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2011

Millat Tractors Limited

Submitted

by:

ZainabNadeem

[INTERNSHIPREPORT]

Acknowledgements
I am pleased to acknowledge HR Mr. Zulifiqar Elahi Millat tractors limited who helped me to work here as internee. I have learned a lot during my periodofinternshipinMTL.Ihaveobservedmytheoreticalknowledgebeing converted to practical processes. I also acknowledge Mr. Irfan from manufacturing department, Mr. Zubair from EAP and Mr. Soban Maqsood from Tractor Assembly plant (EAP) for their help in instructing and giving mesoundknowledgeabouttheirrespectiveplants.

AbouttheCompany:
Millat Tractors Limited is a Pakistanbased company engaged in the assembly and manufactureofagriculturaltractors,implementsandmultiapplicationproducts Millat Tractors Limited (MTL) is an ISO 9002 certified company for its Assembly Plants (TractorAssembly,EngineAssembly,andIndustrial/AgriculturalProducts),MaterialTesting and Gauge Control Laboratory. It is Pakistans leading engineering concern in the automobilesector,thatmanufactures; Tractors,underlicensingagreementwithMasseyFerguson,UK(AGCO,USA) DieselEngines DieselGeneratingSetsandPrimeMovers ForkliftTrucks,underlicensefromAnhuiHeliForkliftTrucksChinaand ArangeofAgriculturalImplements.

ThecompanyisalsodedicatedtocustomizeitsDieselGeneratingSetsandPrimeMoversas perrequirementofitsCustomers. The company has spread its products throughout the length and breadth of the country. Today the number of MF tractors made by MTL exceeds 250,000 while the total number of tractors in the country is approximately 500,000, giving it a market share of above 50%. In other words every second tractor in Pakistan is MF. This achievement has beenmadepossibleonlythroughtheCompanyscommitmenttoQuality,AfterSaleService, andcompetitivePrices. DuringthefiscalyearendedJune30,2010,theCompanydelivered40,140tractors.Infiscal 2010, it produced 40,178 tractors. And in this year 2011, their target is to achieve productionofabout42,000tractors.

History:
Millat Tractors Limited (MTL) was established in 1964 to introduce and market Massey Ferguson (MF) Tractors in Pakistan. An assembly plant was set up in 1967 to assemble tractorsimportedinsemiknockeddown(SKD)condition. ThecompanywasnationalizedunderEconomicReformsOrderin1972andstarted assembling and marketing tractors on behalf of Pakistan Tractor Corporation (PTC) which was formed by the Government for import of tractors in SKD condition. In 1980 the

Government decided on indigenization of the tractors and entrusted this task to PTC. PTCtransferredthisroleofindigenizationin1981toMTL.Thiswastheturningpointinthe Companys history and it went about the task methodically and rapidly. The Company undertook this new role with enthusiasm and in the spirit of national development and proveditsengineeringcapabilitiesbysurprisingthedeletiontargetssetbytheGovernment. Just in oneyear's time, the company took a giant step towards selfreliance by setting up thefirstengineassemblyplantinPakistan. The Company made a strategic decision right in the beginning to bring those manufacturingfacilitiesinhouseforwhichcapabilitiesdidnotexistinthecountryandfor parts which required high precision and investment. Therefore, in 1984, sophisticated manufacturingfacilitiesforthemachiningofintricatecomponentsweresetup.Thesewere previouslynotavailableinPakistan.Currently,criticalcomponentslikeEngineBlocks,Sump, Transmission Case, Axle Housing, Hydraulic Lift Cover, Front Axle Support and Centre Housing are all being machined most successfully inhouse at MTL from locally sourced castings. AtMTL,wefirmlybelievethatproducingtoInternationalqualitystandardsisthekeytoour continuedsuccessandgrowth,andourqualitycontroldepartmentconvertsthisbeliefinto reality. In 1992, the company was privatized. The employees joined hands and took over the managementbywinninganopenbid. To maintain its leadership role in tractor manufacturing in the country, MTL continues to look toward future, to identify and exploit new opportunities and to consolidateexistingones.TheTractorAssemblyPlantispartofthisphilosophy.Thisplant started its production in 1992. Theestablishment of this modern plant not only increased production capacity to 16000 tractors per year on a single shift basis, but also provided a quantumjumptothequalityoftheassembledtractorsandpushedMTLintoranksofthe majortractormanufacturingcompaniesoftheWorld. After successful takeover, MTL also acquired the management control of Bolan CastingsLimited(aPublicLimitedCompanyspecializinginintricateautomotivecastings)in partnership with employees of the company, in 1993. The company has been the regular recipientoftheCorporateExcellenceAwardofManagementAssociationofPakistanandthe

