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INTRODUCTION

The Development in Science & technology has brought tremendous change in business strategy. The globalization has its own inspect on the industrial environment making it competitive. Hence, to survive in the market the Captains of the industries perforce have to keep themselves addressed with changing environment and adopt new techniques of their resource management. The human resource in any organization is not important but Valuable to any organization. This significant resource. Warrant due consideration executives and managers right from the beginning. They have to take into account organizational deployment and adopt new strategies for recruitment of the best talent available. The talent available in the marketing is plenty but requirement is to recruit a suitable talent as per the job requirement and the requirement of the organization. The different organ may choose their own systems but the and result by selecting the best will go a long way to fulfill the organizational goals. The function of Human Resource Executive/Personnel managers does not end merely at selection stage rather it begins from that step because the talent so selected is required to be developed to fulfill the organizational interest or the goals so that there is an overall prosperity of both the organization & the individual. Towards this end the importance of recruitment & selection of the desired talent enhances the potential and opportunity for the organizations to and achieve its objectives.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The success and failure of the organization largely depends on the human or employees working in the organization. So recruitment and selection both are very important and they are concerned with obtaining, organizing, and motivating the human resources required by the enterprise. Research was carried out to understand the practices of recruitment and selection followed by ABC ltd, Rajpura. To understand the formulation of recruitment and selection policies in the company and to give the suggestions for improvement in recruitment and selection procedures currently followed by the company. Through this report I was also able to understand, recruitment is sometimes confused with employment. The two are not one and the same. Recruitment is just one step in the process of employment. Similarly recruitment and selection are also different in nature. The function of recruitment precedes the selection process. Recruitment is concerned with developing suitable techniques for attracting more and more candidates while selection is the process of finding out the most suitable candidate for the job.

ABOUT THE COMPANY Introduction


Amrit Banaspati Company Ltd., a Company that is Synonymous with purity and goodness, is poised on the threshold of the new millennium today. In a country as diverse as India, nature has showered her best, in full measure. Amrit Banaspati Company has stayed close to roots nature. Its special understanding of nature and ties ways have enabled it to grow from vanaspati Company to a multi-product organization producing a whole range of edible oils and fats. Today ABC ltd has installed Capacity of 10,000 metric tons per month as compared to mere 3,000 metric per month in its first years of operations. This stupendous growth has been possible because Amrit Banaspati Company Ltd., has continuously endeavored to bring new products to the Indian consumer and to that end its Research and Development Played a key Role.

Company Profile
Amrit Banaspati Company Ltd., Rajpura is an ISO 9001-2001 certified company. It has an history of five decades in business of edible oil product. Today, it is one of the largest manufacturing unit of edible oil products. Today, it is one of the largest manufacturing unit of edible oil in the country. Its main brands are 1) Ginni 2) Gagan 3) Bansari 4) Suntieri teer 5) Merrigold and Sunflower Oil Which are very popular and virtually common household names in various parts of the country. In terms of turnover ABC Ltd., Rajpura has been sated amongst 100 companies of India. Late Shari Laxmi Narian Bajaj set up Amrit Banaspati Company Ltd. in Years 1940. It Was Ninth Company of the country established in Banaspati Industry. These are 475 Department and about 250 contract Laborers The main Branches that are under Amrit Group are :a) Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, Ghaazibad (U.P) b) Amrit Paper Sailkhurd, Hosiarpur (Punjab) c) Amrit Banaspati Company limited, Rajpura (Punjab)

a) Amrit Banaspati Company Limited, Ghaazibad (U.P) :In Ghaazibad, Amrit Banaspati Company Has a Corporate Office . b) Amrit Paper Sailkhurd, Hosiarpur (Punjab):One of the leading produces of the print paper in the country. The Production capacity from 10,000 meters in 1980 apprx. 24,000 meters at present. c) Amrit Banaspati Company limited, Rajpura (Punjab) :The Company made a humble beginning in 1969 with inauguration of stone lying ceremony by H.E. Dr D.C PAVETTE , Governer of Punjab on 6th march 1969. The unit the Capacity of 100 metres per day of Banaspati (Hydrogenated

Vegetable oil) which has now increased to 450 metre per day. The Success Saga of ABC Ltd, Rajpura can be best described as an enterprise that has evolved from Single to multi product Company. Its turn over is 800 crore p.a approximately.

