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Royal Society

of

The

Edinburgh

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

Report of a Conference organised by The Royal Society of Edinburgh

20 February 2007

CONTENTS
Acknowledgements .................................................................................2 Programme ...............................................................................................4 Foreword ...................................................................................................6 Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties ...............................................7 Appendix One: Speakers Biographies ..................................................22 Appendix Two: Participant List ...............................................................25

Rapporteur: David Rankin Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties: 20 February 2007 The Royal Society of Edinburgh: May 2007 ISBN: 978 0 902198 30 2 Requests to reproduce all or part of this document, larger print versions or more copies, should be submitted to: Stuart Brown The Royal Society of Edinburgh 22-26 George Street Edinburgh EH2 2PQ e-mail: reports@royalsoced.org.uk Tel: 0044 (0)131 240 5000 Minicom: 0044 (0)131 240 5009 www.royalsoced.org.uk

Opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily represent the views of The Royal Society of Edinburgh, nor its Fellows.

20 February 2007

The Royal Society of Edinburgh wishes to acknowledge the support of

Glasgow City Council The Herald Archdiocese of Glasgow Mr Willie Haughey, The City Charitable Trust Mr Brian Souter The Phoenix Car Company

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

and thank the Organising Committee:

Sir John Arbuthnott FRSE Chairman, Greater Glasgow Health Board Ian D Baillie CBE Director of the Board, The Mungo Foundation Lia Brennan (RSE Staff) Events Officer Risn Calvert-Elliott (RSE Staff) Events Manager The Most Rev M J Conti FRSE Archbishop of Glasgow Professor Tom Devine OBE FBA FRSE Sir William Fraser Professor of Scottish History and Palaeography, University of Edinburgh Matthew Marr Advisor to the Leader of the Council, Glasgow City Council Cllr Steven Purcell Leader, Glasgow City Council Professor John Richardson FRSE Emeritus Professor of Classics, University of Edinburgh Dr Carol Tannahill Director, Glasgow Centre for Population Health

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CONFERENCE PROGRAMME
10.00 10.30 Registration and Coffee Welcome Professor Jan McDonald FRSE
Vice-President, The Royal Society of Edinburgh

10.35

Introduction and Overview Sir Muir Russell FRSE Session 1: The Background

10.45

Will the poor always be with us? Professor Michael Pacione


Chair of Geography, University of Strathclyde

11.05

Glasgow in Comparative Context: Old Industrial Places in a Global Economy Professor Ray Hudson
Director, Wolfson Research Institute, University of Durham

11.25

Out of the Depths Case Study - Castlemilk Very Rev. John D Miller
Castlemilk East Parish Church

11.45 12.15

Audience Question and Answer Session Lunch Session 2: The Present Chair: Archbishop Conti FRSE

13.15

Overview Dr Carol Tannahill


Director, Glasgow Centre for Population Health

13.30

Mental Health Professor Stephen Platt


Director, Research Unit in Health, Behaviour and Change, University of Edinburgh

13.35

Parenting and Families Professor Sarah Cunningham-Burley


Co-Director, Centre for Research on Families and Relationships, University of Edinburgh

13.40

Role of Education Professor Lindsay Paterson


Professor of Educational Policy, University of Edinburgh

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

13.45

Work is better than worklessness and a good job is better than a bad job Professor Stephanie Young
Senior Director, Skills & Learning, Scottish Enterprise Glasgow

13.50

Area-based Regeneration Councillor Steven Purcell


Leader of Glasgow City Council

13.55 14.15 14.45

Panel Discussion Audience Question and Answer Session Tea and Coffee Session 3: The Way from Here

15.00 15.05

Overview Sir John Arbuthnott FRSE Regeneration Strategy for Glasgow. What are the Gaps? David Webster
Development and Regeneration Services, Glasgow City Council

15.20

Problems to be radically addressed Professor Phil Hanlon


Professor in Public Health, University of Glasgow

15.35

Building healthy communities for the future - what we know, what we dont know, what we think we know and what we ought to know Professor Mike Kelly
Public Health Excellence Centre Director, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)

15.50 16.10

Panel/Audience Discussion Summation Alf Young


The Herald

16.25 16.30

Moving Forward/Action Sir John Arbuthnott FRSE Close

20 February 2007

Foreword
Glasgow is not only special; it is unique in its history and the combination of factors which have made it what it is today. Over the past quarter of a century, it has transformed itself from being the industrial heartland of an empire which no longer exists, a monument to a past period of carboniferous capitalism, into a vibrant and economically successful city of the twenty-first century. Yet despite the vigour and affluence which can be seen on every hand, the conditions of life for the poorest Glaswegians, especially in the big housing schemes, remain obstinately bad, and in some ways have become worse. Much excellent and important work is being done, but there remains much evidence of deprivation, especially social, cultural and spiritual. It was this situation, and the conviction that, although economically based, its solution was not susceptible to purely economic remedies, that led the Royal Society of Edinburgh to mount the conference of which this is the report. On the initiative of Archbishop Mario Conti, a Fellow of the Society, an organising committee was set up, which identified three elements to be addressed in an attempt to identify the underlying problems: the context, both historical and geographical the work currently being undertaken ways forward, with particular attention to social, cultural and spiritual needs

The three sections of the conference followed the pattern of these three elements, with academics, practitioners and policy makers from within Glasgow and beyond contributing their expertise and insights at each stage. We were fortunate in having a wide and varied range of speakers, and it is hardly surprising, given the extent to which they represented people who had not only studied but in many cases lived with the deprivation that they were describing, that we heard throughout the day not only description and analysis of the situation but also an array of suggestions for improving it, many of which were taken up by the speakers in the third part of our conference. Such variety is inevitable when addressing such a multifaceted question, and was indeed anticipated in the title of the conference, with its reference to poverties in the plural. More surprising is the extent to which our speakers agreed that, although economic deprivation was a major cause, the poverties which still plague so many in Glasgow could only be transcended by paying attention to the family and society, to education and health, to the ways in which people valued themselves and the others and the communities in which they lived. In the more radical contributions of our last three speakers it was clear that the economic structures of the city were very important, especially in terms of reducing unemployment, but that what was needed above all were ways of changing the ideas of all of us about the values of our culture and society. The challenge is immense but cannot be ignored, and it is to be hoped that the questions which this meeting raised, not just for Glasgow, will be revisited in the months and years ahead. John Richardson, FRSE Convener of the Organising Committee

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

Introduction and Overview


Following the welcome given by Jan McDonald, the first session was introduced by Sir Muir Russell, who commended the Royal Society of Edinburgh for acting as a catalyst in bringing the delegates and presenters together, stating that it was fitting that the Society be involved in examining the ongoing challenges of post-industrial cities such as Glasgow in the 21st century. It was highlighted that Glasgow is not unique in the levels of socio-economic deprivation that need to be addressed, but that there is a need to understand why such issues have arisen and what these mean in todays reality, in order that applicable solutions can be generated for the people of the city. While past attempts to address deprivation might be questioned in terms of sufficiency and appropriateness, it was noted that Glasgow has benefited from the establishment of a large number of voluntary and community groups and could be considered a world leader in efforts to address deprivation. As a result of such efforts, transformations were evident in the local economy, in the civic and personal infrastructure, in new industries having being attracted to the city, in expanded retail facilities and in the investment made in businesses. Regeneration was evident in many areas, including the waterfront, and the image of the city both at home and abroad, has been transformed from that of the past. Yet Sir Muir also considered that it was necessary to recognise that for many people in Glasgow, such achievements have not been sufficient and have not brought the lifestyles, longevity or prosperity enjoyed by many other communities in Scotland. Highlighting the reference in the conference title to poverties plural, Sir Muir illustrated how, despite physical regeneration, parts of the city still experience economic, social, cultural and spiritual poverty, with many people not benefiting from the regeneration experienced by others. Linking the session themes and addressing both policy-makers and 7

practitioners, he suggested that close attention be given to supporting and enhancing the capacities of existing grassroots organisations when developing new, or refining existing, approaches. Furthermore, it was suggested that some of the most significant past failures of planning emerged following the implementation of top-down solutions which involved little or no consultation with those most directly affected. Summarising, Sir Muir stated that Glasgows problems should not be considered intractable, but instead present challenges which span the diversity of fields in which delegates work, requiring new agendas for working together in new ways, with the expectation that success will only be judged in the longer term.

