AND
BEVEL GEARS
Chapter 7 Nomenclature
a addendum, m
b dedendum, m
b
*
Hertzian halfwidth, m
b
w
face width, m
b
l
backlash, m
C
r
contact ratio
c clearance, m
c
d
center distance, m
d pitch diameter, m
d
b
base diameter, m
d
bg
base diameter of gear, m
d
bp
base diameter of pinion, m
d
g
pitch diameter of gear, m
d
og
outside diameter of gear, m
d
op
outside diameter of pinion, m
d
p
pitch diameter of pinion, m
d
r
root or fillet diameter, m
E modulus of elasticity, Pa
E' effective modulus of elasticity, Pa gear ratio
HB Brinell hardness
h height, m
h
k
working depth, m
h
p
transmitted horsepower, hp
h
t
total depth, m
I area moment of inertia, m
4
K
a
application factor
K
g
geometry factor for contact stress evaluation
K
m
load distribution factor
K
b
size factor
K
v
dynamic factor
L
ab
length of line of action, m
L
a*b*
length of line from a* to b*, m
m module, d/N, mm
N number of teeth
N
a
gear rotational speed, rpm
N
g
number of teeth in gear
N
p
number of teeth in pinion
N
v
equivalent number of teeth
n
s
safety factor
P power, W
P
z
normal load, N
P
z
normal load per face width, N/m
p
a
axial pitch for helical gears, m
p
b
base pitch, m
p
c
circular pitch, d/N, m
p
cn
normal circular pitch, m
p
d
diametral pitch, N/d, in.
1
p
dn
normal diametral pitch, in.
1
p
H
maximum Hertzian contact pressure, Pa
p
p
pitch point
Q
v
transmission accuracy level number
R
q
rms surface finish of gear, m curvature sum in x direction, m
R
x
effective radius, m
r pitch radius, m
r
b
base radius, m
r
bg
base radius of gear, m
r
bp
base radius of pinion, m
r
g
pitch radius of gear, m
r
o
outside radius, m
r
og
outside radius of gear, m
r
op
outside radius of pinion, m
r
p
pitch radius of pinion, m
T torque, Nm
t tooth thickness, m
t
h
circular tooth thickness measured on pitch circle, m
t
ha
actual circular tooth thickness measured on pitch circle, m
u
~
mean velocity, m/s
v
t
pitchline velocity, ft/mm
W load, N
W
r
radial load, N
W
t
tangential load, N
w' load per unit width, N/m
x unknown distance, m
Y Lewis form factor
Y
j
geometry factor
Z angular velocity ratio
coefficient of thermal expansion, (C)
1
ag
angle of approach of gear, deg
ap
angle of approach of pinion, deg
rg
angle of recess of gear, deg
rp
angle of recess of pinion, deg
0
atmospheric viscosity, Pas
film parameter
pressureviscosity coefficient, m
2
/N
stress, Pa
d
design stress, Pa
g
bending stress of gear, Pa
max
maximum normal stress, Pa
r
contact stress of gear, Pa
n
pressure angle in normal direction for helical gears, deg
helix angle, deg
angular velocity of shaft, rad/s
angular speed of gear, rad/s
Chapter Seven
Spur Gears and Bevel Gears
7.1. Introduction
Spur gears are simply toothed wheels used for transmitting power and motion from one shaft to
another. The design of gears is highly standardised by the AGMA (American Gear
Manufacturers Association). Like bearings, gears represent a product of excellence in
engineering design.
The advantages of gear transmissions are: (1) transmit large power, (2) high efficiency, (3) stable
speed ratio, (4) long life, and (5) reliable. The disadvantages are: (1) high requirements in
manufacturing and assembling, (2) expensive, and (3) unsuitable for long distance transmission.
The design of spur gears requires the study and objective understanding of the following subjects:
 Kinematics and geometrical shapes
 Analysis of forces produced in gears and in gear trains
 Design of gears against breakage
 Design of gears against deterioration and wear
Following is a brief review of spur gear terminology which has already been taught in the
Mechanisms course.
7.2. Spur Gears
7.2.1. Terminology
The following are some gear terminology associated with most gears, including spur gears. A
sketch of the gear teeth nomenclature is shown in Fig. 7.1.
Pinion: when two gears are in mesh, it is customary to call the smaller as the pinion.
Base Circle: the circle from which the theoretical curve of gear teeth start.
Pitch Circle: the circle on a gear on which the thickness of a tooth equals to the space.
Addendum Circle: the circle drawn through the top of the gear tooth, its centre is at the gear
centre.
Root or Dedendum Circle: the circle drawn through the bottom of the gear tooth, its centre is at
the gear centre.
Addendum: the radial distance from the pitch circle to the addendum circle.
Dedendum: the radial distance from the pitch circle to the dedendum circle.
Clearance Circle: the largest circle centred at the gear centre, which is not penetrated by the
teeth of the mating circle.
Clearance: the radial distance from the clearance circle to the dedendum circle.
Whole Depth: the radial distance between the addendum and the dedendum circles.
Working Depth: the radial distance between the addendum and the clearance circles.
Circular Pitch p
c
: the distance measured along the pitch circle, from a point on one tooth to
the corresponding point on the adjacent tooth of the gear. Hence,
7.1
where d is the diameter of the pitch circle, N is the number of teeth of the gear. In order
for two gears to mesh, they must have the same circular pitch.
Diametral Pitch p
d
: this is equal to the number of teeth of a gear divided by the diameter of the
pitch circle (in inches only). That is,
7.2
To relate p
c
and p
d
, we have from Eq. (7.1)
7.3
In order for two gear to mesh, they must have the same diametral pitch.
Module m: reciprocal of the diametral pitch, but used only with the SI units. That is,
7.4
Note that unit conversion is necessary in going from P
d
to m. Hence,
7.5
and the circular pitch in mm. is
7.6
N
d
p
c
) ( inches in d
d
N
p
d
c d
p p
) mm in m
N
d
m (
d
p
m
4 . 25
m p
c
Pressure Line: the common inner tangent (line AB as in Fig. 7.2) of the two base circles of
the meshing gears.
Pressure Angle
: the angle between the pressure line and the tangent of the pitch circle.
Most gears are manufactured with
T P
c se rad m N watt / 1 1 1
Fig 7.3 Details of line of action, showing angles of approach and recess for both pinion and gear.
The involute profile serves to keep the line of action of the forces on the tooth along the line of
action shown in the figure. Generally, a contact ratio greater than two is desirable. A contact
ratio below two means that only one pair of teeth is carrying the total load for part of the time.
An absolute minimum value for C
r
is 1.2. From the diagram the expression for contact ratio C
r
can be derived:
7.11
7.2.5. Backlash
The more accurately the tooth profile is cut, and the centretocentre distance is maintained, the
smaller the backlash. If the input shaft is fixed, backlash is the distance a tooth on the gear moves
when contact is shifted from the forward tooth to the trailing tooth. Coarse gears have large
backlash as shown in the table 14.3 on page 633 of the text.
7.2.6. Speed Ratio
We know the gear ratio g
r
is the inverse to the rotational speed ratio z.
( ) ( )
c
d bg og bp op
c
r
p
tan
C r r r r
cos p
C
]
]
]
+ + +
2
1
2 2
2
1
2 2
1
,
p
g
r
N
N
g if
g g p p
r r
Then because
7.12
The rule is that the big gear turns slower than the little one.
Sometimes, in automotive transmissions annular gear arrangements are used (see page 635). Here
the centre distance is given as:
7.13
7.2.7. Power Transmitting Force
Fig. 7.4 Force transmitted from one gear to another
Recall the force, F
p
between a pair of teeth always lies along the pressure line which is tangent to
the base circle as shown in Fig. 7.2. In terms of quantities pertaining to the base circle, the power
due to this force is determined by:
7.14
or
7.15
F
P
in Fig. 7.4 can be divided into two components, one, W
t
, tangential to the pitch circle and the
other W
r
directed toward the centre. The latter transmits no power. The substitution of W
t
= F
P
z
N
N
r
r
g
p
g
p
p
g
( )
1 2
r r C
d
) ., (
025 , 63 025 , 63
inches in r lb in F
F nr
nT
hp
p
p b
) , (
000 , 1
2
000 , 1
2
m in r N in F
F nr
T
kW
b p
p b
cos
) / , , (
000 , 1
2
c se rev in n meter in r N in W
nrW
kW
t
t
c d
km
t
e
F
2
,
`
.