Company Products
Amrit Banaspati Company Ltd, Rajpura is producing different products and various types of refined oils and fats. ABC Ltd has Introduced a Range of Refined oils namely, Groundnut, cottonseed, mustard ands sunflower products are : 1) Gagan Vanaspati 2) Bansari Refined Vegetable Oil 3) Ginni Refined Sunflower oil 4) Ginni Refined cottonseed oil 5) Marigold Bread Spread 6) Sunheri Teer Vanaspati 7) Ginni Refined Groundnut Oil 8) Gagan Rice 9) Gagan Salt Beside these ABC ltd also produce BAKERY SHORTENINGS and CONFECTIONERY FATS AND OILS. among other products. During 2005-09 company has launched Soya Products named GINNI CHUNKS AND GAGANGOLD.

Vision And Mission


The company aims at successfully meeting the varied needs of the Indian consumers. The Company has continuously Endeavored to bring new products to the Indian Consumer the Company stayed close to its roots nature and it has been a platform for its success for several years. Mission Statement The mission statement of Amrit Banaspati Co. ltd. Rajpura is To produce and sell goods and service to achieve the highest return on sales in the Industry to total satisfaction of customers , employees and Share holders in that order. Quality Rajpura Branch of ABC ltd has a good Quality control system together with Research and Development which is comparable to its best in the Industry. It is to the Credit of its good Quality Control system and efficient R and D Department, that ABC Ltd, Rajpura has been honoured and awarded .THE AMERICAN INTERNATIONAL QUALITY CERTIFICATE AND GOLD MEDAL.

Various Slogans Used By Company


- GAGAN RAHO MAGAN--- Banaspati
-KHAO THE OIL TODAY FOR THE WOMEN OF TODAY Cotton Seed Oil.

-THE COMPLETE OIL FOR A OMPLETE FAMILY Sunflower oil -IT TAKES ON THE FLAVOUR OF FOODGroundnut oil -AS PURE AS MOTHERS LOVE Mustard Oil -ITS NOT BUTTER , ITS BETTER Merritreat Bread Spread

Job satisfaction
Job satisfaction is in regard to one's feelings or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their work. Job satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors, eg, the quality of one's relationship with their supervisor, the quality of the physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their work, etc. Few people claim to be happy workers, or satisfied with their company or job. Since most of our waking hours are spent at work, it is imperative to find out the factors that determine job happiness. Evidently, it is all about the gap between reality and expectations, but the issue is much more complicated than it appears. While job satisfaction is found to be low wherever expectations are very high, most people also believe that they can do better in other organisations. They are haunted by the grass-is-greener syndrome, and find their own work a grind. The key to job happiness is finding the right equation between one's mindset and external factors. This is of particular significance for the Indian IT/ITeS industry where job-hopping is common, notwithstanding the salary hikes and a fairly evolved Human Resource system. Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job an affective reaction to ones job ; and an attitude towards ones job . Weiss (2002) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviours. This definition

suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors

Most experts agree that job happiness is a culmination of both external factors and the individual's mindset. Says Human Resource expert , 'During the initial stages of

a career, work satisfaction gets governed more by the external set of factors such as the workplace environment, benefits, facilities, opportunities to work overseas, compensation, etc, but as one moves along intrinsic factors become more important.' But he concedes that it is more contingent on one's socio-economic background, and the motivation profile which varies from individual to individual. A person's state of mind and external factors cannot be separated. In fact, external factors affect/alter an individual's state of mind to a great extent. Companies need to monitor both, and can use individual mindsets as a barometer of external factors It is obvious that the pay packet is a key to job happiness, particularly in the early stages of one's career when money is the sole motivator. As one climbs the career graph, other factors start gaining equal significance. a large extent

satisfaction/happiness is directly related to the salary. 'If we build a hierarchy of factors for employee satisfaction/happiness, in today's era of consumerism and materialism, salary will form the base of the pyramid.' He asserts that the pay packet continues to be relevant even at later stages as it is consider a yardstick of appreciation. curbing attrition, increasing employee morale and productivity, finding the right job fit, etc. All these factors are directly related to the happiness levels of employees. 'The Human resource department is the custodian of employee satisfaction. It conducts the satisfaction survey and communicates the results to a select/broad population of the company. In companies where Human resource processes are matured, the department suggests remedies for satisfaction improvement and drives various initiatives for it,' says He adds that real success in improving

employee satisfaction will be achieved when the Human resource department can successfully involve middle and top management to implement employee engagement processes and build a transparent, retribution-free culture. Human

resource managers need to be seen as role models for the values professed by the company, and ensure that the leadership walks the talk.