Session 1: The Background


Will the poor always be with us? Michael Pacione provided the context for the conference by deploying a historicalgeographical perspective, focusing in particular on the last 30 years. By way of example, Professor Pacione examined longitudinal health data from an area located to the east of Glasgow Cross. Drawing attention to high instances of cholera in 1832, he noted that the same area was now found to exhibit high instances of cancer, heart disease and long-term illness, all of which were above the Scottish average. Although reflecting a change from infectious to degenerative diseases, it was suggested that this Glaswegian location has exhibited some of the worst health statistics in Scotland over a period of almost 200 years. Continuing, Professor Pacione outlined the context for the remainder of the conference using five linked themes: The first, termed the anatomy of disadvantage, reflected the fit of poverty within the broader concept of multiple deprivation, a concept which was shown to change over time. For example, as society advances and basic physiological needs are met, growing pressure is placed on meeting

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higher order needs. While common characteristics remain over time, e.g. segregation and stigmatisation of the poor, there has been a changed emphasis over time from problems in the urban physical environment to the urban social environment. Second, conceptualisations of poverty include a range of terms. However, a key distinction is that between absolute and relative poverty. Absolute poverty refers to a situation where a familys income is insufficient to maintain mere physical efficiency. Relative poverty is a broader definition, which is based on needs being culturally determined rather than biologically fixed, including needs such as job security, work satisfaction, etc. Absolutist approaches imply that poverty can be eliminated; relativist views accept that poverty will always remain. The third major theme established that the root cause of poverty is economic, and in modern society stems from three principal sources: low wages earned by those employed in declining traditional industries or engaged, often on a part time basis, in newer service-based activities; unemployment experienced by those marginal to the job market such as single parents, the elderly, the disabled, and, increasingly, never-employed school leavers; and reductions in welfare expenditure in most Western states due to growing demand and ensuing fiscal crises. Fourth, the changing geographical distribution of poverty was examined with reference to indices of multiple deprivation in Glasgow between the years 1971 and 2001. In 1971, major areas of poverty were located in inner city areas and inner suburbs with further disadvantaged areas found in the East End, Maryhill area, and peripheral housing estates. By 1981, following clearance and redevelopment of some inner-city neighbourhoods, the foci of deprivation had shifted to include areas such as Govan, Possilpark and Springburn along with overcrowded, outer estates. The incidence of deprivation became marked by a change in 8

housing tenure, now mainly concentrated in the public sector. These trends were confirmed by 1991 and were reiterated in the Census data of 2001: poverty and deprivation remain concentrated in particular environments of disadvantage. Eradicating poverty was suggested by Professor Pacione to require policies which took multifaceted approaches; which adopted a generational perspective; which sought to develop strategies to address physical context; that facilitated engagement with and reconnection of marginalised people to mainstream society; and which placed most emphasis on education and training. Finally, in response to the question: Will the poor always be with us? Professor Pacione highlighted that absolute poverty could and often has been eliminated, whereas relative poverty will always remain, suggesting a stimulus for renewed action. Glasgow in Comparative Context: Old Industrial Places in a Global Economy Ray Hudson provided further comparative context in an historical account, which examined industrial decline, poverty, inequality and poor health by placing Glasgows history of growth, decline and (partial) renewal within the broader context of long-term capitalist development. This took account of Glasgows particular trajectory of growth and decline, but considered it within the context of wider capitalist models: an endemic tendency to produce inequalities is embedded in the capitalist model of development. In conjunction, highlighting the importance of place, such processes have been expressed in particular ways in Glasgow. The ability of government to ameliorate the problems of place and its capacity to realign economies onto new development paths is limited. Professor Hudson postulated a five-stage model of urban-industrial growth, decline and recovery, drawing parallels between Glasgow and its association with persistent poverty and inequality with other industrial cities and regions (e.g. in Spain, France and the USA):

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

1. Originating during the time of Empire in the 19th Century, cities such as Glasgow were considered centres of economic growth in an era of carboniferous capitalism, although development was always marked by widespread poverty and extreme inequalities. 2. The Depression of the 1920s/30s led to a rapid collapse in the economic fortunes of cities like Glasgow, as international markets collapsed and global markets slumped. As a consequence, poverty deepened and spread. 3. From the late 1930s, rearmament, the subsequent War Economy, and later postwar reconstruction efforts in the 1950s, led to rises in employment. For example, new industries such as chemical plants and automobile manufacturing emerged and were located in cities, which, along with the introduction of the national welfare state, were suggested, to a degree, to have ameliorated poverty and inequality. However, while post-war recovery led to greater concern with equality and welfare rights, more progressive taxes and better education and housing, poor working conditions (e.g. in coal mining) continued to be damaging to health. An overall increase in affluence was not seen to translate into better health and new diseases and illnesses of affluence emerged. 4. From the late 1950s, secular decline of the old industrial economy led to the closure of mines, steelworks and shipyards. While this ended many unhealthy jobs, it also led to a permanent loss of employment. Instances of poor health remained and a younger generation suffered from new physical and mental health problems, often associated with a lack of work. New policies were unable to create enough new jobs, while changes in the gender composition in the workforce led to increasing male unemployment. 5. Later, new urban and regional development policies sought to encourage enterprise through a switch from a manufacturing to a service-based 9

economy, and through competing globally for inward investment. Yet jobs in the new economy are often considered insecure, poorly paid and low skilled, and result in exposure to high levels of stress, associated with poor mental health. In response, government capacity to effect economic change and reduce poverty has often been limited, particularly given the shift from Keynesian policies to a neo-liberal economy and welfare state. Concluding, Professor Hudson suggested that in seeking to transcend poverties in Glasgow, the role of the Scottish Executive should be considered vital, enabling local solutions to be applied to such problems. However, it was also suggested that cities such as Glasgow still struggle to adapt to new economic realities. Underlying problems remain and policies to address them have been insufficient and have potentially exacerbated current inequalities. Arguing that the situation should not be considered inevitable, Professor Hudson stressed that in order for policies to change and for efforts to be made to transcend poverties, a sharp and sustained shift in political priorities is required. Out of Depths Case Study - Castlemilk The Reverend John Miller began by drawing attention to the last 35 years he has spent living and working as a parish minister in one of the big four housing schemes of Glasgow, namely Castlemilk. In 1955, Castlemilk was noted to have a buoyant community spirit despite a lack of social facilities. However, unemployment, the abolishment of the Rate Support Grant and rising crime meant that by the late 1970s the population had declined and ties that had bound the community had started to unravel. Regeneration plans in the form of private investment had led to many of the remaining tenants being decanted into other housing, while their own areas and housing were regenerated. This in turn had negative impacts on social conditions and child rearing, and often contributed to the death of elderly relatives due to the

20 February 2007

disruption associated with relocation. Recounting the atomisation of the community, Mr Miller outlined how new initiatives (e.g. Safer Cities) and changes made by creating smaller areas, further threatened neighbourly spirits. While acknowledging that regeneration has brought benefits to some residents, it was indicated that many of the residents on the scheme still lack employment. Questioning what has gone wrong with the planned regeneration, Mr Miller drew attention to the structural changes that have taken place, the reduction in employment and the associated decline in traditional community leadership roles. Attempts to address these issues were coordinated under the auspices of a Scottish Office initiative: New Life for Urban Scotland. This involved the development of a partnership approach involving the providers of resources from across sectors in coordinating efforts to maximise effectiveness. Although over 80 community organisations were in operation in Castlemilk at the time of the partnership, it was suggested that limited effort was given to tapping into their potential. Major powerand resource-holders such as local government and private developers were not felt to engage with the community and, therefore, local priorities were often ignored. Notwithstanding the improvements that have been made to the housing stock within Castlemilk, statistics indicate that poverty is endemic, that unemployment is rife and that there is widespread and persistent use of illegal drugs. Overdoses and deaths from heroin which were once rare are now commonplace. A further consequence of the increase in use of drugs, is the associated rise in violence, graphically illustrated in the murders of two young men in November 2006. Continuing, Mr Miller drew attention to the vagaries of life lived on social welfare and the higher costs met by those on benefit for basic provision of services such as electricity and gas. Another example, this time of funeral costs, stressed how meeting

the costs of a relatives burial can lead to further indebtedness for already cashstrapped families. With regeneration continuing, the disparities that exist between some residents of Castlemilk and others appear to grow, highlighted by the development of new properties costing 240,000, built alongside the houses of people who display some of the worst health statistics in Britain. Drawing attention to the positive community spirit that remains in areas such as Castlemilk, Mr Miller recounted an instance where neighbours got together to arrange a collection to subsidise the funeral of a fellow resident. It seems that the community spirit in Castlemilk may still be strong if only it can be used to positive effect, as viewed in Mr Millers summary of the community fundraising effort: In the poorest streets of Castlemilk every funeral receives this kind of response, for everyone knows the need. Concluding, Mr Miller highlighted that while residents of Castlemilk may be materially poverty-stricken, the opposite was true in relation to their spirit.

Question and Answer Session


Following this contextual and historical overview, the audience was invited to raise discussion points to be addressed by the panel of presenters. The key points raised were as follows: What is the value placed on working in the community when spending cuts are being implemented that impact on the capacity to deliver such work? What focus is given to examining the top-down policies that are implemented to impact on deprived communities, when evidence has shown that many of these policies do not work and indeed when much of the current malaise can be attributed to these very systems? Addressing the second point, panel members acknowledged that high level policy-drivers have sought to boost competitive practices 10