+
2 1
2 1
9 E E
E E b
k
steel, then
k = 1,667,000b lb/in. = 11,500b newtons/mm
The equivalent mass is obtained from consideration of moment of inertia and is given by
7.21
where
7.22
in which
= density of the material,
steel
= 7.68 10
5
N/mm
3
= 0.283 lb/in
3
.
r
o
, r
i
= the outside and inside radii respectively of the rim. r
o
= r
g = the gravitational constant = 9,806.6 mm/sec
2
= 386 in/sec
2
.
b = width of the gear
If the two gears are solid and made from the same material, then Eq. (7.22) can be simplified to
7.23
where C = N
2
/N
1
.
Note: In our text, dynamic effects are accounted for by the dynamic factor and the above
calculations need not be done.
7.3. Allowable Stresses on Gear Teeth
7.3.1. Bending Stresses
The allowable bending stress on a tooth could limit the power transfer for thinner teeth at low
contact ratios. The simple graph on page 638 of the text deals with the bending stress at the root
of a gear tooth. The additional tables here give more detailed information.
Usually gears fail because the tooth surface is deformed and wear takes place due to the small
sliding action of the contact point. Thus the contact stress may also be the critical design stress.
Values are shown in the graph on page 639. Additional information is given in the figures
reproduced here.
7.20
mm
c se newton
or
in
c se lb
m m
m m
m
c
2
2 1
2 1
' '
' '
+
( )
4
1
4
0 2
0
2
' r r
gr
b
m
g
r b
C
C
m
c
2 1
2
1
2
2
K Y b
K K K P W
j w
m s a d t
t
Table 7.2 Application factor as a function of driving power source and driven machine
Fig 7.6 Load distribution factor as function of face width and ratio of face width to pitch
diameters
The variable Q is a gear quality number. From Table 7.1 it can be seen that low values of Q are
associated with large backlash and large errors in tooth profile. As speed increases dynamic
impact forces increase, thus for Q < 5, the maximum pitch line velocity
v
t
< 2500
ft
/
min
. For Q = 5,6, or 7 is typical for machinery. Q > 7 are specified for high speed use.
Pitch line velocity is defined as:
7.26
where
N
a
= rpm of gear or pinion
d = diameter of gear or pinion
Fig 7.7 Dynamic factor as function of pitchline velocity and transmission accuracy level
12 12
ag g ap p
t
N d N d
Power source Uniform Light shock Moderate shock Heavy shock
Uniform 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75
Light shock 1.20 1.40 1.75 2.25
Moderate shock 1.30 1.70 2.00 2.75
Driven machines
Application factor, K
a
7.3.2. Contact Stresses
If contact stresses are too high the surfaces of the gear teeth will be gouged. Lubrication films
break down and metaltometal contact takes place. The teeth grind away the profile due to
sliding. If the gear is surface hardened, surface fatigue may occur, resulting in surface flaking.
These flakes can then become a grinding powder that rapidly destroys the machine.
7.27
where E is the effective modulus of elasticity between the two gear materials. E determines the
surface conformity (contact area) due to deformation under load.
Thus:
7.28
W is the dimensionless load:
7.29
where w = load per unit width P
z
/b
w
and,
7.30
When this is all related properly, contact stress is given as:
7.31
As is given in the text, lubricant and film thickness can be calculated to select weights of
lubricants.
7.4. Bevel Gears
Bevel gears may have straight or curved teeth. They require special mountings because they
produce large axial thrust forces. Unlike in spur gears where the pitch circle lies in a cylinder
(pitch cylinder), the pitch circle in bevel gears lies in a cone.
7.4.1. Terminology and Geometry
Straight bevel gears are specified, in pairs, as follows:
.