TopCompaniesAwardofKarachiStockExchange,sinceearlyeighties.MTL'sAnnualReport hasbeenacknowledgedastheBestAnnualReportbytheInstituteofCharteredSecretaries andAdminAssociationofPakistanforseveralyears. MillatTractorsLimited(MTL)offersfivemodelsthatrangefrom50horsepower(hp) to 85 horse power. All models are meant to fulfill specific requirements of our valuedcustomers.

MF240

MF260 MF385

MF3854WD MF375 MF350

AwiderangeofMasseyFergusonTractorsfrom50hpto85hpisavailabletocatertothe needs of farmers. These Tractors can be procured against Cash, as well as through Bank Financing. Brief Specifications of each of the Tractors are available underTractors InIndustrialProducts,awiderangeofGeneratingSets15KVAto40KVA,ForkliftTrucks(3 ton)andPrimeMovers(Powerpacks)from50hpto85hp.AlsodealsinrangeofGenerating Setsfrom27kVAto2000kVA. A wide range ofAgricultural Implementsis also available like Chisel, Disc & Mould Board Plough, Tine Tillers, Offset Disc Harrow, Ridger, Front Blade, Multipurpose Rear Blade, Agricultural Loader, Farm Trailer, Hydraulic Tipping Trailer, Jib Crane, Post Hole Digger,LawnMover,andPneumaticPruningSetetc.

The biggest Spares Network ensures the availability ofGenuine Parts, for the completerangeofproductsthroughoutthecountry.NowHOLOGRAMSEALbackedbyone yearwarrantyensuresitsgenuineness. Millat also ensures to provide prompt aftersales service to its valued customers throughspreadnetworkofmainandruralworkshopsthroughouttheCountry.

MissionStatement:
Millat to be market leader in agricultural tractors and machinery, building Companys image through innovation and competitiveness, grow by expanding marketandinvestingintogroupcompanies,ensuringsatisfactiontocustomers andstakeholdersandtofulfillsocialobligations.

Tractorstypesandcomparison:
MF240

Mosteconomicalin50HPrange Rugged,maneuverableandcompact

Easyaccessabilitytoservicepoints

Ideal,versatile,allroundtractor

SpringsuspensiondeluxeSeat

Availabilityofpartsandservicefacilitiesatyourdoorstep

MF260

Highperformance,fuelefficientTurbochargedEngine LessSmokeemissionduetobetterfuelburning Oilcooleraddedforeffectivecooling

High PTO power for efficient operation of Tube Wells, Rotavators, Threshersetc.

RobustStraddleRearAxle

MF385

HighPerformance4.41,lownoiseEngine GaseousEmissionsunderECER49

ReducedSmokeLevel

OilCooleraddedforeffectivecooling

HydrostaticPowerSteering

EfficientOilImmersedDiscBrakeSystem

SpringSuspensionDeluxeSeat

ManufacturingDepartment
FollowingpartsaremachinedintheManufacturingsection. 1. Cylinderhead 2. CylinderBlock 3. Lub.Oilsump 4. Transmissioncase 5. Centralhousing 6. Axlehousing I visited each of these machining lines in 3 days and studied the process of machining of casted components. In all the components the first operation was usually a milling operation to provide a flat surface to locate component. And then all the fixtures throughoutthemachininglineusedinsidediameterforlocatingpartalsoknownasdowel holes.

Cylinderhead:
CylinderheadsmachinedherearefirstcastedoutofCastIronfor3cylinderengines.They aremachinedtotakevariouspartsthatareattachedorinstalledintheheadsuchasvalves. Cylinder head forms the top of the combustion chamber while piston and ring form the bottom. Then they are bought in this plant to be accurately machined to be used in the engine assembly.Thereisonemachininglineforcylinderheadsanditscapacityis90components perdayshift. Aftermachiningthefinalweightofcylinderheadis20kganditsagrade17withhardnessof 179235bhn.Thereare2transfersystemsincylinderheadmachiningline. Coolingjackets,intake&exhaustmanifoldsarecastedinsidethecylinderhead.

