Anda di halaman 1dari 5

Record of the Fifth International Middle East Power Conference MEPCON'97, Alexandria, Egypt, Jan.

4-6,

1997.

ADVANCED THERMAL ANALYSIS OF UNDERGROUND POWER CABLES


BY M . A . Mozan, M.A. El-Kady and A.A. Mazi Electrical E n g i n e e r i n g D e p a r t m e n t , K i n g Saud U n i v e r s i t y P . O . B o x 8 0 0 , Riyadh 1 1 4 2 1 , Saudi A r a b i a E-Mail: f45e017@saksu00.bitnet

Abstract
T h e u s e o f u n d e r g r o u n d p o w e r distribution has g r o w n significantly o v e r the years w i t h the rapid increase in d e m a n d for electric e n e r g y a n d the trend for l a r g e infra-structures a n d vast expansion of highly-populated m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . Traditional m e t h o d s of c a b l e a m p a c i t y calculations a r e all based on the N e h e r - M c G r a t h analysis which a p p r o x i m a t e s the c a b l e circuit c o n f i g u r a t i o n a n d a s s u m e s uniform soil conditions around the cable. Such a p p r o x i m a t i o n s a n d a s s u m p t i o n s lead to inaccuracies in the calculations a n d often force c a b l e engineers to u s e u n - n e c e s s a r i l y l a r g e safety factors and overly c o n s e r v a t i v e d e s i g n s , this p a p e r p r e s e n t s an i m p r o v e d t e c h n i q u e u s i n g the finite-element method to c a l c u l a t e the steady-state t e m p e r a t u r e s at various points of the c a b l e system a n d , t h e r e f o r e , the overall c a b l e a m p a c i t y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a specified m a x i m u m c o n d u c t o r t e m p e r a t u r e . A n application t o a c a b l e system in the S a u d i C o n s o l i d a t e d Electric C o m p a n y ( S C E C O - C ) n e t w o r k i s also p r e s e n t e d .

T h e p o w e r losses i n the c o n d u c t o r , insulation, sheath and other c o m p o n e n t s of t h e c a b l e system act as heat sources a n d c a u s e the t e m p e r a t u r e s of v a r i o u s cable e l e m e n t s to rise a b o v e t h e ambient temperature. T h e maximum conductor current is practically limited by the m a x i m u m temperature w h i c h the insulation c a n w i t h s t a n d . T h e cable t e m p e r a t u r e rise is a function of all p a r a m e t e r s representing t h e t h e r m a l circuit of t h e cable including s u r r o u n d i n g soil. T h e p r o b l e m o f calculating the p o w e r cable t e m p e r a t u r e rise and a m p a c i t y has attracted many r e s e a r c h e r s since the famous w o r k by N e h e r and M c G r a t h [ 1 ] . S i n c e then, c o n s i d e r a b l e research efforts h a v e been e x p e n d e d in modifying t h e NeherM c G r a t h m e t h o d and e n h a n c i n g its modelling capabilities u n d e r b o t h steady-state a n d variable loading conditions [ 2 - 9 ] . H o w e v e r , these traditional m e t h o d s of cable a m p a c i t y calculations a p p r o x i m a t e the c a b l e circuit configuration a n d a s s u m e uniform soil conditions around the cable. Such a p p r o x i m a t i o n s a n d a s s u m p t i o n s lead to inaccuracies in t h e calculations a n d often force cable engineers to u s e un-necessarily l a r g e safety factors a n d overly conservative designs. M o r e recently, there has been a g r o w i n g interest in using the finite-element m e t h o d [10] for thermal field analysis of u n d e r g r o u n d c a b l e s [ 1 1 - 1 3 ] . This a d v a n c e d m e t h o d o l o g y offers a m u c h better accuracy in t h e calculated results as it m o d e l s the c a b l e system and the s u r r o u n d i n g e n v i r o n m e n t to any level of details required. T h e r e f o r e , complex c a b l e configurations and n o n - u n i f o r m soil conditions can easily be taken into account.