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

with the assumption that trickle-down effects would reduce inequality. While such policies have not produced the desired effect, it was acknowledged that an enormous political challenge remains to prioritise factors continuing to produce such inequalities. In response to the first point, considering the value placed on work undertaken in the communities, and discussing how the number of agencies now operating in Castlemilk currently numbered nine or ten, Mr Miller was critical of the existing funding system. Acknowledging the rapid response that the voluntary sector can often give to addressing local needs, he linked the decline in number of organisations and groups with a lack of security of funding. This has meant that highly qualified staff often spend substantial amounts of their service-delivery and managerial time completing forms that provide only year-to-year funding. Further points were invited, which included: Seeking comparative evidence, a delegate queried whether there was any evidence of solutions where the wealth gap had been reduced in other locations or cities. In conjunction, another delegate suggested that a return to progressive taxation would benefit areas such as Castlemilk. Highlighting the increasing coverage given to affluence and its associated problems, a delegate queried whether it might be necessary to re-evaluate what is considered to be important within our society. Linking these two points, another delegate queried whether there was merit in seeking to simplify the examination given to the causes and to the solutions to poverty. Such moves might see greater effort being given to increasing the minimum wage, to curbing top levels of pay in society, to reversing the trend of decreasing public expenditure, to rethinking our attitude as a society to going to war, and to give serious consideration to the scrapping

of the Trident nuclear deterrent programme. Further moves might address the balance of power between the private and public sector, better management in the NHS and enhanced provision of investment in state education. In response, it was suggested that comparative evidence is hard to provide, in particular due to differences in political systems between the UK and examples that do exist such as those in the United States. In conjunction, the panel suggested that the causes of poverty and the application of a simple solution might depend on the definition applied, although it was reiterated that poverty and deprivation are wider problems than simply access to money. As causal factors are multiple and varied, solutions might also be complex. Furthermore, it was suggested that the present neo-liberal political framework is, like other models before it, amenable to change. Continuing, it was suggested that great value is placed on community development projects by the communities in which they are based, but that there are limits to the impacts of locally-delivered work without wider systemic change. Acknowledging that a lot can be done at a local level if the appropriate structures are in place, it was suggested that there is a need for a new model of economic development. Drawing on the example of a food project in Italy, it was suggested that more effort could be directed to joining up the local and supra-local agencies when delivering services. A further point the panel was asked to consider was the position that might be taken by local government to address the winlose situations presented by globalisation, and the policy effort required to capture and understand local values and social priorities, particularly when connecting micro and macro approaches. Responses from the panel focused on the potential need to rethink mainstream 11

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economic development in order that the responses to poverty become more heterogeneous and imaginative. Although local government was suggested to have a role, this should be set within a larger context. In addition, while solutions need to be imaginative and while local communities necessarily have important roles, it is unrealistic to expect that poor communities will pull themselves up: there is a need for downward support and assistance. Professor Pacione introduced the concept of aided selfhelp, whereby disadvantaged local communities are supported by appropriate strategies that enable them to mobilise their human resources to overcome poverty.

situation is becoming steadily worse when moving from the least deprived to the most deprived areas: the effect is one of relative position, not one confined to the extreme ends of the spectrum. However, despite such evidence, the manner in which health services are delivered is not skewed in the direction of areas of highest deprivation. In other examples, income gradients were shown to parallel health gradients, and societies with a greater income inequality were shown to have poorer levels of overall health. While Scotlands overall life expectancy increased between 1991-2001, figures for Glasgow indicated that its life expectancy was not increasing to the same extent, and indeed that gaps were widening between some poor and affluent communities. A recent report from the MRC Social and Public Health Services Unit (University of Glasgow) suggested that this is resulting from increases in suicide and chronic liver disease in poorer communities and from the fact that falls in the incidence of heart disease deaths are occurring more quickly in affluent communities. In addition, high levels of violence are evident in Glasgow, with one third of Scottish murders occurring in the city. Relating the incidence of violence to deprivation and highlighting the team culture of violence, Dr Tannahill identified the sense of belonging that gang violence can create, which provides a sense of self-importance and worth, otherwise lacking in some parts of poorer communities. More optimistically, data were presented on social capital. Areas with high levels of social capital generally enjoy social and economic benefits and are also found to be more healthy. Glasgow is considered to have a generally strong degree of social capital overall, although it is lower among younger adults and in poorer communities. However, data signifying levels of social and civic participation indicated that memberships of clubs and religious organisations is declining, which results in reduced opportunities for people to work together to effect change in 12

Session 2: The Present


The second session was introduced by Archbishop Conti, who began by making links between the mornings focus on historical and contextual features and the second sessions focus on the Present, in particular looking at what actions have been taking place and are currently underway to address poverty and inequality issues. In his introduction, the Archbishop highlighted the need for a coordinated approach between statutory and voluntary sectors, and recognised that poverty in a relative sense may always remain. Overview Carol Tannahill started from the premise that our least healthy communities are unlike our most healthy communities in every way. Poverty indices (e.g. employment, access to service, environmental indicators) were compared, which highlighted the contrast in povertyaffluence that exists between welloff areas of Glasgow such as Newton Mearns and areas of high deprivation such as Dalmarnock. Such disparities were suggested to illustrate that singular approaches such as providing new jobs or improving housing would be unlikely to close the inequalities gap. Further evidence was presented showing clear and steady gradients of poorer health across social groups. In Glasgow, the

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

their communities. Bonding social capital was much stronger in Glasgow than bridging social capital (links between people who are different from each other). For Glasgow, the rising importance of relative poverty was acknowledged, along with changes over time in its effects on health. Highlighting the historical transition from infectious diseases being the major causes of death to an increased incidence of degenerative diseases, Dr Tannahill drew attention to the current rise in social epidemics, including mental health problems, addictions and violence. Continuing, Dr Tannahill argued that this evidence suggested the need to move from an emphasis on material and physical environment solutions, through medical and technical solutions to those which seek social and cultural responses to the health challenges, in particular psycho-social factors: social status, poor social affiliations and early childhood influences on life. More broadly, wholepopulation problems such as alcohol abuse, obesity and mental health problems which affect all communities need to be addressed. Summarising, Dr Tannahill stated: If we keep doing what weve always done, well get what weve always got. In this vein, problems remain despite the plethora of policies targeted at deprived communities. In determining what strategies come next, it was suggested that everyone needs to feel valued and respected, be in a position to develop friendships and to have the advantage of an early childhood that provides a basis for enhanced self-confidence. Mental Health Stephen Platt gave an overview of the links between poverty and mental ill-health, drawing on nine large-scale studies, which examined the relationship between psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage at an individual level. Eight of these studies showed a relationship between lower socio-economic status and a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression.

Increased risk of experiencing anxiety/ depression has generally been found to be 1.5 - 2 times higher for the most disadvantaged groups, with the strongest associations found in respect of poor education, lower income/poorer standard of living and unemployment. Professor Platt suggested that these findings illustrate that poor mental health and its resolution is about more than just worklessness. In the UK, data taken from the Health Survey for England indicates that a higher percentage (20%) of those in the lowest income quintile have a positive GHQ-12 score, compared with 9% of those in the highest income quintile. These findings were supported by other data drawn from the British Household Panel Survey, which again made the link between mental health, low income, poverty and material living standards. In Scotland, GP consultations for anxiety and depression are twice as high in the most deprived areas, there are marked gradients for hospital admission rates for schizophrenia, and suicide is three times higher in deprived areas, with the gap noted to be rising. In Glasgow, admission to psychiatric hospitals and numbers of suicides are significantly higher than in Scotland as a whole, with higher instances of deliberate self-harm also linked to socio-economic deprivation. Highlighting the greater impact of the 1970s economic shock on an industrialised city such as Glasgow, Professor Platt suggested that addressing these issues requires major inequalities first to be stabilised, then reversed. Parenting and Families Sarah Cunningham-Burley discussed research into poverty, parents and families, drawing on findings from three studies. These included: findings exploring the life of people living on a low income; studies of resilience in disadvantaged communities; and introductory data from a longitudinal study. The experience of living on a low income has been suggested to challenge peoples selfesteem and self-confidence. Seeking to 13

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maintain a sense of self-respect, parents in this study were found to prioritise spending on children, often going without or going into debt to enable their children to participate effectively in normal social life, e.g. Christmas. Financial and material support provided by families and friends ran parallel to the provision of supportive relationships, although people felt ambivalent about asking for support more widely. In the second study examining resilience and social capital, people in deprived areas were found to attend to both positive and negative aspects of their community. For example, parents sought to prevent children experiencing threats (e.g. alcohol and drugs) while at the same time identifying positives of their communities (e.g. good neighbours). Parents revealed their aspirations for children, but lacked the resources to be able to meet them. Parenting styles related to resilience have been found to minimise the risks and to support the development of children. Initial research in the final study, taking in the whole of Scotland, identified the interrelationship between age of parenthood and deprivation: younger mothers were found to be more deprived, have lower levels of educational attainment, less contact with services and engage in more health damaging behaviours (e.g. reduced instances of breast-feeding). Summarising, Professor Cunningham-Burley suggested that this study highlights important secular trends in relation to parenthood that introduce further cultural divides associated with child-rearing and deprivation. Role of Education Lindsay Paterson discussed the role of education in overcoming the effects of poverty, arguing that some research runs counter to conventional wisdom. Five points were made: There are clear economic benefits of participating in advanced education, tempered with the knowledge that the

rewards of such education and training vary by industrial sector. General education is mostly as effective, in terms of benefits, as vocationally specific education. However, general education increases flexibility in economic life and widens opportunities to a greater extent. Widening participation in general education has positively impacted on gender, religious, ethnic and social class inequalities. However, educational participation is not sufficient and reforms have only been moderately effective at reducing inequalities. Further action to address inequalities necessitates encouragement of universal participation at successively more advanced levels. General education is good for individual students and for society, but, contrary to popular belief, there is no straightforward causal relationship between the general level of education and economic development in a society. There are queries to be raised regarding whether the debate surrounding the economic consequences of education is based on a misunderstanding of the relationship between poverty and education. Concluding, Professor Paterson stated that a good, critical, general education also encourages the development of liberal values and involvement in socially worthwhile activities.

