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SPUR GEARS

AND
BEVEL GEARS
Chapter 7 Nomenclature
a addendum, m
b dedendum, m
b
*
Hertzian half-width, m
b
w
face width, m
b
l
backlash, m
C
r
contact ratio
c clearance, m
c
d
center distance, m
d pitch diameter, m
d
b
base diameter, m
d
bg
base diameter of gear, m
d
bp
base diameter of pinion, m
d
g
pitch diameter of gear, m
d
og
outside diameter of gear, m
d
op
outside diameter of pinion, m
d
p
pitch diameter of pinion, m
d
r
root or fillet diameter, m
E modulus of elasticity, Pa
E' effective modulus of elasticity, Pa gear ratio
HB Brinell hardness
h height, m
h
k
working depth, m
h
p
transmitted horsepower, hp
h
t
total depth, m
I area moment of inertia, m
4
K
a
application factor
K
g
geometry factor for contact stress evaluation
K
m
load distribution factor
K
b
size factor
K
v
dynamic factor
L
ab
length of line of action, m
L
a*b*
length of line from a* to b*, m
m module, d/N, mm
N number of teeth
N
a
gear rotational speed, rpm
N
g
number of teeth in gear
N
p
number of teeth in pinion
N
v
equivalent number of teeth
n
s
safety factor
P power, W
P
z
normal load, N
P
z
normal load per face width, N/m
p
a
axial pitch for helical gears, m
p
b
base pitch, m
p
c
circular pitch, d/N, m
p
cn
normal circular pitch, m
p
d
diametral pitch, N/d, in.
-1
p
dn
normal diametral pitch, in.
-1
p
H
maximum Hertzian contact pressure, Pa
p
p
pitch point
Q
v
transmission accuracy level number
R
q
rms surface finish of gear, m curvature sum in x direction, m
R
x
effective radius, m
r pitch radius, m
r
b
base radius, m
r
bg
base radius of gear, m
r
bp
base radius of pinion, m
r
g
pitch radius of gear, m
r
o
outside radius, m
r
og
outside radius of gear, m
r
op
outside radius of pinion, m
r
p
pitch radius of pinion, m
T torque, N-m
t tooth thickness, m
t
h
circular tooth thickness measured on pitch circle, m
t
ha
actual circular tooth thickness measured on pitch circle, m
u
~
mean velocity, m/s
v
t
pitch-line velocity, ft/mm
W load, N
W
r
radial load, N
W
t
tangential load, N
w' load per unit width, N/m
x unknown distance, m
Y Lewis form factor
Y
j
geometry factor
Z angular velocity ratio
coefficient of thermal expansion, (C)
-1

ag
angle of approach of gear, deg

ap
angle of approach of pinion, deg

rg
angle of recess of gear, deg

rp
angle of recess of pinion, deg

0
atmospheric viscosity, Pa-s
film parameter
pressure-viscosity coefficient, m
2
/N
stress, Pa