INTRODUCTION
W i t h the rapid i n c r e a s e in d e m a n d for electric e n e r g y and the trend for l a r g e infra-structures and vast e x p a n s i o n of h i g h l y - p o p u l a t e d metropolitan a r e a s , t h e u s e o f u n d e r g r o u n d p o w e r distribution has g r o w n significantly o v e r the y e a r s , both w o r l d - w i d e a n d i n t h e K i n g d o m o f S a u d i Arabia. I n the p o w e r grid of the S a u d i C o n s o l i d a t e d Electric C o m p a n y - C e n t r e ( S C E C O - C ) , for e x a m p l e , there is an extensive u n d e r g r o u n d c a b l e n e t w o r k covering t h o u s a n d s o f k i l o m e t r e s a n d s p a n n i n g various v o l t a g e levels, i n c l u d i n g the 3 3 k V distribution and the 132 kV transmission s y s t e m s .

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Record of the Fifth International Middle East Power Conference MEPCON'97, Alexandria, Egypt, Jan.

4-6,

1997.

This p a p e r deals with recent advances in p o w e r cable thermal modelling and steady-state temperature rise calculations which e m p l o y the finite-element m e t h o d . Special attention will be given to modify the finite-element grid modelling and structuring algorithms to h a n d l e g e n e r a l detailed cable arrangements and complex configurations w h i c h often o c c u r in the u n d e r g r o u n d networks of electric p o w e r utilities. In this r e g a r d , the finite-element method will be investigated and implemented to calculate the steady-state temperatures at v a r i o u s p o i n t s of the c a b l e system. Therefore, the overall cable a m p a c i t y (current carrying capability) c o r r e s p o n d i n g to a specified maximum conductor temperature can be determined. In addition, a g e n e r a l - p u r p o s e automatic grid generation m e t h o d , developed d u r i n g the c o u r s e of this project, will also be p r e s e n t e d . Several software m o d u l e s w e r e d e v e l o p e d t o i m p l e m e n t t h e n e w a u t o m a t i c grid g e n e r a t i o n algorithm and to calculate t h e cable t e m p e r a t u r e r i s e . T h e s e p r o g r a m s o p e r a t e o n the recentlydeveloped interactive e n v i r o n m e n t P O W E R ! [14] for g e n e r a l p o w e r system analysis. The paper describes the analytical and computational aspects of the finite-element m e t h o d for calculating thermal fields of u n d e r g r o u n d c a b l e systems a n d p r e s e n t s a n e w m e t h o d of constructing the finite-element grids for g e n e r a l c a b l e system configurations. An Application is also presented involving a c a b l e configuration used in the local Saudi Consolidated E l e c t r i c C o m p a n y ( S C E C O - C ) n e t w o r k . In addition to evaluating t h e c a b l e a m p a c i t y , the application also includes sensitivity analyses to investigate t h e effects of variations in the soil p a r a m e t e r s on t h e results obtained. F1MTE-ELEMENT METHOD In the application of the finite-element m e t h o d to a system of buried cables i n v o l v e s , the c o n d u c t o r , insulation and o t h e r internal c a b l e c o m p o n e n t s as well as the s u r r o u n d i n g soil a r e all d i v i d e d into small triangular e l e m e n t s . T h e resulting g r i d (mesh) would then constitute m a n y nodes (points) representing vertices of different triangles. T h e desired d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y m a y b e o b t a i n e d b y adjusting the size of the grid elements. T e m p e r a t u r e s at s o m e of these nodes can be specified together with o t h e r b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s .