In summary, education is considered the prize, which escaping from poverty can bring. Work is better than worklessness and a good job is better than a bad job Stephanie Youngs presentation discussed work and worklessness in Glasgow, and began with an examination of recent increases in employment and the creation of new jobs. Although the employment rate has substantially increased, it remains lower than the Scottish average. In addition there are 14

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

several geographically concentrated pockets of poverty which remain. Three factors were introduced which underlie the continuing existence of poverty: There remains a significant number of workless people: high numbers of people on Incapacity Benefit and Income Support There is a significant number of people who cycle in and out of the labour market, possibly related to a lack of perceived financial or psychological benefit between working a dead-end job or receiving benefit. In-work poverty causes problems for people/families on low incomes: wages in the areas that make up the most deprived 15% of Scotland are 40% lower than those in the rest of Scotland. In-work poverty was also suggested to be psychosocial in nature. Outlining what is required, Professor Young, drawing on a series of findings from other research, suggested that Glasgow requires both more jobs and, crucially, more good jobs, i.e. better paid or those providing a more worthwhile experience. Barriers to such change are both economic - availability and type of jobs, and institutional - arising from organisational cultures and public sector structures. As a solution, it was suggested that whilst growing the economy is primarily a macroeconomic challenge, more local political responses can create an environment where business flourish, people are valued and skills are acquired. Such moves would tackle low paid jobs and seek to join up public sector interventions to address worklessness. Summarising, Professor Young reiterated the need to move people into work and to move people into good jobs that are reasonably paid. Area-based Regeneration Steven Purcell discussed the changes that had taken place in Glasgow, focusing on the shift from an emphasis on area-based regeneration

in the last decade to the current emphasis on thematic and social regeneration. Highlighting recent improvements, Councillor Purcell identified new jobs, houses, schools and leisure facilities, which were in evidence across the city. These were brought about as a result of government investment and private sector inputs, with the role of the voluntary sector in Glasgow being especially noted. However, in acknowledging the sustained and deep-rooted problems of long-term poverty that a number of people in Glasgow experience, it was suggested that there is much more to be done. Discussing a poverty of ambition, it was indicated that some families now include a third generation who have never worked, whilst a number of communities are affected by drugs and alcohol problems. Such malaise was acknowledged to damage the wider community. Yet, positive changes have been made in a number of areas. In education, this includes rebuilt/ refurbished schools, new investment in primary schools and higher than average investment in Sure Start programmes. The establishment of the Glasgow Housing Association has provided for spending on revitalising homes, whilst Scottish Executive schemes were suggested to have enabled the provision of more affordable housing. Meanwhile, reviews of social policy seek to inform future thinking on social regeneration in Glasgow. In this vein, work was continuing to build community involvement in structures such as community planning and community health partnerships, leading to resources being devolved downward to allow greater prioritisation to be given to addressing local needs. Drawing attention to reforms made to career advice programmes and reductions in the uptake of welfare benefits, Councillor Purcell felt that significant steps forward had already been taken and that there was an optimism felt across Glasgow. Such aspiration was suggested to have been reflected in the current cultural and sports strategy. Highlighting a perceived increase in local 15

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confidence, Councillor Purcell stated that action in the next decade would be as ambitious as the last. Advocating an open economy, acknowledging the challenges of a world-wide economy and with the help of the audience, Councillor Purcell aimed for Glasgow to continue to flourish.

Question and Answer Session


After providing a summary of the session, Archbishop Conti called for questions from the audience. There were many diverse and wide-ranging points raised, which included: A delegate, recently returned to the city, questioned what might be done to address lost values and what emphasis was being placed on the value of love for the city of Glasgow, in particular highlighting problems associated with the increase in dirt and the way in which young people treat the city. Another point queried the lack of private sector representation at the conference, with another delegate asking the panel to reflect on whether curbs were needed to reduce the disparity between salaries for high and low income earners. More broadly, a delegate suggested that if transformational change was needed to engage disaffected young people, there was a need for a paradigm shift in how society measures, identifies and respects success so that non-traditional learners can be better encouraged to participate. A further query asked the panel to consider Glasgow City Councils response to debates about globalisation in relation to poverty.

support of the job market was key to success in the city. In terms of measuring educational success, Councillor Purcell acknowledged a need for a cultural change for valuing, recognising, and celebrating success and a need to link this back to aspirations of the people. On the final point, he highlighted the need to consider survival as a race, the value placed on an open economy and the links between Glasgow and Edinburgh as one economy helping to shape a sustainable future for Scotland. Calling for more audience points, Archbishop Conti sought to draw attention to the title of the conference, suggesting that it was deliberately chosen to be ambiguous; transcending poverties includes the economic, the cultural and the political. Continuing, Archbishop Conti asked the audience to consider the analyses in the second session and how, given the panels insight, they might stimulate suggestions as to how ways forward might be developed. In response, a delegate raised the following point: Drawing attention to earlier statements which inferred relative poverty to be inevitable, an appeal was made to the panel to reject this inevitability, with the focus instead being directed towards seeking clarity about both the causes and consequences of poverty. By suggesting that there is a need to address both, the panel was asked to consider the priorities for an incoming Scottish Executive in May when seeking to tackle poverty.

Councillor Purcell responded by highlighting the high levels of civic pride evident among the people of Glasgow, suggesting that more work to address the environment is needed in the future. Acknowledging their absence, he recognised the inputs of the private sector in other forums and stated that private sector

Responses from the panel suggested that any simplification of the issues would fail to address the problem. Moving away from manifesto-like responses would instead focus on whole-system and societal responses in order to enhance the value placed on, and respect given to, all groups in society. This systemic point was reinforced when attention was drawn to the negative impacts that poor mental health has on other features of an 16

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

individuals life, suggesting again the need for an inclusive response to improve opportunities and an equalising of chances to participate in society. Several panel members called for more effort to be given to providing good jobs, coupled with more investment in community learning and an emphasis on supporting people through training and qualifications when they enter the workplace and once they are in it. It was also suggested that future work is required to promote education, to address early years provision, to speed up the reform of welfare and to develop links between culture and employment strategies. Several members of the panel highlighted the limited fiscal powers held by the Scottish Executive and that attempts to address poverty should focus on lobbying for devolved fiscal responsibility and tax redistribution.

Glasgow experiences higher instances of child poverty, adult mortality, addictions, homelessness and violence, and lower levels of happiness. To overcome such problems and to impact on poverty, it was suggested that more effort be given to rebuilding the role of the father and supporting for disadvantaged young men. Secondly, looking at recent figures from the 2006 Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, an east-west divide was shown with a strong imbalance of poverty evident in the east. This divide was suggested by Mr Webster to be at its starkest since the first figures were produced in 1971. Whereas it was accurate to say that the West had pockets of deprivation, there were only pockets of prosperity in the east. In highlighting this negative picture, it was suggested that the data also present an opportunity. For example, the east and north of the city had been industrial and the loss of industry and increase in derelict land offered development potential. This potential is reflected in transport enhancements which are intended to improve the locational advantages of the east end, including the east-end regeneration route, linking the M80 and M74. In addition, further work was addressed toward the bid for the Commonwealth Games in 2014, which would bring regeneration to the Dalmarnock and Bridgeton areas in the east. This presents a big agenda, but when looking at examples from other cities, it was suggested that developments should aim farther than currently envisaged. For example, while London has successfully bid for the Olympic Games, east London also has the Thames Gateway project to promote the areas redevelopment. Mr Webster suggested that further work should build on that already underway on current road transport routes and on new railway links to Airdrie and Bathgate, focusing on areas that are already of high quality in the built environment such as the conservation area, Parkhead Cross. These might act as a positive 17

Session 3: The Way from Here


The introduction to the third session was given by Sir John Arbuthnott. Regeneration Strategy for Glasgow What are the Gaps? David Webster began by examining the gaps in the regeneration strategy for Glasgow, focusing on two issues: the break-up of the family and the role of the male; and the imbalance between the east and west of the city and the untapped regeneration possibilities this presents. First, the societal consequences of changes to male and female employment patterns were highlighted. In Glasgow in 2001, excepting students, almost one third of adult males aged 16 to 48 were not in employment; a figure higher than anywhere else in the UK. The decline of male employment in postindustrial Glasgow is associated with higher instances of non-intact families and loneparents, in comparison with the Scottish average. As a consequence of low levels of adult male employment and participation in family roles, Mr Webster suggested that