Page notes that though Human resource can play a very important role in ensuring employee empowerment, in most organisations Human resource people are more occupied with carrying out routine activities than engaging themselves in valueadding activities. 'Also, mid-sized organisations have low expectations from Human resource, and often the CEOs themselves are not much aware of the proactive role which Human resource can play.' It is a tough task for today's Human resource department to ensure job satisfaction among staff. Employees are not just happy with a fat pay cheque, a good position and perks; they also want a constant feeling of well-being, demand better work/life balance, and look to the organisation for fulfilling even their community needs.

History
One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity called the Hawthorne Effect It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction. Scientific management also had a significant impact on the study of job

satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylors 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific

management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylors work. Some argue that Maslows hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories.

Job satisfaction refers to the general attitude of employees towards their jobs. Job satisfaction probably is the most widest studied variable in OB. When the attitude of an employee towards his or her job is positive, there exists job satisfaction. Dissatisfaction exists when the attitude negative Job satisfaction often is a collection of attitudes about specific factors of the job. Employee can be satisfied with some elements of the job while simultaneously dissatisfied with others for example; a lecturer may be satisfied with the management of the institution but may derive dissatisfaction while handling a course on OB in the class. Different types of satisfaction will lead to different intentions and behavior. An employee might complain to the supervisor when satisfied with low pay but not with co-worker satisfaction. Job satisfaction is important for management as it has impact on turnover, productivity, absenteeism and other related aspects

REVIEW OF JOB SATISFACTION


Frederick Herzberg, in (1986) Job satisfaction, its causal factors and its effect upon organisational health are all part of the various factors under study for this assignment. Job satisfaction for an individual can be influenced by a number of factors that include first the job itself, the salary, the promotion policy of the company, the attitudes of the co workers, the physical and mental stress levels involved, the working conditions, the interest and challenge levels. These various factors are just indicative of the many factors that contribute or take away from job satisfaction. Sometimes, even changing the colour of the furniture fabric can lead to higher levels of job satisfaction. While job satisfaction is not quite the same as motivation the two are closely linked and many times motivating actions also increase satisfaction levels. Most organisations periodically measure job satisfaction among employees Human Resource mainly quantitative techniques using rating scales. Numerous research studies on job satisfaction and reasons thereof have, as the following excerpts shows, ended in a number of very interesting findings, We view job satisfaction as emerging from a variety of factors, including characteristics of the organizational environment, specific features of the job, and the personal characteristics of the worker. Higher job satisfaction has been linked with employees who are able to exercise autonomy Sekaran (1989) and with those who have a higher level of job involvement Mortimer and Lorence (1989). Women have been found to report significantly higher job satisfaction than men Hull (1999); Sousa-Poza and Sousa-Poza( 2000), although this gender gap appears to be narrowing (Rose 2005). Some researchers have noted that older workers tend to have a higher level of job satisfaction, although a number of studies have shown that the age variable might be more a proxy for experience Janson and Martin

(1982); Kalleberg and Loscocco (1983); Brush, Moch et al. (1987). Older workers also tend to be situated in higher-level positions, which might be more fulfilling than the less exciting entry-level positions of those just entering the work Danziger and Dunkle,( 2005) Literature review of the subject issue with a discussion on current thinking on motivation and job satisfaction and then move to allied topics like the use of IT in work places, the problems associated with bullying in the workplace and how tweaking of job characteristics can increase motivation in the workplace, in order to get a firmer handle on the many perplexing variables. 1. Current Thinking in Employee Motivation Any discourse in workplace satisfaction and employee motivation needs to necessarily start with Maslows theory of hierarchical needs. Abraham Maslow proposed his hierarchical theory of five important needs more than 60 years back, in 1943. The theory gained ground over the years and because of its innate logic became widely accepted and part of compulsory reading for every management student and Human resource professional. Over the years it has been questioned, analysed and thought by later thinkers to be inadequate in certain respects but there is no denying its basic merit in understanding human and employee behaviour in the workplace. His basic premise concerns the meeting of human needs which progressively move up the value chain as simpler and more basic needs are met. Maslows theory opines that humans have five progressive sets of needs, the first set being purely physical needs, also called physiological needs. These include all the needs a person needs just to stay alive like food, water, air, the maintenance of body temperature and the necessity of voiding of natural human waste. It is only when this basic need set is satisfied that the next set of needs will be thought of for satisfaction.