ExhaustManifold:
It is a set of tubes. It carries exhaust gas from cylinder head to the exhaust system. The manifoldattachestotheheadsotheexhaustportsinheadalignwiththetubeopenings.An inlineengineneeds1exhaustmanifold.

Inletmanifold:
Itissetoftubesthatcarryairorairfuelmixturefromthrottlevalvestotheintakeportsin the cylinder head. On inline engines, the intake manifold attaches to the side of cylinder head. AtthestartofthemachiningoperationscastedpartsarefedintoaPLCoperatedtransfer systemwheremilling,drillingandtapingofcoverplateoccurs.Thenitisfedinto2ndplant whichisalsoPLCoperatedwherecoverplateisdrilledandreamed.Also,inletandexhaust manifoldmillingoccurshereandittakes3mintimeapproximately. The parts are then fed into an RLC based transfer system where operations like drilling, counter boring, taping, reaming and subdrilling occurs. Then valve seats are accurately machinedsothatvalvesaccuratelyfitinthem.Inletholeislargerthanexhaustholetomake moreaircomeintothecylinderforcombustion.

Cylinderblock:
Itisfoundationoftheengine.Allotherenginepartsare assembled in or attached to cylinder block. There are twocylinderblockmachininglines. 1. OldManualmachiningline 2. NewAutomaticmachiningline

OldMachiningline:
Capacity of old line is 48 parts per shift. It uses casted cylinder blocks from Karachi and machinesthemthroughanumberofoperations.Theseinclude Drilling,boringandreamingholesforattachingvariouspartssuchascrankandcam bores,waterjacketholesetc Cylinderboresaremachinedandthenprovidedsurfacethroughprocessofhoning. Since overhead camshafts are used in the engines manufactured here, camshaft bearingsholesarebored. Surfacestowhichpartsareattachedaremilled,machinedandsurfacefinished. Oilpassagesaredrilled. Coolantpassagesarecleanedout.

Then all seal plugs are fixed and then the cylinder block is tested for any leakages throughpressuretest.Thereisanautomatichooterattachedwiththetestbench.If the pressure drops inside the submerged cylinder block, it indicates a leakage and automaticallybuzzerstartssounding.

Enginecylinderlinersarethenfittedinsidethecylinder.Theysavethecylinderwalls from getting damaged due to continuous reciprocating motion of piston against cylinderwall.

Cylinderlinersareagainboredandhonedforsmoothandaccuratesurfacefinish.

NewAutomaticMachiningline:
Ithasgotacapacityof72partspershiftwhichisquitefasterthantheoldmachininglineas it uses different transfer systems that perform different machining operations in a single plantthusdecreasingthecycletimeandincreasingproductivity.Castironblocksusedhere arecastedinchina. All the 22 operations performed are same as old line but in different sequence. Different plantsandmachinesusedinthisprocessare 1. Plant6269 2. Plant 1554, a PLC operated plant and it can take 10 components at a time for machining 3. Machine1676 4. Machine730 5. Machine5307 6. Plant1623 7. Machine762,rearandfrontfacefinishoperation 8. Plant5939,canhave5cylinderblocksmachinedatatime. 9. Plant 1617 oil bearings supply and bearing notches, it divides different operations thusincreasingworkefficiency 10. Machine3940,millingmachine 11. Plant1647thisplantdoes6differentoperations 12. Machine763,plugstage 13. M/C6270boringandfinishingoflinerbores 14. M/C6400cylinderboresandhoningprocess

15. M/C5202,pressuretest,watergaskettest 16. M/C1779linerfitting 17. M/C747linerboring 18. M/C4676linerhoning 19. Finalstage,heremachinedcylinderblockisgivenafinalinspection

CentreHousing:
Centrehousingmachininglinemakes85partspershift.Ithasbeendividedinto4sections thatperformdifferentmachiningoperationsonthecentralhousing.

Section1:
M/C97,82,83,98,84,85performdifferentmillinganddrillingoperationsatdifferentsides ofthecastedcentrehousing.

Section2:
M/C 86, 87, 89 perform different face and horizontal milling and radial drilling operations at different sides suchasmillingcrownwheel,drillingdrainholesetc.

Section3:
M/C 90, 91, 92, 93 perform boring, reaming, drilling and millingoperationsandalsofinishingoperationsPTOshaftbore.

Section4:
M/C 95, 94, 92, 96 and 100 perform final drilling, boring and milling operations on the centralhousing.