20 February 2007

counter-magnet for economic development, to radically change peoples perceptions of the east and north of the city. Problems to be radically addressed Phil Hanlon sought to develop new ideas by examining radical issues that might be confronted, starting from the premise that there are three U-turns that need to be made in order to transcend poverties. The first, suggested to be more a swerve than a U-turn, concerns the need to better understand current research on the nature of wellbeing. Based on learning from evolutionary psychology, it is suggested that humans derive different advantages from both positive and negative feelings, requiring both at different times throughout our history. The power of positive psychology was suggested to extend our human repertoire, causing others, the enthusiasts, to help create and shape new ideas, enabling us to broaden and build upon responses. Negative feelings are linked, as they provide a counterweight to positive drives, enabling wider consideration to be given to the challenging and intractable problems we face. Secondly, adapting a line made famous by Bill Clinton, and considering the institutionalisation of inequalities in a neo-liberal economy, embraced through individualism, consumerism and materialism, Professor Hanlon suggested that, It is the culture, stupid. Crucially, at present, this culture has led to various levels of discontent, as illustrated in data from a number of western continents, which show that while GDP has risen over time, the initial rise in wellbeing, whilst at first paralleling GDP, has subsequently discontinued, flattened, and has now gone into decline. Affluenza, considered a virus of affluence is attributed to much current malaise. Identifying the origins of such problems to be cultural suggests that a change is needed in our culture. Introducing work on Tipping Points and relating this to wellbeing, Professor Hanlon suggests that it is an individuals

inner work and feelings that create a culture promoting relationships with others. When considering the need for a cultural change, Professor Hanlon indicated that current unhappiness was experienced by groups from across Scottish society, suggesting that such issues themselves are an epidemic of concern, raising hopes that such a groundswell might lead to change taking place. Thirdly, considering how such change might be brought about, two forces which are known to be influencing our future were introduced: climate change and peak oil. Peak oil refers to the finite amount of oil that the planet contains, and the knowledge that as we move to access and use the second half of this oil, it will become increasingly expensive. It was suggested that climate change and the combined pressures of our need to reduce the use of carbon and the price of carbon-based energy will transform our lives. Several options for directing future efforts were mooted, which included: the potential for waging further wars, engaging in efforts to protect our species, or continued denial, for example building more motorways, extending airports, and planning as if the current status quo will persist. Suggesting that we should prepare now for this change, Professor Hanlon postulated that future carbon rationing might provoke a shared community spirit akin to the era of rationing during and after World War II. Invoking such a spirit with respect to external threats, he considered that inequalities could be made less severe: we might all derive health benefits from being less subject to consumerism, materialism and individualism. Building healthy communities for the future - what we know, what we dont know, what we think we know and what we ought to know Mike Kelly began by positing questions about our ability to take an evidence-based approach to transcending poverty: what do we know about the mechanisms that link poverty, community and health; do we know enough to build for the future in a better way 18

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

than we have done in the past; and, how might we link the cultural, the spiritual and the social together? Highlighting the accumulated evidence, Professor Kelly stated that there are longstanding associations concerning health inequalities and poverty with community, geography, housing and the built environment more generally, and that these associations are graphically evident in Glasgow. Examining Glaswegian lifeexpectancy and infant mortality over the last decade, it was shown that rates of improvement have been greater and faster in more advantaged groups. Similarly, data on cancer rates show clear gradients by geography, related to areas of deprivation. Thus, the gradient in health continues to widen despite state efforts to tackle inequalities in health. Despite such descriptive links, Professor Kelly brought to the fore the limited evidence base (< 0.4% of academic papers) of interventions proven to reduce health inequalities. Less understood still is the precise nature of causal pathways between dimensions of inequality and health outcomes. In addition there is also uncertainty concerning how different dimensions of inequality (e.g. social class, age, gender, geography) link together and how the effects interact, resulting in a dearth of theoretical and empirical work, despite the abundance of descriptive work. Furthermore, the ways in which different segments of the population respond to the same intervention may be different (e.g. rates of smoking which follow the social gradient). Why this should be the case is not clear, as the mechanisms which underpin such social variation are little understood; effects are not universal. In order to advance the discussion and to seek new solutions, Professor Kelly drew attention to the relationship between the social and the biological, and to what constitutes proximal, intermediate and distal causes. Yet, drawing on personal experience, he indicated that this relationship, which crosses traditional boundaries, is often considered anathema to scientific disciplines including sociology, psychology and

medicine. Seeking to develop new models, he suggested there is a need to develop plausible pathways that take into account the biological, sociological and psychological levels of explanation currently on offer. A potential way forward was presented by drawing on research into lifecourse and lifeworlds. The lifecourse approach examines the accumulated effects on the human body of social position and transitions across the lifecycle, contrasting with the majority of cross-sectional approaches to research that are currently undertaken. A lifecourse approach takes in critical points from conception, to birth, the early years, school, transitions to work or unemployment, parenthood and later parenthood. Global studies indicate that critical points in the lifecourse, which are very highly socially patterned, operate as gateways or forks in the road, which set in train patterns that may endure and have very long lasting effects. Such lifecourse approaches also follow quite distinct patterns for different social groups. Professor Kelly then linked these approaches to the idea of lifeworlds, popularised in German philosophy and comprising the loci of experience: social, psychological and physical. Represented by a series of spheres, the centre of an individuals lifeworld involves contacts with closest associates, families, friends, etc. with successive spheres representing extremes of the lifeworld, which include the things a person comes into contact with less and less frequently. To appreciate the impact of lifeworlds, there is a need to focus on the epicentre to gain an understanding of how cause works. The epicentre of the lifeworld is where we live our lives socially, physically, intellectually and spiritually and is also the point at which stressors are moderated, mediated or exacerbated. With this in mind, social disadvantage is characterised by the inability or lesser ability to control the lifeworld, while social advantage is characterised by the ability to better control the lifeworld. 19

20 February 2007

When seeking to transcend poverties, it was suggested that there are four types of resources that help to control the lifeworld. These include: technical resources surrounding skills, money and access to resources; enhancements to interpersonal relationships, affected by housing, transport and ease of communication; intra-personal skills, which include the ability to deal with the emotions of life and its psychological distress with equanimity or otherwise; and meaning - providing for a meaningful existence and having an ability to control it. Concluding, and offering a causal hypothesis, Professor Kelly suggested that the trajectory through the lifecourse, mediated through the lifeworld, is how structural factors influence health. Building better communities for the future must start with lifeworlds and the lifecourse.

Question and Answer Session


After a comprehensive summary, which revisited the main points of the presentations, the following points were raised by conference delegates: Whether there are any other ways of looking at evidence-based medicine in relation to poverty. An observation that the main barrier appears to be political will, and that current politics and their systems are not fit for purpose. In order to address poverty it will be necessary to re-engage with communities to encourage individuals to take account of their role in society. Referring to the conference title, and relating to earlier points, a delegate highlighted how references to transcendence and spirituality suggested a need for society to engage in the deeper questions in order to address these problems. In response to a related comment, Archbishop Conti highlighted that the title of the conference was deliberately ambiguous rather than vague, and was intended to

include all aspects of poverties. He raised concerns as to the focus on biological solutions, suggesting that relationships within poorer communities be enriched through engaging in opportunities and working across sectors. A delegate highlighted the lack of representation at the conference of groups from poor communities, and that without further work to empower such groups to bring forth solutions from within these communities, it would be unlikely that appropriate solutions would emerge. Additional comments recognised the difficulty both in bringing forth these voices and in the need for those in the room to relinquish their hold on power. Commenting on the Castlemilk experience, a delegate queried the need to expand work that seeks to build capacities within deprived communities. Further efforts were needed to join up housing, welfare, health and education to overcome piecemeal responses stemming from work delivered from current funding silos. Following earlier discussion, a delegate discussed the need for greater fiscal autonomy for Scotland. Highlighting the limited powers of the Scottish Executive to raise taxes, the questioner queried the remit of the conference and whether it would be effective for the Royal Society of Edinburgh to call for raises to taxes and redistribution of wealth. Finally, a lady from Easterhouse described how, while the days proceedings had been helpful, much of the language that had been used signified to her how little had changed. She suggested that rather than discussing how people from schemes such as Easterhouse experienced poverty or inequality, conference delegates might instead refer to the situation as one of social and economic apartheid.

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Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

Summarising the question and answer session, Sir John Arbuthnott suggested that people might contact the Royal Society after the conference had concluded in order to help inform the development of an action plan, based on the presentations and points raised by the audience.

the fore examples such as the consumerist models of Hong Kong and China, which might be considered the new beneficiaries of the neo-liberal system, he argued that no government which attempted to promulgate such ideas would get elected. Instead, Mr Young suggested that the future might more closely resemble that which was described by Phil Hanlon. He reiterated that the push to increase GDP and material growth among major political parties in western countries had not led to improvements for citizens in wellbeing, or improvements in inner spiritual life. Continuing, he stated that Tipping points, accelerated by climate change, were where changes were most likely to take place, not through taxing the rich until the pips squeak. Suggesting that the rich within society might seek to emulate the philanthropy of previous generations entrepreneurs, Mr Young proposed that those in receipt of large city bonuses might consider doing something worthwhile with their money, by putting some of it back into communities. He concluded by arguing that such change would not occur by overly focusing on de-industrialisation, where this has left society and the tragedy of people left behind. Acknowledging that economic apartheid might well be a term that could be applied, he considered that more focus needs to be given to what works and to what is deliverable, rather than simply focus on raising taxes, reiterating once again that this wasnt going to happen.