The five need sets are in sequential order are physiological needs, safety and security needs, love and belonging needs, status and prestige needs and actualisation needs. Humans work to satisfy these needs and as people and societies move up in life their need sets also change. This is true of all people situations, individually, in progressively larger groups and could apply to whole countries as well. Growth of the individual or group causes the needs to shift upwards whereas the opposite cause a downward movement in need fulfillment desire. The other need sets can of course be broken up further, similar to what was shown for physiological needs. Thus safety needs can be broken up into physical safety, family security, monetary security and employment security and love and belonging needs can be broken up into parental love, love between partners, siblings and children. It is easy to understand why these needs were classified as hierarchical, with physiological needs at the base and actualisation needs at the apex of a hierarchical pyramid. Between esteem and self-actualization needs was added Need to know and understand, which explains the cognitive need of the academic The need for aesthetic beauty, which is the emotional need of the artist Self-actualization was divided into Self-actualization, which is realizing one's own potential, as above. Transcendence, which is helping others to achieve their potential Maslows Hierarchy,( 2006) A number of opinions have been voiced on the limitations of Maslows theory and the need to look at the issue from multiple perspectives before accepting a particular position. Maslow's model of human needs is also more true of men's/boys' lives than women's/girls'. Theories such as Maslow's, contribute to inequities when they become a dominant view posing as truth or portraying reality when alternate

theories and critiques of theories are disregarded. Such a treatment of theories can contribute to cultural as well as gender inequities. A white, western male viewpoint evidenced in many psycho social theories cannot help us understand other cultures. For instance, Maslow and Kohlberg may not help us to understand Asian, Indian, and First Nations' values regarding moral decision making or hierarchy of needs. Any differences between or within cultures are silenced by considering only one view. When one view dominates, people's experiences that do not fit the model are silenced. Peterat and Fairbanks, (1993) Frederick Herzberg, in (1966), published an article stipulating that two groups of factors ultimately led to job satisfaction and motivation in the work place. Called the two factor theory, Herzbergs postulates stipulated that certain Hygiene factors needed to be present in the workplace to prevent dissatisfaction among employees. These factors were in the nature of basic needs when a person worked and comprised of issues like the job, company, salary, status, security, working conditions, quality of supervision, company policies and administration and interpersonal relations. These were necessary for job satisfaction but not for motivation and their absence would result in dissatisfaction for the employee. Their presence ensures that employees feel encouraged to join as well as to stay on and while not direct motivators do work in preventing demotivation. The Motivation factors are intrinsic to the job content and consist of factors like achievement, recognition, responsibilities, interest in the job, advancement to higher levels and growth. The presence of these factors in an employment situation motivate workers to try for superior performances; their absence may not demotivate them if hygiene factors are strong enough but will not spur them to extraordinary effort levels. Job situations will normally have

combinations of motivation and hygiene factors. The ideal situation would of course be a combination of high motivation and high hygiene factors which is present in very few situations. Similarly the worst scenario of low hygiene and low motivation factors is rare as it would result in demotivated and dissatisfied employees and migration of the work force at the first opportunity. There are a number of companies which have grown over long periods of time with the gradual evolution of hygiene factors whereas rigid rules and bureaucratisation have eliminated or substantially curtailed the motivation factors. In these companies employees stick on for interminable periods getting all benefits but without any incentive to work. On the other hand exciting start ups provide high motivation factors but lesser hygiene elements as the company makes its way towards achieving its goals. In such situations employees will stay on with the company and wait for their aspirations to come true with corresponding improvements in hygiene conditions. Besides the two factor theory, Herzberg is also quite well known for his KITA theory, an acronym for a kick in the . Herzberg feels that the KITA, basically a sign of employer frustration does not really work effectively and ends up in movement rather than real motivation. David McClelland, an American behavioural psychologist who taught at Harvard and Boston, in his book on The Achieving Society in 1961 wrote of Human Resourceee basic human needs which motivated people to strive and succeed. These were the need for achievement, N-Ach, the need for power, N-Pow, and the need for affiliation, N-Aff. These need level would vary from individual to individual and again from society to society. It was inconceivable that each individual would have the same levels for all Human Resource needs, which would vary with the background, society, culture and education of the individual.