d
design stress, Pa

g
bending stress of gear, Pa

max
maximum normal stress, Pa

r
contact stress of gear, Pa

pressure angle, deg

n
pressure angle in normal direction for helical gears, deg
helix angle, deg
angular velocity of shaft, rad/s
angular speed of gear, rad/s
Chapter Seven
Spur Gears and Bevel Gears
7.1. Introduction
Spur gears are simply toothed wheels used for transmitting power and motion from one shaft to
another. The design of gears is highly standardised by the AGMA (American Gear
Manufacturers Association). Like bearings, gears represent a product of excellence in
engineering design.
The advantages of gear transmissions are: (1) transmit large power, (2) high efficiency, (3) stable
speed ratio, (4) long life, and (5) reliable. The disadvantages are: (1) high requirements in
manufacturing and assembling, (2) expensive, and (3) unsuitable for long distance transmission.
The design of spur gears requires the study and objective understanding of the following subjects:
-- Kinematics and geometrical shapes
-- Analysis of forces produced in gears and in gear trains
-- Design of gears against breakage
-- Design of gears against deterioration and wear
Following is a brief review of spur gear terminology which has already been taught in the
Mechanisms course.
7.2. Spur Gears
7.2.1. Terminology
The following are some gear terminology associated with most gears, including spur gears. A
sketch of the gear teeth nomenclature is shown in Fig. 7.1.
Pinion: when two gears are in mesh, it is customary to call the smaller as the pinion.
Base Circle: the circle from which the theoretical curve of gear teeth start.
Pitch Circle: the circle on a gear on which the thickness of a tooth equals to the space.
Addendum Circle: the circle drawn through the top of the gear tooth, its centre is at the gear
centre.
Root or Dedendum Circle: the circle drawn through the bottom of the gear tooth, its centre is at
the gear centre.
Addendum: the radial distance from the pitch circle to the addendum circle.
Dedendum: the radial distance from the pitch circle to the dedendum circle.
Clearance Circle: the largest circle centred at the gear centre, which is not penetrated by the
teeth of the mating circle.
Clearance: the radial distance from the clearance circle to the dedendum circle.
Whole Depth: the radial distance between the addendum and the dedendum circles.
Working Depth: the radial distance between the addendum and the clearance circles.
Circular Pitch p
c
: the distance measured along the pitch circle, from a point on one tooth to
the corresponding point on the adjacent tooth of the gear. Hence,
7.1
where d is the diameter of the pitch circle, N is the number of teeth of the gear. In order
for two gears to mesh, they must have the same circular pitch.
Diametral Pitch p
d
: this is equal to the number of teeth of a gear divided by the diameter of the
pitch circle (in inches only). That is,
7.2
To relate p
c
and p
d
, we have from Eq. (7.1)
7.3
In order for two gear to mesh, they must have the same diametral pitch.
Module m: reciprocal of the diametral pitch, but used only with the SI units. That is,
7.4
Note that unit conversion is necessary in going from P
d
to m. Hence,
7.5
and the circular pitch in mm. is
7.6
N
d
p
c

) ( inches in d
d
N
p
d


c d
p p
) mm in m
N
d
m (
d
p
m
4 . 25

m p
c

Pressure Line: the common inner tangent (line AB as in Fig. 7.2) of the two base circles of
the meshing gears.
Pressure Angle

: the angle between the pressure line and the tangent of the pitch circle.
Most gears are manufactured with

= 14 or 20. In order for two gears


to mesh, they must have the same pressure angle on the pitch circles.
Relation between radii r and r
b
of pitch circle and base circle is, as shown in Fig. 7.2,
7.7
Backlash: the difference between tooth space and tooth thickness of the meshing teeth. It is
measured on the pitch circle. The purpose is to avoid interference in gear motion
and resulting in jams. Too large a backlash can produce large shock loads
resulting in excessive wear, noise and inaccurate gear motion.
Speed Ratio: the speed ration of two meshing gears is
Fig. 7.1 Spur gear terminology Fig. 7.2 Pressure line and pressure angle
(Fig. 14.5 in the text)
7.2.2. Meshing Geometry
When using spur gears the designer must use a small gear (pinion gear) that has at least a certain
number of teeth. Below that number, all the load normally shared by several teeth will fall on just
cos r r
b

one tooth, which can exceed the yield strength of the single tooth. Since gears are used to change
shaft rotational speed, we must also consider gear ratio.. The gear ratio between a pinion (small
gear) and the large gear is:
7.8
The distance the gear centres must be separated by is:
7.9
This distance must be highly accurate (within 0.0002 in) or else the teeth will not contact properly
and will wear badly. Page 623 of the text has useful sizing information.
7.2.3. Power and Gear Ratio
It should be noted again that power is equal to torque multiplied by rotation speed.
7.10
and this must be constant from the input gear to the output gear. Therefore, if torque T rises, then
speed must be reduced. The power is constant, we cannot put five watts in and get fifteen watts
out! Notice also, in SI units:
7.2.4. Contact Ratio
As pinion and gear rotate, the number of teeth in contact varies slightly. We can analyse the
geometry to determine the average number of teeth in contact.
p
g
p
g
r
N
N
d
d
g
( )
2
g p
d
d d
C
+