T h e finite-element formulation starts with the g e n e r a l e q u a t i o n for steady-state heat conduction

div(k V T)

+ q = 0

(1)

in w h i c h k is the conductivity coefficient and q d e n o t e s the r a t e of heat generation. T h e solution of. this equation with a p p r o p r i a t e b o u n d a r y conditions gives t h e v a l u e of the u n k n o w n t e m p e r a t u r e T. In t h e finite e l e m e n t m e t h o d [ 1 0 ] , equation (1) is solved by u s i n g the e n e r g y functional c o n c e p t and dividing the r e g i o n in which the p r o b l e m is to be solved into t r i a n g u l a r e l e m e n t s leading ultimately to t h e set of l i n e a r e q u a t i o n s [ 2 , 1 2 ]

[HI {T] = {k}

(2)

In this e q u a t i o n [H] is the heat c o n d u c t i v i t y matrix a n d {T} is a v e c t o r containing the steady-state nodal t e m p e r a t u r e s . A l s o , {K} is v e c t o r which expresses t h e distribution of heat sources and heat sinks over t h e r e g i o n u n d e r consideration as well as its b o u n d a r y c o n d i t i o n s . I n constructing the matrix [ H ] . a n d v e c t o r { K } , the b o u n d a r y conditions o f the c a b l e t h e r m a l circuit a r e taken into a c c o u n t . I n the p a p e r , the following b o u n d a r y types a r e c o n s i d e r e d : a) b) c) d) C o n s t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e T (isothermal) Z e r o n o r m a l g r a d i e n t dT/dn (non-conductive) C o n s t a n t heat flux Q p e r unit a r e a T h e c o n v e c t i o n loss at t h e b o u n d a r y is equal to a . f T - T J , w h e r e T i s the a m b i e n t t e m p e r a t u r e a n d a is t h e heat transfer coefficient.
a

In e s s e n c e , t h e finite e l e m e n t m e t h o d r e d u c e s the p r o b l e m to that of solving a n u m b e r of simultaneous a l g e b r a i c e q u a t i o n s . T h e solution o f these equations yields the steady-state t e m p e r a t u r e distribution w i t h i n the a r e a u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T h e heat c o n d u c t i v i t y m a t r i x [ H ] is a sparse m a t r i x . F a s t e r e x e c u t i o n t i m e a s well a s higher o r d e r w e i g h t i n g factors for t h e layers, w h i c h would lead t o m o r e a c c u r a t e results, can b e achieved b y u s i n g s o m e special handling techniques for sparse m a t r i x m a n i p u l a t i o n s . S o m e o f the t e c h n i q u e s a v a i l a b l e i n c l u d e the linked list and t h e b a n d - m a t r i x f o r m u l a t i o n s . It is the a u t h o r s ' belief that m u c h h i g h e r o r d e r grid size can be handled with the a d o p t i o n of such t e c h n i q u e s .

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Record of the Fifth International Middle East Power Conference MEPCON'97, Alexandria, Egypt, Jan.

4-6,

1997.

AUTOMATIC GRID GENERATION


In practice, m a n y u n d e r g r o u n d cables h a v e c o m p l e x configurations and a r e often buried in n o n uniform soil. Direct-buried cables a r e usually s u r r o u n d e d by a layer of backfill of l o w thermal resistivity w h i c h in turn is surrounded by the native soil. In addition, several other heat sources and heat sinks m a y be present n e a r the cable system w h i c h a c c o r d i n g l y alter the thermal field a r o u n d the c a b l e s . S u c h c o m p l e x m e d i u m must b e modelled p r o p e r l y in the finite-element analysis in o r d e r to attain an a c c u r a t e representation of the resulting t h e r m a l circuit. D u r i n g the c o u r s e of this project, a n e w m e t h o d o l o g y for a u t o m a t i c creation of the entire finite-element grid has been d e v e l o p e d . T h e m e t h o d o l o g y can handle the majority of practical cable a r r a n g e m e n t s and soil/backfill configurations a n d , therefore, is applicable to most u n d e r g r o u n d cable s y s t e m s in practice. T h e idea is based on the novel c o n c e p t of objects and layers defining v a r i o u s entities and zones of the c a b l e system a n d the surrounding media. A set of rules a r e then established w h i c h uniquely define the shapes and locations of v a r i o u s objects a n d layers and d e t e r m i n e the relationships b e t w e e n the resulting grid e l e m e n t s a n d n o d e s . U s i n g this set of r u l e s , very fast g e n e r a l - p u r p o s e c o m p u t e r i z e d a l g o r i t h m s has been d e v e l o p e d which automatically g e n e r a t e c u s t o m i z e d finite-element grids for most cable installations as will be illustrated next. Finite-Element Grid Entities: In the p r e s e n t m e t h o d o l o g y , the entire a r e a of the cable installation and s u r r o u n d i n g m e d i a is a s s u m e d to constitute different entities, e a c h of which occupies a zone in the overall study a r e a . T h e entities m a y represent, for e x a m p l e , c a b l e s , water p i p e s , d r a i n a g e , sewer lines, soil b l o c k s , backfill, c o n c r e t e layers, duct- b a n k s , e t c . W e shall u s e t h e t e r m "object" to d e n o t e an entity (or, in s o m e cases, a part of an entity) in t h e finite-element grid. T h e objects should possess t h e following properties: 1. T h e y are rectangular in shape 2. T h e object sides are aligned horizontally and vertically in the grid 3 . T h e r e should b e n o overlapping b e t w e e n objects