Summation
Alf Young provided a summary of the days proceedings and began by drawing attention to the final point made in the previous question and answer session. As such, he suggested that the conference seemed to be comprised of a conversation among academics and practitioners, but that this does not seem to deal with the issues in the language of the people in the community who are most directly affected. Drawing upon an earlier theme, he stated that the problem of poverty is not solely the problem of Glasgow and instead is a world-wide problem, which raises questions regarding the forum in which such matters should be discussed. He highlighted how the mornings analyses had led to a personal feeling of depression as he considered that few new ideas had emerged, albeit that absolute poverty seemed to have been addressed. Furthermore, he considered that questions remained to be asked about the people who had moved on from communities such as Castlemilk, how their lives had changed and what mechanisms might have made their lives different. Discussing efforts to abolish relative poverty, Mr Young stated that working to address those on the disadvantaged side of the economic distribution would necessitate that efforts also be applied to those at the more affluent end of the scale. In drawing attention to what he considered a sub-theme of the conference regarding arguments for change in fiscal policies and overthrowing the current neo-liberal capitalist system, Mr Young stated that while he might harbour such dreams, the reality he perceived was that: It aint going to happen. Bringing to

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APPENDIX ONE SPEAKERS BIOGRAPHIES


Professor Michael Pacione MA PhD DSc Chair of Geography University of Strathclyde Michael Pacione was educated at the University of St Andrews and the University of Dundee, receiving an MA Honours degree in Geography in 1970 and his PhD in 1973. In 2002 he was awarded the Higher Doctorate degree of DSc by the University of Strathclyde in recognition of his original and distinguished contribution to learning in the field of Urban Geography. Professor Pacione has held academic positions in Queens University, Belfast; the University of Guelph, Ontario; and the University of Vienna. Currently he occupies the Chair of Geography at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow. Professor Paciones principal research work is in the field of Urban Geography. An applied or problemoriented perspective informs much of his research that focuses on the problems, policy and planning of cities in the contemporary world. He has published twentyfive books and more than 100 research papers in an international range of academic and professional journals. His most recent books include Glasgow: the Socio-Spatial Development of the City (1995); Britains Cities: Geographies of Division in Urban Britain (1997); Applied Geography: Principles and Practice (1999); and Urban Geography: A Global Perspective (2001, 2005). UK Parliaments House of Commons Select Committee on Coalfields Regeneration. In 2005 he was awarded the Victoria Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in recognition of his research work.

Very Rev. John D Miller Castlemilk East Parish Church For the past thirty-five years John Miller has been Minister of the Church of Scotlands Castlemilk East Parish in Glasgow. He and his wife Mary have lived in a local authority house in the parish, and their children grew up there, going to the local schools. Mary was one of a small group of mothers who in 1974 founded a local parent and children organisation called the Jeely Piece Club. In 2001 John was appointed Moderator of the Church of Scotlands General Assembly. Following that year in office he has been back in the parish.

Dr Carol Tannahill Director Glasgow Centre for Population Health Carol Tannahill grew up in Glasgow, graduated BA in Human Sciences from Oxford University, and MPH and PhD in Public Health from the University of Glasgow. She is currently Director of the Glasgow Centre for Population Health, a research and development centre which was established in 2004 to generate fresh insights and evidence for action to improve health and tackle inequality. She is also one of the principal investigators in GoWell: a large-scale evaluation of the health and wellbeing effects of community regeneration in Glasgow. Carol previously held the posts of Director of Health Promotion and Executive Board Member of Greater Glasgow Health Board, and then Senior Adviser in Health Development in the Public Health Institute of Scotland. She is a Fellow of the Faculty of Public Health and an Honorary Senior Lecturer with the University of Glasgow. Carol has contributed to a range of international, national and local public health developments, including being the first Chair of the Scottish Health Promoting Schools Unit, member of the Advisory Group to the National Programme for Improving Mental Health and Wellbeing, and Temporary Adviser to the WHO Centre for Urban Health.

Professor Ray Hudson Director, Wolfson Research Institute and Professor of Geography at the University of Durham.
Trained as a political-economic geographer, Professor Hudson holds the degrees of BA, PhD and DSc from the University of Bristol and an Honorary DSc from Roskilde University. He is the author or editor of 20 published books, 60 refereed journal articles and over 50 book chapters. His most recent books are: Producing Places (Guildford, 2001); Placing the Social Economy (with Amin and Cameron, Routledge, 2002); Economic Geographies, (Sage, 2005). He has been Vice-President, Chair of Conference 2000 and Chair of the Research Division, of the Royal Geographical Society, 19992004 and was President of the Geography Section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 2002. He is currently an elected Fellow of the British Academy, an elected Academician of the Academy of Learned Societies for the Social Sciences and, until recently, was a member of the Economic and Social Research Council Training and Development Board and Specialist Advisor to the

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Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

Professor Stephen Platt Director, Research Unit in Health, Behaviour and Change University of Edinburgh Professor Stephen Platt is Director of the Research Unit in Health, Behaviour and Change (RUHBC) at the University of Edinburgh. Previously he was Director of Research and Evaluation at the Health Education Board for Scotland and senior non-clinical scientist in two Medical Research Council units (Medical Sociology and Epidemiological Studies in Psychiatry). Trained in sociology and social policy, Stephen has conducted research using theoretical, conceptual and methodological tools from other disciplines, including psychiatry, economics and epidemiology. His current research interests include: social and cultural aspects of suicidal behaviour; evaluation of complex interventions for health improvement and reduction of health inequalities; smoking and socio-economic disadvantage; investigating the health impact of organisational change and restructuring; and supporting practice and policy development relating to public health. For nearly 30 years Stephen has pursued a research interest in mental health and suicidal behaviour, co-authoring many academic books and articles on social, epidemiological and cultural aspects of suicide and deliberate self-harm. He served on the planning group which developed the consultation draft of Choose Life, A National Strategy and Action Plan to Prevent Suicide in Scotland and recently led a research team which conducted an evaluation of the first phase of Choose Life. Stephen is also involved in policy development and analysis relating to public mental health and mental health improvement. He was one of the authors of With Health in Mind (2002), an influential publication which helped to shift the debate about mental health in Scotland from the treatment of mental ill-health (service agenda) to the promotion of positive mental well-being in the community (public mental health agenda). Stephen is a member of the National Advisory Group to the Scottish Executives National Programme for Improving Mental Health and Wellbeing. Professor Sarah Cunningham-Burley Co-Director, Centre for Research on Families and Relationships University of Edinburgh Sarah Cunningham-Burley is Professor of Medical and Family Sociology at the University of Edinburgh, where she has worked since 1990. She is based in the Division of Community Health Sciences (Public Health Sciences section) within the College of Medicine and

Veterinary Medicine and also at the Centre for Research on Families and Relationships (CRFR), where she is one of its co-directors. She has been conducting research in the sociology of health and illness and family sociology for many years, mostly employing qualitative methods. Her research interests include young people, children and health; families, relationships and health, sociological aspects of genetics and health; public engagement in science. She has recently conducted research on the experience of young people affected by parental substance misuse and also on the experiences of caring and providing amongst mothers on low income (both funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation). She is also involved in teaching undergraduate medical students and postgraduate public health research students; she also supervises several PhD students. Professor Lindsay Paterson Professor of Educational Policy University of Edinburgh Professor Paterson has written on many aspects of the sociology of education in particular on the effects of social disadvantage and on the expansion of higher education and he has written widely on Scottish politics and culture. He is Editor of the quarterly journal Scottish Affairs. Professor Stephanie Young Senior Director, Skills & Learning Scottish Enterprise Glasgow Professor Young has worked for Scottish Enterprise Glasgow, Scotlands largest regional economic development agency, since 1998. Her work on learning and skills encompasses a broad range of learning futures; worklessness and workforce development issues including: the development of a new strategy; Modern Apprenticeships; leading the National and Glasgow Construction Skills Action Plan, and wider efforts on behalf of Scottish Enterprise to develop the construction industry. Previously she led the development of the Skills Strategy for the Clyde shipyards and Scotlands Literacy and Numeracy Strategy. She is currently working on joint projects with Scottish Parliament Futures Forum, the OECD and with a range of partners through the EU 6th Framework Research Programme. She is a member of the Scottish Construction Forum; Glasgow Employers Coalition; CRAD&LL; Glasgow Welfare to Work Forum; a member of the Steering Group for the DWP City Strategy and NEET Action Plan; and a Board member of the Scottish Network

for Able Pupils (SNAP).


Stephanie is a graduate of Edinburgh and Leicester

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Universities, a Visiting Professor at the University of Glasgow and a Fellow of the RSA. She began her career working as a Marketing Executive in the knitwear industry, and in 1986 moved into the field of economic development. Her current interests include learning futures, the role of cultural innovators, personalisation and co-creation in learning and the writing of a book on Adam Smith.

research post with the Medical Research Council in The Gambia, West Africa. On returning to the UK he completed a period of training in public health, after which he was appointed to the post of Director of Health Promotion with The Greater Glasgow Health Board. In 1994 Phil moved to become a Senior Lecturer in Public Health at the University of Glasgow and was promoted to Professor in 1999. Between January 2001 and April 2003 Phil undertook a secondment to establish the Public Health Institute of Scotland. Current research interest include culture and health, uses of integrated public health data and evaluation of complex public health interventions.