T P
c se rad m N watt / 1 1 1
Fig 7.3 Details of line of action, showing angles of approach and recess for both pinion and gear.
The involute profile serves to keep the line of action of the forces on the tooth along the line of
action shown in the figure. Generally, a contact ratio greater than two is desirable. A contact
ratio below two means that only one pair of teeth is carrying the total load for part of the time.
An absolute minimum value for C
r
is 1.2. From the diagram the expression for contact ratio C
r
can be derived:
7.11
7.2.5. Backlash
The more accurately the tooth profile is cut, and the centre-to-centre distance is maintained, the
smaller the backlash. If the input shaft is fixed, backlash is the distance a tooth on the gear moves
when contact is shifted from the forward tooth to the trailing tooth. Coarse gears have large
backlash as shown in the table 14.3 on page 633 of the text.
7.2.6. Speed Ratio
We know the gear ratio g
r
is the inverse to the rotational speed ratio z.
( ) ( )
c
d bg og bp op
c
r
p
tan
C r r r r
cos p
C


]
]
]

+ + +
2
1
2 2
2
1
2 2
1
,
p
g
r
N
N
g if
g g p p
r r
Then because
7.12
The rule is that the big gear turns slower than the little one.
Sometimes, in automotive transmissions annular gear arrangements are used (see page 635). Here
the centre distance is given as:
7.13
7.2.7. Power Transmitting Force
Fig. 7.4 Force transmitted from one gear to another
Recall the force, F
p
between a pair of teeth always lies along the pressure line which is tangent to
the base circle as shown in Fig. 7.2. In terms of quantities pertaining to the base circle, the power
due to this force is determined by:
7.14
or
7.15
F
P
in Fig. 7.4 can be divided into two components, one, W
t
, tangential to the pitch circle and the
other W
r
directed toward the centre. The latter transmits no power. The substitution of W
t
= F
P
z
N
N
r
r
g
p
g
p
p
g

( )
1 2
r r C
d

) ., (
025 , 63 025 , 63
inches in r lb in F
F nr
nT
hp
p
p b

) , (
000 , 1
2
000 , 1
2
m in r N in F
F nr
T
kW
b p
p b


cos

and Eq. (7.7) into Eqs. (7.14) and (7.15) results


7.16
or
7.17
7.2.8. Dynamic Forces Between Gear Teeth
Noise which is generated at high speeds by a pair of gears is caused by the impact forces between
contacting tooth surface. The greatest cause of these dynamic forces is error in teeth profile due
to improper manufacturing. Various approaches have been taken to determine the dynamic force.
One of these gives:
7.18
where
e = combined error in both gears (given in Table 7.1)
t = time duration of contact in sec.
k = spring constant for the pair of teeth
m
e
= equivalent mass for the two gears
) , ., (
025 , 63
rpm in n inches in r lb in W
nrW
hp
t
t

) / , , (
000 , 1
2
c se rev in n meter in r N in W
nrW
kW
t
t

c d
km
t
e
F
2

1-1/2 in. 3 in. 6 in. 12 in. 25 in. 50 in.


or or or or or or
38mm 75 mm 150 mm 300 mm 625 mm 1,250 mm
P
d
= 2 or m = 12 0.0048 0.005 0.0052 0.0055
P
d
= 4 or m = 6 0.0032 0.0034 0.0036 0.0037 0.004
P
d
= 8 or m = 3 0.0022 0.0023 0.0024 0.0025 0.0028 0.0029
P
d
= 16-20 or m = 11.5-1.25 0.0017 0.0018 0.0019 0.002 0.0021 0.0023
P
d
= 2 or m = 12 0.0033 0.0034 0.0037 0.0039
P
d
= 4 or m = 6 0.0022 0.0023 0.0025 0.0027 0.0027
P
d
= 8 or m = 3 0.0016 0.0017 0.0018 0.0019 0.0019 0.002
P
d
= 16-20 or m = 11.5-1.25 0.0013 0.0013 0.0014 0.0014 0.0015 0.0016
P
d
= 2 or m = 12 0.0024 0.0025 0.0025 0.0027
P
d
= 4 or m = 6 0.0016 0.0017 0.0018 0.0019 0.0024
P
d
= 8 or m = 3 0.0012 0.0012 0.0012 0.0013 0.0014 0.0015
P
d
= 16-20 or m = 11.5-1.25 0.0009 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.0011 0.0011
P
d
= 4 or m = 6 0.0012 0.0012 0.0013 0.0014 0.0015
P
d
= 8 or m = 3 0.0008 0.0009 0.0009 0.0009 0.001 0.0011
P
d
= 16-20 or m = 11.5-1.25 0.0006 0.0007 0.0007 0.0007 0.0008 0.0008
P
d
= 4 or m = 6 0.0009 0.0009 0.0009 0.001 0.001
P
d
= 8 or m = 3 0.0006 0.0006 0.0007 0.0007 0.0007 0.0008
P
d
= 16-20 or m = 11.5-1.25 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0006 0.0006
9
10
11
12
AGMA
Quality
Number
Pitch
Pitch Diameter
8
Table 7.1 Total Tooth-to-Tooth Spacing and Profile Errors, e, Inches
The contact time for one tooth is
then Eq. (7.18) becomes
7.19
The spring constant for a pair of meshing teeth is given by
where E
1
and E
2
are Youngs moduli of the two gears. E
steel
= 30,000,000 psi. If both gears are
) (
1 60
rpm in n
N n
t
c d
km
enN
F
30