Each object consists of a n u m b e r of "layers" (at least one) w h i c h represent its internal parts having different t h e r m a l p r o p e r t i e s (conductor, insulation, e t c . ) . A w e i g h t i n g factor of multiples of four (4, 8, 1 2 , . . . ) is assigned to each layer indicating the level of modelling details r e q u i r e d . Software Development; D u r i n g the c o u r s e of the present project, several software m o d u l e s w e r e developed to implement the n e w a u t o m a t i c grid generation algorithm and to calculate the steady-state cable temperature rise. T h e s e p r o g r a m s w e r e developed using the recentlyd e v e l o p e d interactive c o m p u t i n g environment of P O W E R ! [14] w h i c h uses the M A T L A B computer p a c k a g e [ 1 6 ] . A flow-chart describing the set of the finite-element software modules for steady-state t h e r m a l analysis of p o w e r cables, is shown in F i g u r e 1.

Fig. 1

F l o w - C h a r t of F i n i t e - E l e m e n t A n a l y s i s

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Record of the Fifth International Middle East Power Conference MEPCON'97, Alexandria, Egypt, Jan.

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1997.

APPLICATION
A practical application is presented h e r e to demonstrate the p o w e r f u l features of the finiteelement method for solving t h e heat e q u a t i o n s and determining the hot spots in the cable s y s t e m . T h i s cable installation i n the S C E C O - C p o w e r system consists of a double-circuit t h r e e - p h a s e u n d e r g r o u n d cables as shown in F i g u r e 2.

T h e finite-element grid configuration used to analyze this consists of 10 objects a n d 22 layers. T h e g r o u n d surface in this s t u d y w a s modelled as an isothermal b o u n d a r y at 35 C . It is of interest to note h e r e that the m a x i m u m t e m p e r a t u r e n o d e on the c o n d u c t o r surface of the n e w cable circuit did not o c c u r at the b o t t o m central c o n d u c t o r as is a l w a y s a s s u m e d in t h e conventional m e t h o d s . It rather o c c u r r e d on the left-most c o n d u c t o r closest to the e x i s t i n g circuit. This is m a i n l y d u e to the t h e r m a l c o u p l i n g effect between the t w o circuits. T h i s effect is a l r e a d y taken into a c c o u n t in the finite-element analysis but is inherently neglected in the c o n v e n t i o n a l m e t h o d s . T h e r e f o r e , the c u r r e n t - c a r r y i n g capability of the c a b l e system estimated b y traditional m e t h o d s w o u l d , in this case, be m o r e than the actual value. T h e effect of variations in t h e soil thermal resistivity o n the m a x i m u m c o n d u c t o r t e m p e r a t u r e of the n e w cable circuit, for a r a n g e of cable c u r r e n t v a l u e s , w a s investigated in this application. F i g u r e 3 s h o w s the results o b t a i n e d for three different values of soil t h e r m a l resistivity, namely 1.0, 2 . 0 and 4 . 0 C m / W . T h e results of F i g u r e 3 s h o w that t h e c o n d u c t o r t e m p e r a t u r e at a cable c u r r e n t of 1.1 k A , for e x a m p l e , w o u l d increase from 83 to 91 -C as the t h e r m a l resistivity of native soil a r o u n d t h e cable i n c r e a s e s from 1.0 to 4.0 -C m / W .