Councillor Steven Purcell Leader of Glasgow City Council Steven Purcell was elected Leader of Glasgow City Council in May 2005 (age 32). Since becoming Leader, Councillor Purcell has changed the citys focus toward social renewal and economic growth, with education and getting people into work a key feature of his leadership. He has helped deliver a 1 billion reform of public services within Glasgow, bringing together various agencies and 6000 staff to improve local services. This initiative covers economic development, health improvement, tackling worklessness and community safety. Councillor Purcell lives in his native Yoker in Glasgow. David Webster Development and Regeneration Services Glasgow City Council David Webster studied Economics at Queens College, Cambridge and Management at the University of Glasgow, and is a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Housing and an Honorary Senior Research Fellow in the Department of Urban Studies, University of Glasgow. He has worked at the Board of Trade, London School of Economics, London Boroughs Association and Centre for Environmental Studies, and is currently Housing Strategy Manager with Glasgow City Council. He has published widely on housing, labour market and urban regeneration issues and been an adviser to the House of Commons Environment, Social Security and Scottish Affairs Committees. Professor Phil Hanlon Professor of Public Health University of Glasgow Phil Hanlon was educated in the West of Scotland and graduated in medicine from Glasgow University in 1978. Following a period when he gained clinical experience in adult medicine and general practice, he took up a

Professor Mike Kelly Public Health Excellence Centre Director National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Professor Mike Kelly is Director of the Centre of Public Health Excellence at NICE. He originally graduated in Social Science from the University of York, holds a Masters degree in Sociology from the University of Leicester, and undertook his PhD in the Department of Psychiatry in the University of Dundee. Before joining the new NICE, he was Director of Evidence and Guidance at the Health Development Agency. Professor Kelly has held posts at the Universities of Leicester, Dundee, Glasgow, Greenwich and Abertay. He now has an honorary chair in the Department of Public Health and Policy at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London. Professor Kelly is a medical sociologist with research interests in evidence based approaches to health improvement, methodological problems in public health research, coronary heart disease prevention, chronic illness, disability, physical activity, health inequalities, social identity and community involvement in health promotion.

Alf Young Assistant Editor The Herald Alf Young is assistant editor at The Herald, responsible for comment and analysis. He also writes three regular columns each week for the paper on business, economics and politics. He has been a journalist for nearly thirty years, having previously been a teacher, lecturer and political researcher. Originally from Greenock he is chairman of Riverside Inverclyde, the urban regeneration company on the Lower Clyde and a season ticket holder at Greenock Morton, now promoted to Division One of the Scottish Football League.

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Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

APPENDIX TWO PARTICIPANT LIST


Mr Doug Adams Greater Glasgow & Clyde Health Board Glasgow Dr Syed Ahmed Consultant in Public Health Medicine and Clinical Director, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Glasgow Ms Rosie Anderson Glasgow Mr Ian Appleton Architect Edinburgh +Sir John Arbuthnott MRIA FRSE Chairman, Greater Glasgow NHS Board Glasgow Mr Stewart Asken Manager, Rough Sleepers Initiative Hamilton Mr Ian Baillie The Mungo Foundation Glasgow Mrs Maureen Bain Student, University of Paisley Paisley Mr Hamish Battye Head of Planning and Health Improvement SE CHCP, Glasgow Mrs Eileen Baxendale Castlemilk Community Church Glasgow Mr W Beattie Justice of Peace Kilbarchan Mr Keir Bloomer Chief Executive, Clackmannanshire Council Clackmannanshire
* Denotes Speaker / + Denotes Chairman

Dr Graham Blount Parliamentary Officer, SCPO Edinburgh Miss Evelyn Borland Head of Planning and Health Improvement, North Glasgow CHCP Glasgow Mr Jim Boyle Programme Coordinator Oxfam UK Poverty Programme Glasgow Miss Biba Brand Regional Manager, Scottish Drugs Forum Glasgow Mr Jack Brannan Retired Kinloch Rannoch Mrs Maureen Brogan J & P Brogan Glasgow Rev David Brown Priest, All Saints Church Glasgow Mr Paul Brown Principal Solicitor, Brown & Co Solicitors at Legal Services Agency Ltd Glasgow Ms Anne Bryce Project Lead ISPI NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Glasgow Ms Vicki Bryson Head of Client Services, Nation 1 Glasgow Revd Mary Buchanan Ecumenical Officer, United Reformed Church Glasgow

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Sister Ann Buckeridge Daughter of Charity of St Vincent De Paul Easterhouse Miss Grace Buckley Justice and Peace Commision, Archdiocese of Glasgow Mrs Lisa Bullen Planning Manager, Communities Scotland Glasgow Ms Annie Campbell Project Manager, The Mungo Foundation Glasgow Ms Louise Carlin Scotland Country Programme Manager Oxfam UK Poverty Programme Glasgow Mrs Anita Carnochan Teacher, North Lanarkshire Council North Lanarkshire Mr John Carnochan Violence Reduction Unit, Strathclyde Police Glasgow Sister Eileen Cassidy Sisters of Notre Dame Glasgow Revd Alastair Cherry Moderator, The Presbytery of Glasgow Glasgow Sister Margaret Clark Sisters of Notre Dame Glasgow Mrs Jennifer Clement Vice-Convenor, Church and Society, ACTS Inglewood, Alloa Professor John Coggins FRSE Vice-Principal for Life Sciences and Medicines University of Glasgow Glasgow

Dr Graham Connelly Senior Lecturer, University of Strathclyde Glasgow +The Most Rev M J Conti FRSE Archbishop of Glasgow, The Curial Offices Glasgow Mr Ronnie Convery Archdiocesan Director of Communications Glasgow Mr David Conway CPHM, Information Services Edinburgh Mr Dan Coughlan Weaver Barmulloch Dr Frank Craig Business Adviser, Institute for Enterprise Glasgow Mr Jim Crichton Head of Mental Heatlh, West CHCP Modular Building, Gartnavel Royal Museum Glasgow *Professor Sarah Cunningham-Burley Co-Director, Centre for Research on Families and Relationships, University of Edinburgh Edinburgh Sister Helen Darragh Secretary Glasgow Mr Alan Davidson Principal Officer, Glasgow City Council Glasgow Mr Steven Davies Funding and Strategy Manager GeDC Ltd Greater Easterhouse Development Company Ltd Easterhouse Ms Pam Dawson Scottish Centre for Regeneration Glasgow

* Denotes Speaker / + Denotes Chairman

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Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

Mrs Kathleen Deacon Development Co-ordinator Glasgow Homelessness Network Glasgow Mr John Dickie Head, Child Poverty Action Group in Scotland Glasgow Mrs Caroline Dicks Community Regeneration Manager Communties Scotland Glasgow Ms Amanda Dobbratz SRC President, Glasgow School of Art Students Association Glasgow Rev William Donnelly Parish Priest, St Andrews Church Bearsden Mrs Margaret Doran Depute Director Glasgow City Council Education Services Glasgow Mr Bob Dow Chairperson, Educational Institute of Scotland Glasgow Dr William Duncan Chief Executive, The Royal Society of Edinburgh Edinburgh Mr Paul Ede Student Whiteinch Ms Pauline Edmiston Co-ordinator, Transformation Team Glasgow Mr James Egan Head of Policy and Practice, Scottish Drugs Forum Glasgow Ms Jackie Erdman Inequalities Manager, GC and C NHS Glasgow
* Denotes Speaker / + Denotes Chairman

Ms Gillian Forrester Support Worker, The Lilias Graham Trust, Stirling Miss Claire Frew Development Coordinator Glasgow Homelessness Network Glasgow Dr Hildebrand Frey Senior Lecturer, University of Strathclyde Glasgow Ms Frances Gallagher Education Improvement Service, Education Services, Glasgow City Council Glasgow Miss Lesleyanne Gemmill Area Manager, Rough Sleepers Initiative Hamilton Dr Paul Gilfillan Research Fellow, University of Glasgow Glasgow Mr David Gilmour Finance Director, Anniesland College Glasgow Dr David Gordon Head of Public Health Observatory Division NHS Health Scotland Glasgow Mr Kenny Gormal Development Officer Development and Regenerations Services, Glasgow City Council Glasgow Cllr Irene Graham Councillor, Glasgow City Council Glasgow Mr Andrew Grant Managing Director, Nation 1 Glasgow Dr Linsay Gray Research Associate, MRC Social and Public Science Unit Glasgow

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Mrs Elizabeth Guest Edinburgh Mr Andrew Guest Edinburgh Ms Honor Hania Duntocher *Professor Phil Hanlon Professor in Public Health Public Health Institute of Scotland, University of Glasgow Mr Thomas Harrigan Inter-faith Liaison, Glasgow City Council Glasgow Sister Phylliis Hoey Kirkintilloch Miss Shona Honeyman Senior Development Officer Glasgow City Council Glasgow *Professor Ray Hudson Director Wolfson Research Insitute, University of Durham Durham Ms Frances Hume Training Development FICS Glasgow Mr Neil Hunter Joint General Manager, Glasgow Addiction Services, Glasgow Ms Isla Hyslop Head of OD, Gartnavel Royal Hospital Glasgow Dr Helene Irvine Consultant in Public Health NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Glasgow Dr Lewis Johnman CBE TD Retired Medical Practitioner Straven
* Denotes Speaker / + Denotes Chairman

Mr Iain Johnston Development Worker, Parish Development Fund, Church of Scotland Edinburgh Ms Martina Johnston-Gray Development Co-ordinator Learning Glasgow Homelessness Network Glasgow Rev Dr Martin Johnstone Executive Director, Faith in Community (Scotland) Glasgow Mrs Lorraine Judge GOALS Director, GOALS PROJECT University of Paisley Paisley Mr Edmund Jurczyk Glasgow Sister Lilias Clare Kane Bon-Secours de Paris Langside *Professor Mike Kelly Public Health Excellence Director National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Glasgow Mr Jim Kelly The Mungo Foundation Glasgow Mr Peter Kelly Director Poverty Alliance Glasgow Mr John Kerr Chairman of GEDC Ltd Greater Easterhouse Development Company Easterhouse Ms Cath Krawczyk Project Co-ordinator ISPI NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Glasgow