,
`

.
|
+

2 1
2 1
9 E E
E E b
k
steel, then
k = 1,667,000b lb/in. = 11,500b newtons/mm
The equivalent mass is obtained from consideration of moment of inertia and is given by
7.21
where
7.22
in which
= density of the material,
steel
= 7.68 10
-5
N/mm
3
= 0.283 lb/in
3
.
r
o
, r
i
= the outside and inside radii respectively of the rim. r
o
= r
g = the gravitational constant = 9,806.6 mm/sec
2
= 386 in/sec
2
.
b = width of the gear
If the two gears are solid and made from the same material, then Eq. (7.22) can be simplified to
7.23
where C = N
2
/N
1
.
Note: In our text, dynamic effects are accounted for by the dynamic factor and the above
calculations need not be done.
7.3. Allowable Stresses on Gear Teeth
7.3.1. Bending Stresses
The allowable bending stress on a tooth could limit the power transfer for thinner teeth at low
contact ratios. The simple graph on page 638 of the text deals with the bending stress at the root
of a gear tooth. The additional tables here give more detailed information.
Usually gears fail because the tooth surface is deformed and wear takes place due to the small
sliding action of the contact point. Thus the contact stress may also be the critical design stress.
Values are shown in the graph on page 639. Additional information is given in the figures
reproduced here.
7.20
mm
c se newton
or
in
c se lb
m m
m m
m
c
2
2 1
2 1
' '
' '
+

( )
4
1
4
0 2
0
2
' r r
gr
b
m

g
r b
C
C
m
c
2 1
2
1
2
2

An important factor in the bending stess is the Lewis Factor Y.


7.24
where b
w
= tooth face width
The Lewis Factor, Y, (also called the Geometry Factor) is given in the graph below (page 643)
Fig 7.5 Spur gear geometry factor for pressure angle of 20 and full depth involute
For general design, Motts formula (1992) is used:
7.25
Where
K
a
= application factor associated with load variations in operation
K
s
= size factor (often 1.0)
K
m
= load distribution factor associated with tooth alignment
K
v
= dynamic factor associated with loading and unloading of the tooth
Y b
P w
x p b
P W
x b
W
w
d t
d w
d t
w
t
t

2
3
2
3

K Y b
K K K P W
j w
m s a d t
t

Table 7.2 Application factor as a function of driving power source and driven machine
Fig 7.6 Load distribution factor as function of face width and ratio of face width to pitch
diameters
The variable Q is a gear quality number. From Table 7.1 it can be seen that low values of Q are
associated with large backlash and large errors in tooth profile. As speed increases dynamic
impact forces increase, thus for Q < 5, the maximum pitch line velocity
v
t
< 2500
ft
/
min
. For Q = 5,6, or 7 is typical for machinery. Q > 7 are specified for high speed use.
Pitch line velocity is defined as:
7.26
where
N
a
= rpm of gear or pinion
d = diameter of gear or pinion
Fig 7.7 Dynamic factor as function of pitch-line velocity and transmission accuracy level
12 12
ag g ap p
t
N d N d

