PF below 0.90 is liable for a penalty. Rebate which was available till 0.99 for PF beyond 0.95 has been withdrawn by TNEB. However KMCH has installed Automatic Power Factor Controller (APFC) equipment and ensures a optimum Power Factor of 0.98 all the 24 hours. This has helped in preventing penalty charges and maintaining optimum PF and saving Rs. 30,000 per month in terms of electricity charges.
5. Adopting new technology and technology upgradation

Telecommunications across the enterprise allows for a 30% reduction in energy costs according to Schneider Electric Company which specializes in building management and energy management systems in large buildings. At KMCH all high energy consumption areas like air conditioning plant, central sterilization equipment, public and room lighting, effluent treatment plant, heater coils of the solar heaters and the like, have been fitted with digital energy meters to monitor the consumption of power. These meters have been networked to energy management system. Parameters like kilowatt-hour, power factor, voltage and current are monitored at the facilities engineering department on a 24-hour basis. Computerised energy consumption data that is available through the software for all the areas is archived and studied to find out if there is any scope for further reduction in the energy consumption by adopting

As part of the new technology adoption programme, the old reciprocating and screw type compressors have been replaced by Trane centrifugal chillers (Fig.1) in the air conditioning plant. Centrifugal compressors are 30% more efficient than screw type chiller at high loads more than 80%. The entire HAVC system in the hospital is also monitored and controlled by means of a very sophisticated BMS system supplied by Siemens, Germany. Old stainless steel sterilizers have been replaced by most modern sterilizers from Getinge, Sweden with a data loger facility. This has helped the hospital to monitor and control the sterilization process much better and also save energy cost to the tune of Rs. 18,000 per month. (Fig. 3 & 4)
6. VFD for motors & V3F drives for lifts

All air handling units and chiller plant motor starters are replaced by Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) to reduce the starting current and to

Fig. 1 500 Tr Trane Centrifugal Chiller Plant

Fig. 2 Building Management System

Fig. 3 CSSD with Stainless Steel Sterilizers

Fig. 4 New Modern CSSD


achieve variable speed. Lift motor drives are replaced by V3F controllers, which save 30% electrical energy during operation.
7. Star rated equipments

As a matter of policy, the hospital purchases only 5 star energy rated electrical / air conditioning and refrigerator equipment, certified by Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) under the Ministry of Power, Government of India for energy efficiency. The hospital has over 100 such equipments all over its premises which include refrigerators, air conditioners, electrical heaters etc.
8. CFL, T5 tubes & LED lamps

3 lakh liters of water is purchased from outside sources. Although the entire 5 lakh liters of water is treated using an Effluent treatment plant, 2 lakh liter of water is treated with ultra water purifier system for recycling. Treated water is used for gardening, construction and toilet cleaning purposes. This has resulted in a saving of Rs.35,000 per month (Fig. 8).

In the patient room toilets the existing Incandescent lamps are replaced by CFL & T5 tubes. 40 watt copper choke tube lights are replaced with 28 watt electronic chokes. Halogen bulbs in the OT's have been replaced by LED lights. Usage of LED lights will be extended to all other departments gradually to take advantage of falling LED lamp prices and also to spread out the capital cost on these lights over one or two years.
9. Pneumatic transport system (PTS)

PTS is used for transporting laboratory samples, medicines around the hospital through pipe lines. This reduces the involvement of huge man power and use of lifts, which results in saving power. This has resulted in reduction of around 50 ward boys and girls used to transport lab samples and medicines. It has also eliminated 250 visits to pharmacy and 150 visits to laboratory by the ward boys and girls each day.
10. Use of renewable energy sources (Solar Heaters/ Panels)

KMCH Wins national energy conservation award for 2010 Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) under the Ministry of Power, Government of India has been spearheading several initiatives to optimize the use of electrical energy in all industries across the country. In order to recognize centers of excellence in energy conservation in the country, BEE has been giving awards to highly efficient manufacturing and service organizations annually in various sectors including hospitals. Commemorating the annual national energy conservation day, this year, energy conservation function was held at New Delhi on 14th December 2010. Hon'ble Union Minister of Power, Shri. Sushilkumar Shinde and Hon'ble Minister of State for Power Shri. Bharatsinh Solanki gave away awards to various manufacturing and service organizations to recognize their outstanding performance in energy management. In that function, KMCH was awarded the National Energy Conservation Award 2010 (2nd prize) for the hospital sector in the country. Mr. U K Ananthapadmanabhan, president of KMCH received the award at the function on behalf of the hospital.

In the hospital, nine numbers of Solar hot water plants, each with 2000 liters of capacity, have been installed to supply hot water to all the rooms in the hospital. It saves 15% of total diesel consumption per day and Rs. 1,20,000 in terms of money per month. KMCH is the first hospital in India, to install 640 watt Solar panels, in collaboration with Dr. N.G.P Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering and Numeric Power Systems, Chennai for 20 corridor lights as a pilot project. It will be extended for 250 Kw main lighting system in another two years time. (Fig. 5 & 6)
11. Effluent treatment plant

The hospital uses 5 lakh liters of water per day. Out of this requirement

Fig. 5 Solar Water Heating Plant

Fig. 6 Solar Power Panel

Fig. 7 Coolite - Energy Saver

Fig. 8 Effluent Treatment Plant