McClellands theory came to be known as the Human Resource need theory and is also referred to as the learned needs theory as it stipulates that most of these needs are shaped over time and depend upon the experiences of the particular individual. The results at the workplace depend upon a proper matching of job requirements and putting in a person with high achievement needs in a slot ideal for a person with high affiliation needs is going to result in a mismatch and possible underperformance. People with high affiliation needs, for example, will be ideally suited in co-operative and people environments and tend to do very well in customer service and public relations. The process approach in motivation works on the reasons, how and why people choose certain behaviour to achieve their personal goals. Process theories define in terms of a rational cognitive process and focus on external influences or behaviour that people choose to meet their needs. The two process theories are Vrooms expectancy model and Adams equity theory. Victor Vroom, in 1964, stipulated in his theory of expectancy that The force motivating a person to exert effort or to perform an act in a job situation depends on the interaction between what the individual wants from a job (valence) and the degree to which he/she believes that the company will reward effort exerted (expectancy) on that job with the things he/she wants. Individuals believe that if they behave in a certain way (instrumentality), they will receive certain job features (Vroom, 1982) Vroom, examines the motivation behind why people choose a certain course of action and writes of Human Resource variables, Valence, Expectancy and Instrumentality, which are significant in this context.

Valence is described as the importance an individual places upon the expected outcome of a situation. Expectancy can be said to be the intrinsic belief that output from the individual is linked to the success of the situation Instrumentality is the conviction that the success of the situation is linked to the expected outcome of the situation In the Equity theory Adams argues the people are motivated by inequity and keep on comparing their efforts with that put in by others around them in the workplace as also the rewards being meted out o them. Equity is likened to a perception of fairness involved between efforts and rewards given to co workers in the workplace. A fair situation where all employees are treated equally obviously envisages similar outcomes for similar inputs and if some employees feel that others are being given higher rewards for similar work they will obviously hold back some of their efforts. An employee putting in hard work may see an inefficient and unproductive colleague being rewarded with the same salary and would probably feel demotivated to put in the same level of work continuously. Motivation is thus very difficult without the establishment of fairness in the appraisal and reward process. 2. The Importance of Job Characteristics A proper understanding of Job Characteristics and its application for increasing employee motivation is one of the major objectives of this research assignment. Hackman and Oldham (1976) originally proposed their Job Characteristics Theory as a Human Resource-stage model, in which a set of core job

characteristics impact a number of critical psychological states, which, in turn, influence a set of affective and motivational outcomes. The five actors that make up the first stage are as under. Skill Variety: Employees use a variety of skills to complete their jobs, skills that have been acquired by long years of study and/ or experience and are the primary reason for their employment and work allocation in a business organisation. Task identity: Involvement of the worker in all steps of the job, thus providing identification with the task Task Significance: The significance of the job being properly executed to the well being of the organisation Autonomy: The freedom to do the job with responsibility and by oneself Feedback: The provision of feedback providing information about the excellence of performance of the job 3. Harassment in the Workplace It is estimated that as many as 8-10% of European employees may suffer from exposure to bullying and harassment at work. It prevails in both private and public organisations and finds its victims among men and women alike. Studies also show that exposure to bullying at work is a severe source of stress at work and may be a crippling and devastating problem for those exposed. A victim of bullying at work seems to produce severe emotional reactions such as fear, anxiety, helplessness, depression and shock. It appears to alter the victims perceptions of their work-environment to one of Human Resource danger,

insecurity, and self-questioning, which may result in pervasive emotional, psychosomatic and psychiatric problems. Moral harassment also has negative effects on the organisation and lowers productivity in the workplace.