Power source Uniform Light shock Moderate shock Heavy shock
Uniform 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75
Light shock 1.20 1.40 1.75 2.25
Moderate shock 1.30 1.70 2.00 2.75
Driven machines
Application factor, K
a
7.3.2. Contact Stresses
If contact stresses are too high the surfaces of the gear teeth will be gouged. Lubrication films
break down and metal-to-metal contact takes place. The teeth grind away the profile due to
sliding. If the gear is surface hardened, surface fatigue may occur, resulting in surface flaking.
These flakes can then become a grinding powder that rapidly destroys the machine.
7.27
where E is the effective modulus of elasticity between the two gear materials. E determines the
surface conformity (contact area) due to deformation under load.
Thus:
7.28
W is the dimensionless load:
7.29
where w = load per unit width P
z
/b
w
and,
7.30
When this is all related properly, contact stress is given as:
7.31
As is given in the text, lubricant and film thickness can be calculated to select weights of
lubricants.
7.4. Bevel Gears
Bevel gears may have straight or curved teeth. They require special mountings because they
produce large axial thrust forces. Unlike in spur gears where the pitch circle lies in a cylinder
(pitch cylinder), the pitch circle in bevel gears lies in a cone.
7.4.1. Terminology and Geometry
Straight bevel gears are specified, in pairs, as follows:

--- Pressure angle (as for spur gears)


2
1
2

,
`

.
|

' W
' E p
H
b
b
a
a
E E
E
2 2
1 1
2
'

+

x
R ' E
' w
' W
sin r r R
g p x
1 1 1 1

,
`

.
|
+
2
1
2
1
2

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|

K
K K K
p
K
K K K ' W
' E
m s a
H
m s a
c
N
1
, N
2
--- Number of teeth
P
d
--- Diametral pitch, measured at outside diameter
b --- Width of tooth, measured along pitch cone
b --- Width of blank, required for calculating F
d
The above parameters are shown in Fig. 7.8.
Fig. 7.8 Straight-tooth bevel gear
From Fig. 7.8, the diametral pitch is
7.33
The circle pitch at mid-point of tooth is
7.34
and is required in calculating tooth bending capacity.
A bevel gear has a virtual number of teeth N which is the number of teeth a spur gear of radius
r
o
(back cone radius) would have. N is used in calculating wear capacity
c
and bending
capacity
b
. N is given by
7.35
Back cone radius, r
o
, is used in determining tooth profiles.
02
2
01
1
2 2 r
N
r
N
P
d

( )
1
1 2
1
0 1
1
1
s i n 2 2
N
b r
N
r
p


1
1
1
cos
'

N
N
The virtual radius at mid-tooth r is used in determining
c
. r is given by
7.36
7.4.2. Bending Capacity
The bending capacity,
b
, is given by the same formula as for spur gear teeth, that is,
7.37
where

t
= bending strength of material
Y
j
= Lewis form factor using N
b = the gear width (see Fig. 7.8)
p
d
= the diametral pitch at the tooth mid-point, given by Eq. 7.34
7.4.3. Contact Capacity
The wear capacity, F
w
, is given by the equation for F
w
for spur gears, but modified as follows,
7.38
where
0.75 = reduction factor due to poor contact in bevel gear teeth
Q = determined by N
1
and N
2
for spur gears, that is
7.39
7.4.4. Horsepower Capacity
The horsepower capacity or loading capacity is determined in the same way as for spur gears.
(equations 7.14 7.17)
7.4.5. Loads on Bearings by Bevel Gears
1
1
1
cos
'

r
r

K Y b
K K K p W
j w
m s a d t
t

2
1
2
'
' ' 75 . 0

,
`

.
|

K
K K K W
E Q
m s a
c
( ) ( )
2 1 1
2
1 1 1 1
1 2
2 1
2
tan
2
cos cos
sin 2
' '
' 2
'
N N
N
N N
N
N N
N
Q
+

In determining bearing loads in bevel-gear applications, it is assumed that all forces act on the
centre of the tooth. From Fig. 7.9, the forces and components are:
7.40
7.41
7.42
In the above equations, W
t
can be obtained from the known horsepower:
7.43
Fig. 7.9 Forces at midpoint of bevel gear tooth
cos
W
P
t
z

cos tan
t r
W W
sin tan
t a
W W
) (
025 , 63
rpm in n
n W
hp
t