TransmissionCase
Transmission case is a very important component of a tractorandithasgotonesemiautomaticline.Thatline hadbeenshutdownforsomemaintenanceworksothe 3 CNC i.e computerized numerical control machines werebeingusedforitsproduction. CNC machines were being operated by specialized operators who would enter a part program into the machine and then close the door for CNCtowork.Atatime,3componentscouldbeloadedintotheCNCmachinewhichwould bemachinedoneaftertheother.

Aftermachiningthetotalweightis77.8Kgwithgrade 14andhardnessof179203BHN.

AxleHousing:
Right and left axle housings are made of S.G.Iron i.e. Sphoroidal Graphite Iron. It has got some amount of irontoincreaseitsshockabsorbingqualities. Inaxlehousing

OP10&20:frontandbackfacearefirstbored andthenfinished. OP30&40:Thentheyaremountedontolathe machinesroughandfinishedfrontfacesmallend. OP50&60:Finishbackfacelargeend&spigotdia.onaheavydutylathe OP70:Millingoffenderbossesonduplexmill OP80:12holesaredrilledonsmallendand15holesaredrilledonlargeendona doubleendedhorizontaldrill. OP100:Onaradialdrillbrakeshaftholeisfinished. OP110:Finishshaftlowerlinkholeonaradialdrill OP120:Pollardproductiondrill

EngineAssemblyPlant
EngineassemblyplantorEAPhasbeendividedinto4sectionswhichareasfollow Segregation AssemblyLine Enginetestingortestshop Rectification

Both 3 and 4 inline cylinders are assembled here. In 3 cylinder type there are engines MF240,MF260,MF350whichareusedintractorsaswellasforklifters,generatorsetsand primemovers.

4cylinderenginesofMF375,MF385,MF3854WDareassembledwhichareusedinbig
tractors.

ProductionCapacity of EAP plant is 59 engines of 3 cylinder type and 36 engines of 4


cylindertypepershiftandthereisdoubleshiftfortheengineassemblyplant.Productionis increasedondemand.

Degreasing:
Vapordegreasingisasurfacefinishingprocess.Itinvolvessolventsinvaporformtocleanse theworkpieceinpreparationforfurtherfinishingoperations. Theactingprinciplebehindthevapordegreaserprocessisthatthesolventswilldissolvethe contaminants on the workpiece and remove them by dripping off the part. A basin of solventissetupwithaheatingcoiltobringthesolventtoboil.Asthesolventevaporatesit rises to thefilllinein the chamber, above this is air with a much lower density than the solvent.Thiscontainsthevaporizedsolventinaclosedspacewheretheworkpieceisplaced. The solventcondenseson the more frigid workpiece and the now liquid solvent dissolves thegreasesonthepart.Withtheimpuritiescontainedintheliquidbeads,thesolventruns off the part. Some systems are designed to capture and reclaim this solvent, making the processmuchmoreeconomical.

Enginebuildcardisfollowedintheengineassemblyplant.Eachtypeofenginehasitsown coloredcard. All the operations listed on the build card are duly followed and each worker signs in the buildcardcorrespondingtoeachjobthatheperforms.Soanyfaultcouldbetracedbackto that worker. There are total 10 operations on the main assembly line for building up an engine.

SubAssemblyorPreAssembly:
On one side of the main assembly line there is a subassembly section that assembles differentkeycomponentstogetherandthentheseassembledcomponentsareinstalledin the engine on main assembly line. This speeds up the process, reduces cycle time and increasesefficiencyoftheprocess.

EngineTesting

Thereisacompletetestingsetupforeveryenginethatcomesoutofthemainassemblyline. Here engine is thoroughly checked for its working and any possible faults such as engine noise,rpm,loading,leakages,exhaustsmokeetc. Inenginebuildcarddifferentperformancefactorsofeveryengineareenteredaftertesting andifthereisanerrorfoundthenengineisreferredtotherectificationsection.

RectificationSection
Inthissectionthefaultinanytestedengineisremovedusingstandardprocedures.Ifthere is any part that needs to be replaced or any adjustment in existing component is needed thenitiscarriedouthereandthenagainsenttoenginetestingshopforfinalinspection.

