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# Michael S Murphy | NET 125

Concept Questions
1. What is another name for digital logic? Binary patterns 2. What is the format used for IP addresses called? Dotted decimal 3. What is another way to refer to 1 byte or 8 bits? The bytes are called an octet, because each of the decimal numbers represents 1 byte, or 8 bits. 4. What does IPv4 provide for packets that carry data? IPv4 have two parts: the network portion and host portion.

## Binary-to-Decimal Conversion Exercise

Convert the following 32-bit binary number into an IP address, keeping in mind the following: Divide the 32 bits into four octets. Convert each octet to decimal.

Add a dot between each decimal. Binary number: 10101100000100000000010000010100 IP address: 172.16.4.20

## Decimal-to-Binary Conversion Exercise

Convert the following IP address into 32-bit binary number. IP address: 172.16.5.20 Binary number: 10101100000100000000010100010100

## Vocabulary Exercise: Matching

Address Type A. Network address B. Broadcast address C. Host address Communication Type A. Unicast B. Broadcast C. Multicast Definition B. A special address used to send data to all hosts in the network C. An address assigned to an end device in the network A. The address by which we refer to the network Definition B. The process of sending a packet from one host to all hosts in the network C. The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts A. The process of sending a packet from one host to an individual host

Vocabulary: Completion
1. Expressed in dotted-decimal format, the IPv4 address range is 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255. 2. One major block of addresses reserved for special purposes is the IPv4 experimental address range 244.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. Currently, these addresses are listed as multicast groups. 3. Another major block of addresses reserved for special purposes in the IPv4 multicast address range 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. 4. The globally scoped multicast addresses are 224.01.0 to 238.255.255.255.

Concept Questions
1. How do you know how many bits represent the network portion and how many bits represent the host portion? 2. What is the prefix length? The number of bits in the address that gives the network portion 3. What are the private address blocks? They are set aside for use in private networks. 10.0.0.0/8 (10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255) 172.16.00/12 (172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255)

## 192.168.0.0/16 (192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255)

4. Which addresses in a network cannot be assigned to hosts? Special Unicast IPv4 5. What is the reserved block for default routing? It is a catch all route to route packets, and it is 0.0.0.0. 6. What is the loopback address, and what block is reserved for loopback? It is a special address that hosts use to direct traffic to themselves, and it is 127.0.0.1 to block 127.0.0.0/8 (127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255. 7. What block of addresses is designated link-local? It is 169.254.0.0/16 to block (169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255). 8. What block of addresses is designated TEST-NET? It is set aside for teaching and learning and learning purposes, and it blocks 192.0.2.0/24 (192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255). 9. Define classless addressing. Classless addressing is the system that is currently in use.

Concept Questions
1. Describe the pros and cons of static addressing. They are useful for printers, servers, and other networking devices that need to be accessible to clients on the network, and they have problems caused if that address changed. 2. Describe the pros and cons of using DHCP for addressing. DHCP enables the automatic assignment of addressing information sucha as IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, and other configuration. 3. List four types of device that work best using static IP addresses. PCs, IP phones, printers, and PDAs 4. What is the primary focus of each of the three tiers of ISPs? Tier 1: reliability and speed Tier 2: slower Internet access Tier 3: connectivity and support 5. List some improvements that IPv6 will provide.

## Binary Matching Exercise

Binary Number a. 00000000 b. 10000000 c. 11000000 d. 11100000 e. 11110000 f. 11111000 g. 11111100 h. 11111110 i. 11111111 Concept Questions 1. How is a subnet mask created? p207 2. Why do routers use ANDing?

Numeric Value c. 192 d. 224 f. 248 e. 240 a. 0 i. 255 g. 252 h. 254 b. 128

Routers use ANDing to determine an acceptable route for an acceptable route for an incoming packet. 3. How does ANDing help an originating host? A logical AND is also performed by an originating host between the destination address of the packet and the subnet mask of the host. 4. If the routers and end devices calculate these processes without your intervention, why do you need to learn how to AND? You need to understand the operation of the network devices.

Concept Questions
1. What is the formula to calculate the number of subnets? p211-227 2. What are the two most useful tools in designing a network? 3. Using VLSM makes it easier to group networks around what commonalities?

Multiple-Choice Questions
1. Why would you use a VLSM chart? a. This method helps prevent assigning addresses that have already been allocated. b. This method lets you assign addresses that have already been allocated.

c. This method prevents addresses from being allocated. d. Using a chart makes calculating VLSM easier. 2. For what is VLSM an acronym? a. Very Long String of Marbles b. Variant Language Superior Model c. Variable-Length Subsidiary Mode d. Variable-Length Subnet Mask 3. What utility attempts to trace the path that a packet takes through the network? a. ping b. SNMP c. traceroute d. Cpnfigmaker

## Testing the Network Layer Concept Questions

1. How does ping work? Be as specific as you can. ping is a utility for testing IP connectivity between hosts, and it sends out requests for responses from a specified host address. 2. What does a response from 127.0.0.1 indicate? It indicates that IP is properly installed on the host. 3. Assume that you ping your gateway. If the gateway does not respond, but another host does, what sort of problem could this indicate? It could indicate a problem with the routers interface serving as the gateway. 4. Why is ping not always the most reliable test for connectivity on a network? p230 5. What does traceroute do? Traceroute (tracert) is a utility that allow you to observe the path between these hosts. 6. What does RTT stand for? Round-trip Time 7. What does TTL stand for? Time to Live 8. Name the different ICMP message types. Host confirmation

## Unreachable destination or service Time exceeded Route redirection Source Quench

Vocabulary Exercise: Completion 1. What do the first four Destination Unreachable codes mean? 0 = net unreachable 1 = host unreachable 2 = protocol unreachable 3 = port unreachable 2. If a router does not have enough buffer space to receive incoming packets, the router discards these packets. A destination host may also send a Source Quench message if datagrams arrive too fast to be processed.