EXISTING C I R C U I T

NEW CIRCUIT

350

350

150

Fig. 2

A Doubles-Circuit S C E C O - C C a b l e S y s t e m

This cable configuration has resulted from adding a new t h r e e - p h a s e c a b l e circuit to an existing one in o r d e r to m e e t the g r o w i n g d e m a n d for p o w e r in o n e sector of the S C E C O - C p o w e r n e t w o r k . All dimensions in F i g u r e 2 a r e in m m . As s h o w n in the figure, the c a b l e s a r e laid horizontally in n o n - u n i f o r m soil and at different circuit depth. S u c h a c o m p l e x c o n f i g u r a t i o n suits the finite-element a n a l y s i s very well as w a s explained earlier in the p a p e r . In this r e g a r d , t h e use of c o n v e n t i o n a l t h e r m a l analysis m e t h o d s for this c a b l e configuration w o u l d , u n d o u b t e d l y , lead to gross e r r o r s in t h e calculated t e m p e r a t u r e s b e c a u s e of the c o m p l e x i t y of c a b l e a r r a n g e m e n t as w e l l as the n o n - u n i f o r m i t y of t h e s u r r o u n d i n g soil w h i c h involves a backfill m a t e r i a l of t h e r m a l resistivity different from that of t h e n a t i v e soil. Because of t h e r e l a t i v e closeness of t h e t w o cable circuits of F i g u r e 2, the m u t u a l t h e r m a l coupling b e t w e e n the t w o circuits is e x p e c t e d to have s o m e effect of the calculated t e m p e r a t u r e s , especially at t h o s e p o i n t s in the m i d d l e p o r t i o n between the t o w cable c i r c u i t s .

130

0 4

0 6

0 8 Cable

1 Current. (kA)

1.2

Fig. 3

C o n d u c t o r T e m p e r a t u r e vs C u r r e n t

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Record of the Fifth International Middle East Power Conference MEPCON'97, Alexandria, Egypt, Jan.

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1997.

CONCLUSIONS
T h e g e n e r a l - p u r p o s e automatic grid g e n e r a t i o n m e t h o d o l o g y , presented in this p a p e r p e r m i t s a simpler, yet m o r e a u t o m a t e d , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e finite-element m e t h o d for thermal field analysis of u n d e r g r o u n d c a b l e systems. T h e c o m p u t a t i o n a l a l g o r i t h m s presented offer adjustable m o d e l l i n g details coupled with fast computational s c h e m e s w h i c h c a n effectively handle c o m p l e x c a b l e configurations and non-uniform soil conditions to any desired level of accuracy allowed by the h a r d w a r e capabilities.

[5]

M . A E l - K a d y , J. Motlis and K. M a c k a y , "A k n o w l e d g e b a s e system for p o w e r cable d e s i g n " , I E E E Transactions o n P o w e r Delivery, V o l . 5 , N o . 1 , J a n u a r y 1990, p p . 4 4 9 - 4 5 5 . M . A . E l - K a d y , F . Y . C h u , H . S . Radkrishna, D J . H o r r c k s and R . W . D . G a n t o n , " A probabilistic a p p r o a c h to p o w e r c a b l e thermal analysis and a m p a c i t y evaluation", I E E E T r a n s a c t i o n s o n P o w e r A p p a r a t u s and Systems, V o l . P A S - 1 0 3 , 1984, p p . 2 7 3 5 - 2 7 4 0 .

[6]

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