TractorAssemblyPlant(TAP):

This is the most important plant of the tractor industry. In this plant all the parts of the tractorareassembledinassemblylines.Weworkedasinternshereforfivedays.Production capacityof3cylindersis59tractorspershiftandfor4cylindersitis36tractorspershift. Theyworkindoubleshift. Therearefourimportantsectionsoftractorproduction.Theseareasfollows: 1. SegregationandDegreasing 2. Assemblyline 3. Testshop 4. Rectificationarea

1. SegregationandDegreasing
Inthissection,componentsoftractorarecountedandsuppliedtoallstagesofproduction in racks through trolleys and folk lifters etc. Components are vapor degreased here by 80 degree centigrade of water and by blowing of air. Cleaning, packing and opening of wrappersofcomponentsaredonehere.

2. Assemblyline
Aftersegregationanddegreasingofcomponents,theyaredistributedtotheassemblyline. Thereare10stagesinassemblylineasop10100.Butwewilldiscussonlythemajorthree stagesofassemblingandpaintofourconcernproducti.e.Tractor. Rearaxlebuild Chassisbuild Finalbuild

Rearaxlebuild:

In rear axle building of a tractor there are five main assembling are being done. These includecrownwheelassembly,centerhousingassembly;axlehousingassembly;axleshaft assemblyandhydraulicliftcoverassembly. In crown wheel assy. Crown wheel and pinion both are assembled and torque by workersandarepassedtothecenterhousingsectionbyrollerconveyors.Preloading testofpinionisdonehereinthissection.Twopressesareusedhereforpressfitting. Incenterhousingassy.Pinionand crown wheelareassembled byhammeringand nut bolt. PTO shaft is assembled and fitted in center housing. Two plates named coverplateandresponseplateareattachedtotheleftandrightofcenterhousing. AndthenhydraulicpumpandcouplergearsforrunningPTOshaftareassembledin it. Inaxlehousingassy.Bothleftandrighthousingareassembled.Leftandrightdiffer fromeachotherinasensethatrightonehasdifferentialpaddleattachedtoit.And left one is simpler in assembling than right axle housing. Here brake shoes are assembledandattached.LatherbrakeisforMF240,manualdiscbrakeisforMF260 andMF350.WhilehydraulicdiscbrakesareforMF375,MF385andMF3854WD.In hydraulicbrakes,reductionunitsareused.Andthencompletehousingispassedto theconveyor. Axleshaftisassembledthentoattachbothaxlehousings. Inhydraulicliftcoverassy.Itisassembledtothetopofaxlehousing.

Chassisbuild:
After the rear assembly is mounted on trolley, chassis building is started. It includes assembling and testing of many important components of tractor. Its stages include Gear box assembly, Steering assembly, Transmission assembly, Engine assembly, Foot board assembly,Brakepaddleassembly,Frontsupportassembly,Fueltankbracketassemblyand LinkandYorkassembly.Theseallaredoneonmovingconveyorwhichhave10tractorsper hour. In Steering assembly, first of all steering is assembled. Manual steering is for 240 and260andHydraulicsteeringisfor350,375and385model. InLinkandYorkassembly,linksandYorksareattachedtothechassis.

InGearboxassembly,8gearsincludingforwardand2reversegearsareassembled. Intractorscrushgearboxisused.Gearboxisalsotestedhere. InTransmissionassembly,assembledgearboxisfixedinsideit.BothPTOshaftand layshaftareattachedonfrontandbacksidesoftransmissioncase. InEngineassembly,firstofallengineispreparedinsubassemblywherePTOplate, clutchplateandinputplateareattachedtotheengine.Andthenengineisfixedto thechassis.

InFootboardassembly,assembledbrakepaddleandfootboardareattached. In Front support assembly, complete and assembled front support from sub assemblyisbroughtandisattachedtothefrontportionofthechassis.

Afterchassisassemblyisdone,wholechassisissenttothegraypaintshop,whereathigh temperatureofwaterchassisbodyisrinsedanddegreasedinbooth#1andtheniswarm air dried, and then is gray painted. And it is then sent to the oven for further drying and phosphating.

Finalbuild
The complete chassis is now ready for the final build assembly in line 3. Here many important components are assembled and then the complete tractor is ready for further testingandrectificationifnecessary. The final major components of tractors include radiator, fuel tank, wiring, seat assembly, lowerlinkchain,bulkhead,dashboard,accelerator,battery,wrapper,hoodtop,steering, fender,frontgrill,fronttyreandreartyre. Radiatorfor240,260and385arealldifferentandisassembledbynutandboltin thefirststageofassemblinginline3. Fueltankfor240,260and350aresameandmadeupofsteelwithacapacityof48 50liters.Andthefueltankfor375,385and3854WDismadeupofplasticorABS materialwithacapacityofabout7585liters. Wiring is completed here. It is of three types that are main harness, back to front andfronttoback. Seatassemblyiscompletedissubassemblyandisreadytobefixed.Seatissamefor allmodels.