28

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

Mrs Sally Kuenssberg Board Member, NHS Glasgow Dr Maggie Lachlan Consultant in Public Health NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde Glasgow Mrs Elizabeth Lambie Teacher, Hermitage Academy Helensburgh Mr Mark Langdon Comm Action Worker, Ruchill Youth Project Glasgow Mr Neil Langhorn Social Inclusion and Anti-poverty Strategy Team Leader, Scottish Executive Edinburgh Mr David Liddell Director, Scottish Drugs Forum Glasgow Ms Catherine Lynch The Lilias Graham Trust Stirling Dr Gerry McCartney Spr Public Health NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Glasgow Dr Allyson McCollam Chief Executive, SDC FOR MH Edinburgh Ms Cathy McCormack Glasgow Dr Richard McCready National Secretary, Justice and Peace Scotland Glasgow Miss Marie McCusker All Saints Church Glasgow +Professor Jan McDonald FRSE Vice-President, The Royal Society of Edinburgh
* Denotes Speaker / + Denotes Chairman

Ms Joanne McGarry Project Lead ISPI Greater Glasgow and Clyde NHS Glasgow Rev Jim McGarry Team Leader, RC Parishes Easterhouse Glasgow Mrs Kathleen McGill Health Improvement Stobhill and Inequalities Manager Glasgow Mrs Anne Marie McGill Service Manager, Gartnavel Royal Hospital Glasgow Miss Janie McGraw Teacher, St Stephens Primary School Glasgow Ms Debbie McGuire The Pheonix Car Company Ltd Paisley Mr Paul McKearnon Support Worker, The Lilias Graham Trust Stirling Mr Alan McKell Professional Associate, The Craighead Institute Glasgow Sister Julia P. McLoughlin Retired Teacher Glasgow Karyn McLuskey Violence Reduction Unit, Strathclyde Police Glasgow Sister Maura McMonamon Sisters of Notre Dame Glasgow Mrs Karen McMurrich Director, McMurrich Associates Glasgow

29

20 February 2007

Mr James McNair Steering Group, Hope 2008 Milngavie Mr Alastair D. McNeill NHS Stirling Mr George McSorley Chief Executive, Unity Enterprise Glasgow Mrs Linda McTavish Principal, Anniesland College Glasgow Mrs Laura Macdonald Research Assistant, MRC: Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Glasgow Professor Sally Macintyre FRSE Director, MRC Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow Ms Jill Mackay Project Manager, Ruchill Youth Project Glasgow Miss Flora Mackenzie Principal Officer, Regional Office, Crossreach Glasgow Mrs Sally Mackenzie National Coordinator, The Poverty Alliance Glasgow Miss Janice MacNamara Resettlement/Outreach, Rough Sleepers Initiative Hamilton Ms Helen MacNeil Chief Executive, GCVS Glasgow Miss Jean Macphail Retired Nurse Hawick

Miss Agnes Malone Trustee, St Nicholas Care Trust Archdiocese of Glasgow Bishopbriggs Mr Cairns Mason Stirling Mr Noel Mathias Strategy Officer, Faith in the Community Glasgow Rev John Matthews Parish Minister Glasgow Mr Peter Matthews PhD Researcher Department of Urban Studies University of Glasgow Glasgow Professor Keith Millar Psychological Medicine, University of Glasgow Glasgow Ms Bridget Cowan Millar Head of Strategic Management (Childrens Services), Social Services, Glasgow City Council Glasgow *Very Rev. John Miller Castlemilk East Parish Church Glasgow Mr Andy Milne Chief Executive, Ibrox Business Park, Scottish Urban Regeneration Forum Glasgow Mrs Margaret Moore Gha (SST) Team Manager Communities Scotland Glasgow Mrs Margaret Morris Project Coordinator, CEIS Glasgow Mrs Cath Morrison Chief Executive, The Lilias Graham Trust Stirling

* Denotes Speaker / + Denotes Chairman

30

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

Rev Leslie Morrison Chairman, Scottish Churches Housing Action Edinburgh Mr Alan Muir Assistant Editor, Kirkintilloch Herald Series and Glasgow East News Townhead Ms Una Munro Senior Service Manager, The Mungo Foundation Glasgow Sister Teresa OByrne Pastoral (Parish) Castlemilk Mr Michael ODonnell Social Work Glasgow Ms Dana Odwyer Chief Executive, The Mungo Foundation Glasgow Miss Aileen OGorman Physio Manager, Shettleston H/C Glasgow Miss Lindsey OHare Occupational Therapist, Parkview Resource Centre Glasgow Ms Maureen ONeill Craig Project Lead (ISPI), ISPI Team Glasgow *Professor Michael Pacione Chair of Geography University of Strathclyde Glasgow Giovanna Pacitti Support Worker, The Lilias Graham Trust Stirling Mr John Bruce Park Lord Dean of Guild, The Merchants House of Glasgow Glasgow

Mr Iain Paterson Principal Officer (Policy and Planning) Service Modernisation, Glasgow City Council Glasgow *Professor Lindsay Paterson Professor of Educational Policy University of Edinburgh Edinburgh Ms Kirsteen Paton PhD Researcher Department of Urban Studies, Glasgow University Glasgow Miss Amanda Paul NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde Glasgow Mrs Pauline Petrie Professional Associate, The Craighead Institute Clarkston Glasgow *Professor Stephen Platt Director Research Unit in Health, Behaviour and Change, University of Edinburgh Edinburgh Mr John Price Retired Eaglesham Ms Amanda Pringle Manager, Drumchapel Law and Advice Centre Glasgow *Councillor Steven Purcell Glasgow City Council Glasgow Mr Pat Quinn Researcher, CEIS Glasgow David Rankin Research Unit in Health, Behaviour and Change, University of Edinburgh Edinburgh

* Denotes Speaker / + Denotes Chairman

31

20 February 2007

Miss Sue Rawcliffe Director of Policy, GCVS Glasgow Ms Gail Reid Secondary Services Manager Glasgow Addiction Services Glasgow Professor Margaret Reid Public Health, University of Glasgow Glasgow Professor J S Richardson FRSE Emeritus Professor of Classics Department of Classics, University of Edinburgh Edinburgh Ms Caroline Ritchie Educational Institute of Scotland Glasgow Mr Mick Rodgers Group Manager, Glasgow City Council Glasgow Dr Finn Romanes SpR in Public Health, NHS Lanarkshire Hamilton Deacon Lewis Rose National Co-ordinator Scottish Churches Ind. Mission Blackburn +Sir Muir Russell FRSE Principal and Vice-Chancellor University of Glasgow Mr Ronnie Saez Chief Executive of GEDC Ltd Greater Easterhouse Development Company Ltd Easterhouse Ms Eeva Sarkkinen Development Co-ordinator Glasgow Homelessness Network Glasgow Rev Dr Norman Shanks Minister, Govan Old Parish Church Glasgow
* Denotes Speaker / + Denotes Chairman

Professor Em Adrian Sinfield Edinburgh Mr Austin Smith Development Co-ordinator Glasgow Homelessness Network Glasgow Mr Peter Smith Archdiocese of Glasgow Glasgow Dr Stephen Smyth Ecumenical Officer, Glasgow Churches Together Glasgow Mr Ian Spittal Project Manager, The Mungo Foundation Glasgow Ms Laurel Stevens Training Officer ISPI NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Glasgow Mrs Geraldine Strickland Non-Executive Director, NHS Borders Mr Ian Stuart West Dunbartonshire Mrs Fiona Stuart Chair of Tullochan Trust West Dunbartonshire Rev Joseph Sullivan RC Priest, St Philips Glasgow Sister Dorothea Sweeney Sisters of Notre Dame Glasgow Mr Gerry Sweeny Sports Development Coach, Ruchill Youth Project Ruchill *Dr Carol Tannanhill Director, Glasgow Centre for Population Health Glasgow

32

Glasgows People: Transcending Poverties

Miss Alison Teyhan Research Assistant MRC: Social and Public Health Sciences Unit Glasgow Mr David Thomson Associate Pastor, Destiny Church Glasgow Mr Vincent Toal Editor, Flourish Newspaper Glasgow Dr Joy Tomlinson Public Health, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Glasgow Professor Ivan Turok Professor, Department of Urban Studies University of Glasgow Glasgow Mr Fred Twine Retired Pollockshields Mr David Walsh Info Manager Glasgow Centre for Population Health Level 6 Glasgow *Mr David Webster Development and Regeneration Services Glasgow City Council Glasgow Mr Andrew Whittet Transformation Team Glasgow Mr Bruce Whyte Information Manager Glasgow Centre for Population Health Level 6 Glasgow Mr Derek Williams Scotland Manager, Joseph Rowntree Foundation York Mrs Janet Wilson Local Alliances Officer, Ash Scotland Edinburgh
* Denotes Speaker / + Denotes Chairman

*Mr Alf Young Policy Editor, The Herald Glasgow *Professor Stephanie Young Senior Director Employability, Enterprise Glasgow Glasgow

33

The Royal Society of Edinburgh (RSE) is an educational charity, registered in Scotland. Independent and non-party-political, we are working to provide public benefit throughout Scotland and by means of a growing international programme. The RSE has a peer-elected, multidisciplinary Fellowship of 1400 men and women who are experts within their fields. The RSE was created in 1783 by Royal Charter for the advancement of learning and useful knowledge. We seek to provide public benefit in todays Scotland by:

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