Bullying refers to all situations where one or more people feel subjected to negative behaviour from others at work over a period of time and in situations where, for different reasons, they are unable to defend themselves against these actions. Typically, a victim is constantly teased, pursued, and insulted and perceives that he or she has little recourse to retaliate in kind. We may distinguish between work-related bullying such as being exposed to unreasonable deadlines, unmanageable workloads or other kinds of behaviour that make the work situation difficult for the victim, and bullying that is primarily related to the person, such as insulting remarks, excessive teasing, gossip and rumours, social isolation and exclusion. This kind of behaviour is common and has been experienced by most people at work from time to time. In actual fact workplace harassment is an omnibus list of unfair and uncalled for persecution in the workplace that can take many forms in its expression and execution. It is not limited to sexual harassment, per se, though sexual harassment is a major component of the harassment that goes on in offices and other establishments, world wide. It could relate to and be caused because of sex, religion, creed, ethnicity, physical appearance or just plain dislike. It is a form of offensive treatment or behaviour, which to a reasonable person creates an intimidating, hostile or abusive work environment. It may be sexual, racial, based on gender, national origin, age, disability, religion or a person's sexual orientation.

It may also encompass other forms of hostile, intimidating, Human Resource atening, humiliating or violent behaviour, which are offensive or intimidatory in nature. Some examples of behaviour, which can be said to definitely constitute moral harassment, are as follows: Even the detailed list of examples of harassment is not exhaustive and perpetrators can constantly think up new ways of tormenting their victims. Harassment can occur in numerous ways, some of which will be obvious but there will be others, quite subtle and difficult to explain. Further examples of harassment are the withholding of information which can affect the victims performance, ignoring views and opinions, setting unreasonable/impossible deadlines, giving unmanageable workloads, humiliating staff in front of others, being shouted at or being the target of spontaneous rage. As such, harassment can take various shapes and forms and can manifest itself in the unlikeliest of situations. There has been extensive research work and study on the issue, some of which reveal that while bullying is a very real problem for a large number of people at work, the extent of bullying appears to be a particular problem in some sectors, For example, a nationwide study of staff in the NHS found that Human Resource in five people have witnessed bullying at work in the past two years. (Unison, 2003) Reports suggest that it is becoming increasingly common the education, police and voluntary sectors. A survey carried out by Staffordshire University in 1997 found that two thirds of members had experienced or witnessed bullying.

4. Improvement of Job Satisfaction Every organization improve the job satisfaction levels of employees as much as possible within their particular constraint and resource allowance. As can be seen from the number of theories, illustrations and conditions, most of which are extremely fluid, there appear to be numerous motivator and demotivators that can improve or reduce satisfaction levels and thereby hurt both motivation and performance. A proper salary and reward system that is beneficial to employees, eminently fair, impartial towards gender or ethnicity and which promises rewards, in terms of money and career progression is the first and foremost requirement for ensuring job satisfaction in the workplace. The provision of a workplace which is co operative and where employees are cherished and wanted is essential for job satisfaction. This requirement is omnibus in many ways and includes the prevention of harassment, involvement of employees in real goal setting, planning, and problem solving, showing respect for diverse ideas and opinions, giving and taking honest and constructive feedback, arranging for mentoring facilities, and sharing as much information as possible with employees An atmosphere at work that continuously works towards employee progression and advancement, in skills and responsibilities, by way of using the full range of employee knowledge and skills by providing opportunities for challenging assignments, considering reassignments so that employee strengths align with position requirements, providing meaningful work with restructuring of positions if necessary and possible, providing public recognition of efforts and achievements, giving employees additional responsibilities and the freedom to

take action, explaining why assignments are important to the accomplishment, providing opportunities to learn new things and supporting developmental assignments and on-the-job training.