Lower link chain is assembled then. It is of golden color, is used to prevent unnecessarymovementandmaintainslevel. Bulk head is that where dash board is attached. Brakes, clutches, master cylinder, steeringpumpandorbitalunitareallplacedinsideit.Itisforbigtractors. Dashboardisassembledthen.Itisdifferentfor240,260and350.Tachometer,hour meter,rpmmeterindicatorlightsandneutrallightsareallattachedtoit.Itshowsno mileageasincars.

Bothhandandfootacceleratorsareattachedinthisstage. Batteryissameforalltractors.Vaselineisusedforassembling.Inlowpowerengines battery is attached in the front of the tractors. And for high power it is mounted belowthefootboard.

Wrapperisofsilvercolor.Itissamefor240and260,butdifferentforothermodels. Hoodtopisdifferentforallmodels Thensteeringisassembled. Fenderfrompaintshopisfixed.Bracketisdifferentforallmodels. Frontgrillisattached.Itisforairintake. Reartyrehasgottruds.Tyresizeisdifferentfordifferentmodels. Fronttyrehasgotgroovesonit.

3. Sheetmetalwashingandpaintshop:
Duringitsassemblinginline3,thereisasubassemblyforpaintingmetalbodyoftractor.It is called red oxide metal paint shop. Here the metal sheets are moved on conveyors by hangers. First they are washed, dried at high temperature and then is manually gray painted, then is sent to the oven for phosphating and drying, then it is painted red oxide fromoneside,andthenagaindriedinovenandthisprocessgoesontillwereceiveclearred oxidecolorofsheetfrombothsides.

4. Testshop:
PDIareaandRectification:

Aftercompleteassembling,tractorisreadyforPreDeliveryinspection.Thisisbasicallythe jobofmarketingdepartment.Theyinspectitandiftheydonotfindanyfault,theysentit fortherollertesting. And if they find faults including minor losses and major losses, workers again make its necessarychanges.EngineRPMandfuelconsumptionischeckedhereinthissection.

SuggestionsandRecommendations:
HerearesomeimportantsuggestionsandrecommendationswhichIhaveobservedduring myinternship: Thereissomeneedtochangetheworkingenvironmentoforganization.HRshould bethemostvaluablepersoninthemarketingdepartment. Thereisaneedofrotatingpersonalbetweendifferentdepartmentsatearlystages ratherthanattheearlystages;ithelpsinfindingtherightpersonfortherightjob. Organizationshouldtakecareabouttheworkgoingon,andaboutthewagesofthe workers. Thereshouldbesomeimprovementofundergoingprocesses. I have observed during my period of internship in MTL, that there was lack of competitionwithforeigntractorindustries. There are almost about 1000 workers in MTL, from which 200300 are permanent and others are temporary, there is need to increase the number of permanent workers. Do not just use newspaper or conferences for advertisement but there should be properpublicityoftheproductsothatpeopleshouldbeawareofMillat. Although production in MTL is high but is still not meeting the demands of the nation. Pricesarealsogettinghigher,whichisnotbasicallytherequirementofthefarmer. Greater demand than the supply is not only creating problem but causing the late deliverywhichirritatesthecostumer. Aproperventilationsystemisrequiredandheatingsystemfortheworkersworking incoldnightshift. CNC machine is required in OP53 on lube oil sump line because 0.064 tolerance cannotbecontrolledbymanualMillmachine. Analternatesourceisrequiredforcastingoflubeoilsumpduetocastingproblems. Thereshouldbepropertrainingtimeforthetraineeengineers.

There should be complete R & D development department in company. This departmentshoulddomarketresearchandprovidingguidelinefordevelopingnew productsandmodifyingexistingones.

Thecompanyshouldprovidemedicalfacilitytoeachworker. Thecompanyshouldprovideconveyancefacilitytoeveryemployeesothatitwillbe convenientfortheworkertocometoofficeintime. Properorientationshouldbegiventostudentsforinternship. Researchworkshouldbewiththehelpofuniversitystudents. There is need of preventive maintenance in machining plant and tractor assembly plant. Workersafetyisrequiredintractorassemblyplant. Thereisneedoftechnicalinnovationsintheplant.