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Code No: 54107/MT

M.Tech. – I Semester Supplementary Examinations,
September, 2008


(VLSI & Embedded Systems)

Time: 3hours Max. Marks:60

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

1.a) Discuss the importance of ‘Skin effect’ in the design of

interconnects at Radio frequencies.
b) Describe various planar constructions of spiral inductors at high
frequencies listing corresponding merits and demerits.

2.a) Design a single stage tuned amplifier for a minimum gain of 50 at

a center frequency of 75 MHz to drive a purely capacitive load of
10pF. The minimum 3 dB bandwidth of the tuned amplifier
driven from a source 50 Ω resistance should at least be 1 MHz.
Assume a ‘Q’ of 200 for the external inductor at 75 MHz and that
the self oscillating frequency of this inductor is large and can be
neglected. Assume all the parameters necessary for the design.
b) List various characteristics significant in the operation of RF

3.a) Describe the theory behind measurement of phase noise in a

voltage controlled oscillator circuit.
b) Write a brief note on microstrip resonators.

4.a) Draw the block diagram of a phase locked loop and briefly explain
the purpose of each of its blocks in PLL functioning.
b) Suggest the modifications in a classic PLL frequency synthesizer to
implement a fractional – N type frequency synthesizer.

5.a) Elaborate the concept of radiation, along with the performance

merits and design constraints, from a microstrip patch antenna.
b) Design a microstrip patch antenna for any assumed set of
specifications for inputs and outputs.

Code No: 54107/MT ::2::

6.a) Detail various microstrip configurations possible to construct

filters at microwave frequencies.
b) Compare and contrast commensurate line and stepped-z-type
microstrip filters in all aspects.

7.a) With the help of suitable circuit diagram, explain the operation of a
class B power amplifier to deliver RF power to a load. Derive an
expression for maximum conversion efficiency.
b) Discuss the demerits of a class B amplifier and suggest necessary
modifications to overcome the disadvantages of using it.

8. Write short notes on the following:

(a) Measurements using time domain reflectometers
(b) Design of a FM demodulator at Radio frequencies.