FACTOR THAT INFLUENCE JOB SATISFACTION

Sources of job satisfaction

Organisational factors

Work Environment factors

Work Itself

Personal factors

Salaries/wages Age/seniority Promotion chances Tenure Companies policies personality

Supervision

Job scope

Work group

Variety

Working condition

Interesting work

ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS
Salary. The old adage "you get what you pay for" tends to be true when it comes to staff members. Salary is not a motivator for employees, but they do want to be paid fairly. If individuals believe they are not compensated well, they will be unhappy working for you. Consult salary surveys or even your local help-wanted ads to see whether the salaries and benefits you're offering are comparable to those of other offices in your area. In addition, make sure you have clear policies related to salaries, raises and bonuses. Promotion chances :Permotional chances considerably affect the job satisfaction because of following reasons Promotion indicates an employee worth to the organization which is highly morale boosting .this is particularly true in the case of high level job Employee takes promotion as the ultimate achievement in his career and when it is relised, he feel extremely satisfied Promotion involves positive change eg.high salary ,less supervision ,more freedom,more challenging work assignment,increased responsibilities, ststus alike Company and administrative policies. An organization's policies can be a great source of frustration for employees if the policies are unclear or unnecessary or if not everyone is required to follow them. Although employees will never feel a great sense of motivation or satisfaction due to your policies, you can decrease dissatisfaction in this area by making sure your policies are fair and apply equally to all. Also, make printed copies of your policies-and-procedures manual easily accessible to all members of your staff. If you do not have a written manual, create

one, soliciting staff input along the way. If you already have a manual, consider updating it (again, with staff input). You might also compare your policies to those of similar practices and ask yourself whether particular policies are unreasonably strict or whether some penalties a++++ re too harsh. WORK ENVIRONMENT FACTORS Work environment in which the employees have to be worked.in earlier years working environment of the organisations was given least consideration .Employees used to work under adverse working conditions .but the passage of time the work environment also improved.there are some factors relating to the working environment effect the job satisfaction Supervision. To decrease dissatisfaction in this area, you must begin by making wise decisions when you appoint someone to the role of supervisor. Be aware that good employees do not always make good supervisors. The role of supervisor is extremely difficult. It requires leadership skills and the ability to treat all employees fairly. You should teach your supervisors to use positive feedback whenever possible and should establish a set means of employee evaluation and feedback so that no one feels singled out. Interpersonal relations. Remember that part of the satisfaction of being employed is the social contact it brings, so allow employees a reasonable amount of time for socialization (e.g., over lunch, during breaks, between patients). This will help them develop a sense of camaraderie and teamwork. At the same time, you should crack down on rudeness, inappropriate behavior and offensive comments. If an individual continues to be disruptive, take charge of the situation, perhaps by dismissing him or her from the practice.

Working conditions. The environment in which people work has a tremendous effect on their level of pride for themselves and for the work they are doing. Do everything you can to keep your equipment and facilities up to date. Even a nice chair can make a world of difference to an individual's psyche. Also, if possible, avoid overcrowding and allow each employee his or her own personal space, whether it be a desk, a locker, or even just a drawer. If you've placed your employees in close quarters with little or no personal space, don't be surprised that there is tension among them. Before you move on to the motivators, remember that you cannot neglect the hygiene factors discussed above. To do so would be asking for trouble in more than one way. First, your employees would be generally unhappy, and this would be apparent to your patients. Second, your hardworking employees, who can find jobs elsewhere, would leave, while your mediocre employees would stay and compromise your practice's success. So deal with hygiene issues first, then move on to the motivators: Work Group: The nature of work group will have effect on job satisfaction in the following ways A friendly and co_operative group provide opportunities to group members to intract with each other .it serves as a source of support ,comfort, advice and assistant to individual group members.if the people are difficult to get along with ,the work group will have negative impact on job satisfaction WORK ITSELF Perhaps most important to employee motivation is helping individuals believe that the work they are doing is important and that their tasks are

meaningful. Emphasize that their contributions to the practice result in positive outcomes and good health care for your patients. Share stories of success about how an employee's actions made a real difference in the life of a patient, or in making a process better. Make a big deal out of meaningful tasks that may have become ordinary, such as new-baby visits. Of course employees may not find all their tasks interesting or rewarding, but you should show the employee how those tasks are essential to the overall processes that make the practice succeed. You may find certain tasks that are truly unnecessary and can be eliminated or streamlined, resulting in greater efficiency and satisfaction. Job scope: It provide the amount of responsibility,work pace and feed back.The higher the level of these factors,higher the job scope and higher the level of job satisfaction Variety: A moderate amount of variety is very effective. Excessive variety produce confusion and stress and a too little variety cause monotony and fatigue which are dissatisfier Interesting work: A work which is very interesting the challenging and provide status will be providing satisfaction to the employees as compared to work which is boring and monotonous PERSONAL FACTORS Recognition. Individuals at all levels of the organization want to be recognized for their achievements on the job. Their successes don't have to be monumental before they deserve recognition, but your praise should be sincere. If you notice employees doing something well, take the time to acknowledge their good work immediately. Publicly thank them for handling a situation particularly well. Write