' W
' E p
H
b
b
a
a
E E
E
2 2
1 1
2
'
+
x
R ' E
' w
' W
sin r r R
g p x
1 1 1 1
,
`
.

+
2
1
2
1
2
,
`
.

,
`
.

K
K K K
p
K
K K K ' W
' E
m s a
H
m s a
c
N
1
, N
2
 Number of teeth
P
d
 Diametral pitch, measured at outside diameter
b  Width of tooth, measured along pitch cone
b  Width of blank, required for calculating F
d
The above parameters are shown in Fig. 7.8.
Fig. 7.8 Straighttooth bevel gear
From Fig. 7.8, the diametral pitch is
7.33
The circle pitch at midpoint of tooth is
7.34
and is required in calculating tooth bending capacity.
A bevel gear has a virtual number of teeth N which is the number of teeth a spur gear of radius
r
o
(back cone radius) would have. N is used in calculating wear capacity
c
and bending
capacity
b
. N is given by
7.35
Back cone radius, r
o
, is used in determining tooth profiles.
02
2
01
1
2 2 r
N
r
N
P
d
( )
1
1 2
1
0 1
1
1
s i n 2 2
N
b r
N
r
p
1
1
1
cos
'
N
N
The virtual radius at midtooth r is used in determining
c
. r is given by
7.36
7.4.2. Bending Capacity
The bending capacity,
b
, is given by the same formula as for spur gear teeth, that is,
7.37
where
t
= bending strength of material
Y
j
= Lewis form factor using N
b = the gear width (see Fig. 7.8)
p
d
= the diametral pitch at the tooth midpoint, given by Eq. 7.34
7.4.3. Contact Capacity
The wear capacity, F
w
, is given by the equation for F
w
for spur gears, but modified as follows,
7.38
where
0.75 = reduction factor due to poor contact in bevel gear teeth
Q = determined by N
1
and N
2
for spur gears, that is
7.39
7.4.4. Horsepower Capacity
The horsepower capacity or loading capacity is determined in the same way as for spur gears.
(equations 7.14 7.17)
7.4.5. Loads on Bearings by Bevel Gears
1
1
1
cos
'
r
r
K Y b
K K K p W
j w
m s a d t
t
2
1
2
'
' ' 75 . 0
,
`
.

K
K K K W
E Q
m s a
c
( ) ( )
2 1 1
2
1 1 1 1
1 2
2 1
2
tan
2
cos cos
sin 2
' '
' 2
'
N N
N
N N
N
N N
N
Q
+
In determining bearing loads in bevelgear applications, it is assumed that all forces act on the
centre of the tooth. From Fig. 7.9, the forces and components are:
7.40
7.41
7.42
In the above equations, W
t
can be obtained from the known horsepower:
7.43
Fig. 7.9 Forces at midpoint of bevel gear tooth
cos
W
P
t
z
cos tan
t r
W W
sin tan
t a
W W
) (
025 , 63
rpm in n
n W
hp
t
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