them a kind note of praise. Or give them a bonus, if appropriate. You may even want to establish a formal recognition program, such as "employee of the month." Responsibility. Employees will be more motivated to do their jobs well if they have ownership of their work. This requires giving employees enough freedom and power to carry out their tasks so that they feel they "own" the result. As individuals mature in their jobs, provide opportunities for added responsibility. Be careful, however, that you do not simply add more work. Instead, find ways to add challenging and meaningful work, perhaps giving the employee greater freedom and authority as well. Advancement. Reward loyalty and performance with advancement. If you do not have an open position to which to promote a valuable employee, consider giving him or her a new title that reflects the level of work he or she has achieved. When feasible, support employees by allowing them to pursue further education, which will make them more valuable to your practice and more fulfilled professionally. 1. The work group will be even a stronger source of satisfaction when member have similar attitudes and values Age: With age, people become more mature and realistis and less idealistic so that they are willing to accept available resources and rewards and be satisfied about the situation. Tenure: Employees with longer tenure are expected to be highly satisfied with their job.it assure job security, which is highly satisfaction to the employees. They can easily plan for their future without any fear of losing thie jobs. Achievement: One premise inherent in Herzberg's theory is that most individuals sincerely want to do a good job. To help them, make sure you've placed them in positions that use their talents and are not set up for failure. Set clear, achievable

goals and standards for each position, and make sure employees know what those goals and standards are. Individuals should also receive regular, timely feedback on how they are doing and should feel they are being adequately challenged in their jobs. Be careful, however, not to overload individuals with challenges that are too difficult or impossible, as that can be paralyzing.

CONSEQUENCES OF JOB SATISFACTION


High job satisfaction may lead to improved productivity, increased turnover, and improved attendance; reduce accidents, less job stress, and lower unionization. PRODUCTIVITY: The relationship between job satisfaction and productivity is Not definitely established however in long run job satisfaction leads to increased productivity. On the other hand job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round. However there are some conditions under which high productivity more clearly leads to job satisfaction one condition is that the employees perceive that intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are contingent upon there productivity. The second condition is that the extrinsic rewards to be distributed equitably. In equitable distribution fails to convince the employees that there is a close relation ship between hard work and rewards. However, the adage a happy worker is a productive worker is not always wrong there may not be a relationship between job satisfaction and productivity but performance may be affected indirectly by absenteeism or turnover which is related to satisfaction. JOB SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEE TURNOVER: High employee turnover is of considerable concern for employers because it disrupt normal operations, cause morale problems for those who stick on and increase the cost involved in selecting and training replacements. The employer does what ever possible to minimize turnover, making the employees feel satisfied on their jobs, being one such. Unlike the relationship between satisfaction and productivity the connection between job satisfactions to employee turnover is established beyond doubt. It has been demonstrated that who have relatively lower levels of satisfaction are most

likely to quit their jobs and that organizational units with the lowest average satisfaction levels tend to have the high turnover rate. SATISFACTION AND JOB STRESS:

Job stress is the bodys response to any job-related factor that tHuman Resourceeatens to disturb the persons equilibrium. In the process of experiencing stress, the employees inner state changes. Prolonged stress can cause the employee serious ailments such as heart disease, blurred vision, lower back pain, dermatitis and muscles aches.

UNIONIZATION:

It is proved that job-dissatisfaction is a major cause for

unionization

dissatisfaction with wages, job security, French benefits, chances for promotions and treatment by supervisors are reasons which make employee join unions. Another dimension is that satisfaction have an impact on the tendency to take action with in the union such as filing grievances and striking.

THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION


Affect Theory Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/arent met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesnt value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of ones job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction.

A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine ones disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in ones own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction.