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2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC 3: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC 1: NATURAL VEGETATION

CONTENT LEARNING OUTCOMES MAIN CONCEPTS 1. TYPES OF NATURAL VEGETATION (DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS) - Tropical rainforests and - Describe the global - Biome mangroves distribution and - Ecosystem - Tropical monsoon forests characteristics of tropical - Natural Vegetation - Coniferous forests rainforests and - Evergreen mangroves, tropical - Deciduous monsoon forests and - Tropical Rainforest coniferous forests - Mangroves - Tropical Monsoon Forest - Coniferous Forest 2. ADAPTATION OF THE NATURAL VEGETATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT (PARTICULARLY CLIMATE) - Tropical rainforests and - Describe the global - Biome mangroves distribution and - Ecosystem - Tropical monsoon forests characteristics of tropical - Natural Vegetation - Coniferous forests rainforests and - Evergreen mangroves, tropical - Deciduous monsoon forests and - Tropical Rainforest coniferous forests - Mangroves - Tropical Monsoon Forest - Coniferous Forest 3. USES OF FORESTS - Habitat (humans, flora, - Discuss the use of forests - Habitat fauna) - Flora - Water catchment - Fauna - Green Lungs of the Earth - Water Catchment - Timber - Green Lungs of the Earth - Medical - Resource VALUES/ ATTITUDES - Care and concern for our natural heritage - Pride in our natural heritage - Resourcefulness - Responsibility towards our natural heritage - Stewardship - Sustainable Use of Resources - Habitat Conservation

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION OVERVIEW

4. CASE STUDY OF DEFORESTATION IN A TROPICAL RAINFOREST - Causes of deforestation in - Explain the causes of a tropical rainforest deforestation in a tropical (agriculture, logging, forest rainforest fires, urbanisation, housing, industrial activities and transport) -

Renewable resource Deforestation Agriculture Logging Forest fire Urbanisation Housing Industrial Activity Transport Biodiversity Extinction of species Nutrient cycle Biomass Water Quality pH level Sediment Level Air pollution Haze Sustainable Management Controlled logging Afforestation Conservation

Problems caused by - Discuss the problems Deforestation caused by deforestation Loss of habitat and extinction of species Changes in the nutrient cycle Changes in water quality (pH level and sediment level) Air pollution (haze) - Management of Tropical - Evaluate the effectiveness Rainforests of sustainable Sustainable management of tropical Management rainforests (controlled logging, afforestation and conservation) SUGGESTED FIELDWORK/ TECHNIQUES/ STRATEGIES - Make a field sketch of the structure of a tropical forest in Singapore (e.g. Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Sungei Buloh Nature Reserve) - Estimate the number of

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION OVERVIEW

flora species within a stipulated area (e.g. using quadrat sampling) Gather evidence on how humans have modified the tropical rainforest Debate the effectiveness of sustainable management of forests LINKAGE OF TOPICS Uses of Forests

Types of Natural Vegetation (Distribution and Characteristics) & Adaptation of the Natural Vegetation to the Environment (particularly climate) Learning more about the plants around us How are they useful? What are the types of natural vegetation? How do forests adapt to the environment? -

Case Study of Deforestation in a Tropical Rainforest

Forests as a Resource

Deforestation What if we start to overuse the forests?

What are the uses of forests? How do we benefit from forests?

What are the causes and impacts of deforestation? How do people protect forests?

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION SUB-TOPIC 3.1/ 1.1: TYPES OF NATURAL VEGETATION (DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS) & SUB-TOPIC 3.2/ 1.2: ADAPTATION OF THE NATURAL VEGETATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT (PARTICULARLY CLIMATE)

SUB-TOPIC 3.1/ 1.1: TYPES OF NATURAL VEGETATION (DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS) & SUB-TOPIC 3.2/ 1.2: ADAPTATION OF THE NATURAL VEGETATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT (PARTICULARLY CLIMATE) A Introduction Definition Natural Vegetation are plates that grow naturally in a place with little or no human interference Natural Vegetation as part of an Ecosystem The Ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants/ animals/ people) within a physical environment & the ineraction between them. This ranges in scale E.g. Forest ecosystem Trees/ other plants provide food & shelter for animals/ native people that live in the forest Without vegetation, animals/ people suffer hunger and lack of shelther Major types of Natural Vegetation 3 major types Forests ) Grasslands ) Each of these 3 are termed as a biome, a living part of an ecosystem Deserts ) Climatic Influence on Natural Vegetation Precipitation Influences the distribution of the main types of natural vegetation Forests (> 1000mm) vs grassland (250-1000mm) vs desert/ tundra vegetation (< 250mm) Temperature Influences the distribution of the sub-types of natural vegetation As temperature decreases with increasing latitude from the Equator to the poles, natural vegetation also changes accordingly Rainforests/mangrove (Equator/ hot) tropical monsoon temperate deciduous temperate coniferous (Poles/ cold) Similarly, as temperature decreases with increasing altitude, natural vegetation also changes accordingly Below 60C: Most plants cannot grow Below 00C: Mosses, Lichens can grow Above 200C: Abundant Growth

B -

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION SUB-TOPIC 3.1/ 1.1: TYPES OF NATURAL VEGETATION (DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS) & SUB-TOPIC 3.2/ 1.2: ADAPTATION OF THE NATURAL VEGETATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT (PARTICULARLY CLIMATE)

Distribution, Characteristics and Adaptation of Natural Vegetation Tropical RainF Tropical Monsoon F Distribution 00 100 N & S of Equator 100 250 N & S of Equator Equatorial Climate hot (~ Tropical areas with a distinct 270C), wet (>1500mm) all wet & dry season. year round Examples - Central & South - South Asia (India, America (Amazon Bangladesh, Basin) Pakistan) - Central Africa (Zaire - SE Asia (Myanmar, Basin) Thailand - Parts of SE Asia - Cambodia, Laos, (Malaysia, Indonesia) Vietnam) - Northern Australia - Southern China Structure of 5 distinct vertical layers 3 distinct vertical layers Forest 1. Emergent 1. Canopy - Tallest trees; ~ 40Height: 25-30m 50m to capture direct sunlight scattered 2. Understorey emergents Height: ~ 15m 2. Canopy - Height: 15-30m - Wide/ UmbrellaShaped Crowns - Interlocking, continuous canopy prevents sunlight from reaching forest floor 3. Understorey - Height: 6-15m 3. Undergrowth/ Ground Dense during wet seasons

Mangrove F 00 250 N & S of Equator Along sheltered, low-lying coastal areas where ground is muddy and water-logged - West Africa - SE Asia - Australia

Temperate Coniferous F 600 700 N of Equator Places which experience the 4 seasons Norhern Europe (Scandinavia to Russia o Northern Asia) North America (Alaska to Eastern Canada)

No distinct vertical layering - Trees about same height Distinct horizontal zones parallel to shore - Mangrove trees nearer the coast grow well in salt water (often flooded) whereas those further inland are less tolerant of salt (less flooded) 1. Coastal Zone - Avicennia & sonneratia trees

No distinct layers - Trees have straight trunks and are of uniform height (~ 2030m)

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION SUB-TOPIC 3.1/ 1.1: TYPES OF NATURAL VEGETATION (DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS) & SUB-TOPIC 3.2/ 1.2: ADAPTATION OF THE NATURAL VEGETATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT (PARTICULARLY CLIMATE)

Narrower, ovalshaped crowns Grows where gaps in canopy allow sunlight to pass through

Breathing/ Aerial Roots

2. Middle Zone - Rhizophora Trees - Prop/ Stilt Roots 3. Inland Zone - Bruguiera Trees - Knee-like Roots

4. Shrub - Height: Up to 6m - Tree saplings/ Woody Plants 5. Undergrowth - Height: Up to 5m - Grasses/ ferns/ mosses/ fungi Adaptation to Low-Light Conditions 1. Epiphytes - Grow on tree branches to get more sunlight - Grow on/ use trees for physical support - E.g. Birds Nest Fern 2. Lianas - Thick, woody vines that wind around tree runks to reach for sunlight - Up to 90m long 3. Parasitic Plants

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION SUB-TOPIC 3.1/ 1.1: TYPES OF NATURAL VEGETATION (DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS) & SUB-TOPIC 3.2/ 1.2: ADAPTATION OF THE NATURAL VEGETATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT (PARTICULARLY CLIMATE)

Tree Characteristics

Cause death of host trees - E.g. Strangling Fig 1. Dense - Trees grow very close to one another - Trees with interlocking crowns form a continuous canopy prevents sunlight from reaching the forest floor - Rainforest plants: Lianas and epiphytes 2. Evergreen - Hot wet climate provides enough water and sunlight throughout the year plant growth is continuous all year round 3. Hardwood - Durable - E.g. Meranti 1. Large and Broad to maximise surface area for photosynthesis 2. Thick and Leathery to withstand heat/

1. Less dense than TRF - Trees do not grow as closely to one another - Crown does not interlock to form continous canopy more sunlight able o enter through gaps in canopy 2. Deciduous - Trees shed their leaves during dry season to prevent water loss through transpiration - Leaves grow again during wet seasons 3. Hardwood E.g. Teak 1. Thick and Leathery to withstand heat and reduce transpiration 2. Smooth and waxy to allow rainwater to run off easiy during wet

1. Dense - Trees grow very close to one another - Trees with interlocking crowns form a continuous canopy prevents sunlight from reaching the forest floor 2. Evergreen - Hot wet climate provides enough water and sunlight throughout the year plant growth is continuous all year round 3. Hardwood

1. Dense - Trees grow close together so little sunlight reaches the forest floor 2. Evergreen 3. Softwood E.g. Pine, Fir 4. Conical in Shape - Prevents snow from accumulating during winter and hence, breaking the branches. - Allows snow to fall off easily - Withstands strong winds

Leaves

1. Thick and Leathery to withstand heat and reduce transpiration 2. Smooth and waxy to allow rainwater to run off easily.

1. Small, narrow, needle-like - Little water is lost through transpiration due to small leaf area. - No need to shed leaves in winter to

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION SUB-TOPIC 3.1/ 1.1: TYPES OF NATURAL VEGETATION (DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS) & SUB-TOPIC 3.2/ 1.2: ADAPTATION OF THE NATURAL VEGETATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT (PARTICULARLY CLIMATE)

reduce transpiration 3. Smooth and Waxy to allow rainwater to runoff easily 4. Downward Pointing Drip Tips to get rid of excess water and prevent excess growth of bacteria.

seasons. 3. Downward pointing drip tips to get rid of excess water during wet season 4. Deciduous Leaves are shed during dry season. 3. Downward pointing drip tips to get rid of excess water 4. Secretes excess salts through leaves (washed away at high tide) e.g. Avicennia OR stored in older leaves (removed when dead leaves fall) e.g. Bruguiera, Rhizophora, Sonneratia Aerial Root System 1. Breathing Roots - Jut out of mud to help trees take in oxygen directly from the atmosphere. Avicennia (Pencillike) Sonneratia (Thicker at the base & peg-like) 2. Prop/ Stilt Roots - Grow from trunk - Exposed during low tide pores absorb air

prevent water loss. 2. Narrow leaves are thick to store water to survive during the long, cold winters. 3. Evergreen - Do not shed leaves in autumn - Continue to photosynthesis whenever temperature rises above 60C

Roots

1. Shallow Roots - Water and nutrients found in topsoil. 2. Buttress Roots To support weight of tall trees

Deep Roots - Provide good support Allows trees to tap underground water during dry seasons

Shallow Roots - Allows trees to take nutrients from the thin topsoil easily. - To absorb surface melting ice in spring. - To absorb nutrients quickly and however little

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION SUB-TOPIC 3.1/ 1.1: TYPES OF NATURAL VEGETATION (DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS) & SUB-TOPIC 3.2/ 1.2: ADAPTATION OF THE NATURAL VEGETATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT (PARTICULARLY CLIMATE)

Rhizophora (Prop/ Stilt-like) Bruguiera (Kneelike) 3. Buttress Roots Help trees to anchor firmly in muddy soil. Thick to protect trees from the cold and keep the inner tissues warm.

Bark & Branches Smooth and thin - No need to protect against cold weather. Brancehs and leaves found at top 1/3 of trees to obtain maximum light for photosynthesis No. of Species of Plants/ Vegetations Most number of species found here. - About 750 species of trees & 1500 species of other plants per hectare of land Thick and rough to protect trees against drought and fires common during dry seasons. Branches are located around middle of trunks as sunlight able to reach lower parts of forest About 200 varieties per heactare of land. NA

Undergrowth

Little - Very little sunlight passes through canopy & reaches forest floor (~ 1%) - Dark forest floor suitable for fungi growth

Dense - Sunlight allowed to reach the ground when shedding leaves

Halophytes mangrove trees adapt to growing in salt water. 4 main species: - Avicennia (Salt Tolerant) - Sonneratia - Rhizophora - Bruguiera (Not-Salt Tolerant) NA

Very few species; about 1-2 varieties per hectare of land. - Pure strands

Little - Poor soil - Dark Forest Floor Leaf Litter Decomposes Slowly - Tough Needles - Low Temperature

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION SUB-TOPIC 3.1/ 1.1: TYPES OF NATURAL VEGETATION (DISTRIBUTION AND CHARACTERISTICS) & SUB-TOPIC 3.2/ 1.2: ADAPTATION OF THE NATURAL VEGETATION TO THE ENVIRONMENT (PARTICULARLY CLIMATE)

Others

Leaf Litter Decomposes Quickly - Forms Humus - Rich in nutrients supports abundant vegetation growth - Depends on insects and plants for pollination - Flowers and fruits are sweet-smelling.

Fruits are buoyant or long and tube-like

Flower & bear fruit during dry seasons

Uses

Hardwoods - Commercially valuable for furniture-making and construction industries. Resins - Natural Dyes Spices - Nutmegs - Cinnamon Local Fruits Medicinal Value - Cinchona Tree Quininie for treating malaria

Commerically Valuable Trees - Teak, Rosewood, sandalwood - Furniture-Making industries, incesemaking, fuelwood

Valuable Resources - Food, Medicine, Firewood, Charcoal, Construction Materials - Forms natural coastal protection feature

Also known as boreal forest/ taiga - Trees do not bear fruits - Seeds of trees are contained and protected in cones Softwoods and Wood Pulp - Commerically valuable - Light and Soft - Furniture and Paper

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION SUB-TOPIC 3.3/ 1.3: USES OF FORESTS

SUB-TOPIC 3.3/ 1.3: USES OF FORESTS Maintaining Water Supply Ecological/ Environmental Uses Quantity of Water in Forested Areas - Role of forests in Water Cycle Vegetation transpires releases water vapour into the atmosphere increases cloud formation increases rain replenishes water in rivers and reservoirs Leaves/ Branches of trees intercept rain decreases imapct of water falling on the surface of the ground increases water flowing into the ground instead of flowing as surface runoff stored as groundwater flows into nearby rivers & reservoirs

Quality of Water in forested Areas - Forests support natural processes that filter water Leaves/ branches of trees intercept water decreases surface run off decreases soil particles washed into rivers & reservoirs Soil traps impurities in rainwater filters it before it enteres rivers & reservoirs Water remains clear free from harmful substances - Urban areas covered with concrete does not allow water to seep through Increases surface run off + carries along more impurities found on the ground surface rainwater enteres drains/ canals eventaully ends up in seas. Replenishing Green Lungs of the Earth O2 and - Photosynthesis Removing Trees take in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen CO2 This decreases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere decreases global warming + regluates Earths temperature Mainintaing Decomposing Vegetation Nutrients in - Releases Nutrients back into the soil the soil Roots of Vegetation - Holds soil particles together decreases soil erosion nutrients remain in the soil Preventing Absence of Vegetation Floods - Forests decreases likelihood of river overflowing banks - Absence of vegetation increases rate of soil erosion soil wases onto river bed river bed becoms shallower increases risk of flooding Coastal Mangrove Forests Protection - Protects coasts from storms & strong waves

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION SUB-TOPIC 3.3/ 1.3: USES OF FORESTS

Natural Treatment of Waste Water

Habitat for Flora & Fauna

Source of Useful Materials

Absorbs up to 90% of impact generated by wave energy Helps to hold sediments together decreasing rates of coastal erosion - E.g. 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (Southeastern India) Mangrove prevented some coastal villages from being destroyed. Mangrove Forests - Process waste materials carried by the water from rivers Waste materials e.g.: vegetation, dead animals, household rubbish, human waste - Roots of mangrove trees Traps waste materials filters water before it flows back into sea Soil contains bacteria that can break down biodegradable wastes onverts into nutrients for mangroves - Channelling of sewage to mangrove forests Take davantage of natural ability of forests to treat waste But there is a limit to the amount of sewage a mangrove forest can absorb Natural Habitat - Forests are home to flora and fauna More than of all species of flora & fauna are found in tropical rainforests, tropical monsoon forests & mangrove forests - E.g. Tropical Rainforests of Peninsular Malaysia Tigers, rare orchid species Economic Uses Timber & Other sources of Building Materials - Uses of Timber Make furniture & paper, construct buildings - Examples Chengal & Meranti trees in Tropical Rainforests and pine trees in Tropical Coniferous Forests Logged and used for making furniture Rattan in tropical forests Make furniture and baskets Leaves of Nipah Palm in Mangrove Forests Made into thatched roofs to keep out rain - High demand for timber World timber trade worth more than S$332 billion a year. Indonesia (2002): earned more than S$8 billion from timber sales. - Sustainable Development Forests used at a rate in which they meet the needs of the present generation without affecting the ability of future

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION SUB-TOPIC 3.3/ 1.3: USES OF FORESTS

generations to meet their own needs. Forests are a renewable resource, so trees can be replanted after they have been cleared However, trees take a long time to grow before they can be logged for timber (~40 years to mature) Need to use forest resources carefully able to continue use forest resources in the future Fuelwood & Charcoal - Forests are a sources of fuel - Fuelwood In Less Developed Countries in Asia & Africa, fuelwood is used for cooking & heating In 2005, more than 2 billion people worldwide depend on fuelwood as a main source of energy. - Charcoal Example: Matang Forest Rserve in Peninsular Malaysia Mangrove Forests (E.g. Rhizophora) cut down to make charcoal Food - Example: Native people in Borneo obtains staple food from forests Harvests sago from sago palm high in starch Harvest edible ferns (E.g. Midlin) Hunts animals (E.g. Wild Deer) Medicines - Plants in the forest have medicinal value - Example: Quinine (For treating malaria) Extracted from the Cinchona Tree - Example: Cough Syrup Made from the bark of the Eastern White Pine Tree - Example: Calophyllum Tree Contains a compound with the potential to prevent full-blown AIDS Chemicals - Bark of Rhizophora from mangroves Provides Tanin used to treath leather - Sap of Mangrove trees in East Africa Used to make black dyes - Pine & Fir Trees of Tropical Coniferous Forests

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION SUB-TOPIC 3.3/ 1.3: USES OF FORESTS

People Habitat

Recreation

Research & Education

Extract resin made into wood varnishes & ointments Social Uses Habitat for People - Tropical Rainforests of South America/ Southeast Asia/ Africa: ~ 60 million people living there Includes hunter-gatherers and shifting cultivators - Example: Korubu Tribe (Amazon Rainforest) Hunts wild animals & gatehrs leaves & fruits for subsistence Ecotourism - Forests remain protected + income gained through tourism - Tourists engage in activities that do not harm the natural environment Eg. Hiking, Camping, Rafting, Bird-Watching - Tourists responsible for Eco-Friendly Behaviour E.g. Not leaving litter behind, not damaging flora & fauna in nature reserves - Rules & Regulations to protect natural environment & sustain it - Example: Taman Negara in Peninsular Malaysia 1939: Established as a National Park to protect rainforests Now: Promoted as an ecotourism destination Conduction of Scientific Research - Scientists study forests plants to develop new medicines & new varieties of crops E.g. Banana, Coffee, Cocoa - Scientists study interactions between forest animal & plants with the environment E.g. how ewather changes affect animals & plants in the forest ecosystem

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION SUB-TOPIC 3.4/ 1.4: CASE STUDY OF DEFORESTATION IN A TROPICAL RAINFOREST

SUB-TOPIC 3.4/ 1.4: CASE STUDY OF DEFORESTATION IN A TROPICAL RAINFOREST A Deforestation 1 Definition - Deforestation is the permenant clearing & destruction of forests - World Resources Institute estimates that: 8000 years ago: forests covered 60 million km2 of the Earths land surface. 2005: 50% of the original forested area remains. 2 Causes of Rapid Deforestation Growing Worlds Population number of people who depend on forests as a resource demand for land Overcrowding caused an increased amount of land cleared to create more land. More land is needed for housing, agriculture and industrial uses. DCs vs LDCs In LDCs, there is a rapidly growing population. Hence, there is a higher rate of deforestation

B Case Study 1: Deforestation in Kalimantan, Indonesia (Source: Earth Our Home 3, Marshal Cavendish Education, Yee Sze Onn/ Khoo Ming Ghee/ Tan Say Pin) 1 Geography of Kalimantan, Indonesia - Location Two-thirds of the island of Borneo Total land area: 539560km2 780 times of Singapore 4 provinces (East, West, Central, South) Rich in natural resources E.g. Timber, Minerals, Precious Stones - Current Situation Last 25 years: facing rapid rate of deforestation World-Wide Fund for Nature estimates that in 2000-2002, deforestation of up to 12000km2/ year takes place. This is brought about by human activities 2 Causes of Deforestation in Kalimantan, Indonesia demand - population pressure agricultural activities demand for land. for - Indonesias population resettlement programme: Transmigrasi (Transmigration Policy)

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agricultural land use -

Growth of settlements

Improved transport networks

Growth of Industries

Resettles Indonesians from densely populated areas to sparsely populated areas From Java/ Sumatra/ Bali/ Madura (overcrowded) To Iran Jaya/ Kalimantan/ Sulawesi (Land available) In Kalimantan New settlers grow crops in small holdings Small farms for growing rice/ coffee/ cocoa clear forests Extends farmland by clearing more forests grow more crops sell for profit Plantation Companies Oil palm commonly cultivated in plantations because it is: Cheap to grow Highly profitable good source of export earnings for Indonesia Kalimantan rainforests cleared (by burning) replaced by oil palm plantations 1998 to 2003: 10000km2 of rainforests cleared and converted to oil palm plantations population pressure Settlements become more crowded land cleared for housing Urbanisation occurs: Growth/ Expansion of towns/ cities In Kalimantan rural-urban migration People move from rural settlements (villages) to urban settlements (towns/ cities) rainforests cleared Example: Balikpapan (East Kalimantan) One of the largest cities in Kalimantan Population ~ 400000 Business centre for many national & international companies dealing with logging/ mining/ oil extraction Growth of cities Balikpapan has expanded into protected forest next to it (Sungei Wan Rainforest) Construction of transport networks to link settlements in Kalimantan E.g. Roads, Railway tracks Example: Trans-Kalimantan Highway 230km long Cuts through rainforests accessibility between two cities (Banjarmasin & Balikpapan) and allows access to previously remote forested areas in Kalimantan But this has made it easier for people to destroy even more forested areas Logging West Kalimantan: Rainforests of size 2.5 times of Singapore lost annually to logging Wood can be processed and exported at a very rapid pace

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Forest Fires

Timber companies speed up pace of logging to ensure wood processing facilities are fully utilised Use of modern machinery/ technology means that large areas of forests can be removed in a short period of time. (E.g. Chainsaws, Tractors) Made worse by illegal logging Timber companies allowed to log without a license Timer companies log more forested areas than they are allowed to Mining Presence of minerals underneath Kalimantan rainforests are extracted through mining E.g. gold, silver, copper Minerals discovered Vegetation cleared to expose ground underneath Use machines to dig up ground & bring minerals to the surface Large holes created in the ground loose soil washed into nearby river depletes water quality Use of cyanide in gold extraction Poisons animals Deliberately set by people to clear forests E.g. Plantation companies: Cheaper than to employ workers to clear forests Affect Cleared Forests Vegetation Debris left on the forest floor catch fire easily during dry seasons E.g. Tree stumps, branches, twigs

3 Impacts of Deforestation in Kalimantan, Indonesia Loss of - Biodiversity refers to the diverse range of plants & animals. Biodiversity - Kalimantan rainforests are home to: More than 380 bird species More than 10000 plant species - Deforestation in Kalimantan felling and burning of trees destroy many plant and animal species - Plants Felling of trees destruction of valuable plant species, some with medicinal value. Inferior secondary growth E.g. savanna, weeds - Animals Many die because their natural habitat is destroyed Food chain interrupted/ broken May lead to extinction E.g. endangered animal of the Kalimantan rainforest: Proboscis Monkey Loss in - Biomass is the combined weight of all organism

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Biomass

Change in Global Climate

Changes in Quality/ Quantity of Water

The unit of measure is kilocalories (kcal) of stored energy. It represents the total amount of food available on Earth ability of Earth to support life. - Tropical Rainforests have the highest biomass compared to other vegetation types When Amount of stored energy is high, it is able to support a diverse range of flora & fauna Green plants in food chain photosynthesise plants grow + provide food for herbivores herbivores are a form of food for carnivores. Leaf litter is rich in nutrients supports vegetation growth - Deforestation in Kalimantan decreases Earths biomass Kalimantan rainforests unable to support life. Food chain affected Loss in biomass decrease in amount of nutrients in forest Diagram How it affects Composition of nutrients in a tropical rainforest 1. The tropical rainforest has the largest store of nutrients in the biomass. High temperatures and rainfall throughout the year encourage the rapid growth of tall and dense vegetation which forms the biomass. 2. Although leaves continuously fall on the forest floor, the hot and wet environment results in the rapid decomposition of the leaf litter and the release of nutrients. As the nutrients are then quickly absorbed by the soil, the amount of nutrients in the leaf litter is limited. 3. The soil then contributes to the growth of the vegetation in the biomass. Composition of nutrients after some of the forest vegetation is removed 1. When some of the vegetation in the tropical rainforest are removed, the store of nutrients in the biomass is reduced. 2. This is turn, reduces the amount of nutrients stored in the leaf litter. 3. Consequently, the amount of nutrients stored in the soil is reduced hence, adversely affecting the growth of vegetation. - Droughts Trees felled reduces transpiration rate decreases formation of clouds decreases rainfall - Global Warming Trees felled fewer trees to remove carbon dioxide carbon dioxide levels trap heat in Earths atmosphere rate of greenhouse effect Greenhouse Effect Melting of polar ice caps sea level rises increases rate of flooding. - Soil from deforested areas is washed into rivers sedimentation shallower river channel flooding - Water Quality Muddy & Acidic (pH value < 7) Threatens Aquatic Life

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Loss of Soil Fertility

Changes in Nutrient Cycle - Nutrients enter the soil when it rains - Roots of plants absorb nutrients from the soil. - When leaves of plant fall, they are broken down by worms and insects and decompose form humus keeps soil fertile - Nutrients to return back to the soil. soil fertility is maintained. - If forest is removed, nutrient cycle is broken. Trees removed no fallen leaves no decomposition infertile soil. Soil Leaching - When the forest is cleared, there is no longer a protective cover for the soil. - Increase in the amount of surface runoff more soil erosion/ soil leaching. Soil Erosion: Topsoil is washed away Soil Leaching: Nutrients from topsoil washed deeper into the soil. - Deforested area becomes more infertile

Managing the Kalimantan Rainforest

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I -

Ministry of Forestry Role Ensures balance between generating income for the country through sale of forest resources & protecting forests Monitors logging activities issues licenses to timber companies allows them to log in specific areas Regulates activities in the forests controls forests by law takes tough action against illegal logging Community Involvement Involves local government/ native people/ villagers Responsibility of local government to manage forests found in their area Enforces laws regarding forest use E.g. Can change people or companies in court for misuse of forest Sustainable Management Policies for sustainable management of rainforests in Indonesia Takes only what we need, must leave it for future generations Policies taken Measures Advantages (+)

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Effectiveness Disadvantages (-) Unable to reach aims of restoring large areas in Kalimantan - Rates of planting < Rates of Clearing 2000: 90000km2 of forests replanted 2000-2001: 250000km2 cleared Incentives not attractive enough for local people to participate in projects rate of afforestation & reforestation Loss of Original Biodiversity of Tropical Rainforests - Only teak trees planted - Cannot support variety of flora & fauna of the original rainforests - Fewer Species

AFFORESTATION & REFORESTATION Afforestation - Planting of trees on areas that were originally not covered with forests - E.g. agricultural lands that had been abandoned by farmers Reforestation - Planting of trees in formerly forested areas that have been cleared by logging. Ministry of Forestrys Forest and Land Restoration Initiative in Kalimantan - Aim: Restores 900000ha of forests yearly. - Involves participation & cooperation of forests users to ensure forests are

Planting of teak trees - Native to Tropical Monsoon Forest, but planted in Tropical Rainforest because: Commercially valuable Fast-growing 5 years to mature & be suitable for logging (20 years for Tropical Rainforest trees) can restore forests quickly East Kalimantan - Active participation of locals afforestation & restoration projects successfully restored a significant amount of forests

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successfully restored Local people: replant trees in areas affected by forest fires Timber companies: Required to replant & retain at least 25 commercially valuable trees per hectare in areas they have logged & pay restoration fees to fund the cost of replanting trees in the areas that have been logged. CONTROLLED LOGGING Law Enforcement - Severe penalties for illegal logging by irresponsible timber companies E.g. fines, imprisonment Education & Research Programmes - Arranged by Ministry of Forestry for timber companies Informed of damage caused by logging How to reduce extent of damage - E.g. Selective Cutting Selects trees for cutting Identify & log commercially valuable trees Retain non-valuable trees Forest remains undisturbed - Not clear cutting cut down everything Entire forest is logged wastage & great damage CONSERVATION Conservation - Careful use of resources (i.e. Forests)

Similar to Plantations

Selective Cutting allows forest to regenerate - Overcrowding at canopy layer is reduced young trees replace old ones Soil Erosion

Difficult to Monitor Logging & Detect Illegal Logging Activities - Lack of Manpower - Remote Forest areas allows illegal logging to continue undetected Selective cutting may cause as much damage as clear cutting - Selective removal of trees damage neighbouring trees + plant species growing on them

Betung Karihun Nature Reserve (Heart of Borneo)

Illegal Logging Activities still take place - Difficult to monitor

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to prevent them from destruction Forests set aside as nature reserves - Encourages ecotourism - Prohibits logging

Set up in 1992 Largest Nature reserve in West Kalimantan 8000km2 Home to diverse range of animals E.g. Orang utans, Sumatran Rhinoceros Joint effort among countries to protect reserve Extends into Brunei & Malaysia World-Wide Fund for Nature, Indonesia, Brunei & Malaysia works together to increase protected areas & manage reserve sutainably

Reserve too large Logging sites are remote undetected by park rangers & nature reserve officials Lack of manpower to manage reserves + monitor illegal logging

CONTROLLING FOREST FIRES Policy - Indonesian government implemented policy that makes it illegal to clear forests by burning Monitoring Measures - 1994: Integrated Forest Fires Protection System - 1999: National Fire Management Plan Educating the People - Annual forest fire awareness campaign Discourages local people from using fire to clear forests for farmland C Case Study 2: Deforestation in the Amazon Rainforest, Brazil (Source: Geography Insights 3, Pearson Longman, Dr. Philip Tieh/ Raymond Pask) 1 Geography of the Amazon Rainforest, Brazil

Not effective Haze in Southeast Asia continues annually - Some plantation companies continue to burn forests Most cost effective/ cheapest Reflects lack of initiatives to use other land clearing methods Local people reluctant to stop burning forests to clear land - Used to traditional methods passed down over the generations

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Largest in the world: 5000000km2 Covers large proportion of Brazil (About 1/3) Extends to neighbouring South American Countries 7153 times of Singapores size Vast lowland drained by Amazon River & tributaries World Bank: Estimated 15% has been cut down Approximately 25000km2 of land believed to have been cleared in 2004.

2 Causes of Deforestation in the Amazon Rainforest, Brazil population - Brazil one of the most populous in the world 184 million people as of 2005 More than under 29 years old. - Population growth rate highest throughout the early and mid-twentieth century - Large population continues to place tremendous pressure on forested land despite urbanisation & economic modernisation - Brazilians clear and burn the rainforest to acquire land for building houses and for agriculture - Government clears forest on massive scale Develop transport & industrial infrastructure Improves standard of living Provides Jobs - 1978-1998: >52mha (or 5.2%) of the Amazon Rainforest cleared for settlements/ farms/ industries Settlements - 1970s: Government has been trying to resettle people from Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo (heavily populated) to less populated areas Sao Paulo: population of more than 15 million, increasing at 150000 a year partly due to internal migration - Government cleared part of Amazon rainforest and provided each relocated family with a piece of land (~ 1km2) - Families offered subsidies and loans to convert cleared land into farmland. Rapid - Forested land cleared for building of new housing estates, town centres, hospitals, schools, transportation, etc. Urbanisation Land - Leads to fragmentation of forest. Transport - Prevents seamless integration of the forest, divides the forest into semi-independent sections Systems Transamazonian Highway in Brazil, 51000 long, cuts across Amazon rainforest. 900km railway constructed to link the port of Sao Luis to Carajas in the interior - Development of such systems leads to clearance of more natural vegetation for the sake of giving people greater accessibility. Agriculture - Contributes 10% to countrys economy

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Employs about of population

Shifting Cultivation - Tribal farmers like the Yanomamo cut down small sections of the forest and burn trees Ashes from burnt wood are natural fertilisers which enrich poor tropical soils good harvest. - In the absence of trees, heavy rain washes away nutrients from the soil force the small tribal groups to move or shift to other locations in the forest process repeated. Subsistence Farming - Significant proportion of Brazilian farmers are Subsistence farmers grow crops mainly for own consumption few have their own land. - 1960s: Brazilian government gives plots of land beside main roads running through the Amazon rainforest - 1995-1995: Brazilian government cleared and granted land in the Amazon rainforest to roughly 150000 families. - Farmers poor, no money to buy fertilisers and pesticides to improve crop production clear and burn vegetation plant crops like bananas and maize - 3-4 years later: Soil Productivity declines farmers go deeper into forest process repeated. Commercial Farming - Operated by large Multinational Companies rear cattle sell beef to developed countries most used by commercial hamburger outlets. 2003: of Europes processed meat imported from Brazil - Large areas of forest completely cleared, burnt and replaced with grass for grazing - Estimated that it accounts for 80% deforestation in the rainforest. - Commercial crops are grown on land once occupied by the rainforest. E.g. Coffee, Sugar Cane, soy beans Grown on plantations that could occupy as much as 1000ha of land 1994-2003: Area of soy bean cultivation in Brazil doubled to meet high demands. Forest Fires - Forest fires burn up thousands of square kilometres of Amazon rainforest every year. - The fires are started by natural or human causes, or both. Dry weather conditions such s El Nino can cause widespread uncontrollable forest fires. - Aggravated by forested land burnt for agriculture. Economic - Brazil aspires to be developed needs to reduce countrys huge national debt Worlds largest debtor US$100 Development billion to foreign banks Countrys national resources exploited to repay debt. & Debt Repayment Commercial Logging

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World demand for tropical hardwoods is a US$8 billion a year industry demand increases every year. Timber valuable resource used in a variety of ways construction of houses, making of furniture, manufacture of paper Valuable hardwoods (E.g. Mahogany) important source of income for logging companies & Brazilian government companies eager to sell them extensive deforestation Sell timber during high demand.

Mining - Amazon rainforest occupies land rich in many minerals (e.g. iron ore, gold, fossil fuels) Large areas of forest cleared by Multinational Companies to extract these minerals and fossil fuels >900000ha of forest in Brazil cleared to mine iron ore and tin in recent years. Worlds largest deposit of premium grade iron ore found in Carajas, in the middle of the Amazon rainforest. - Amazon rainforest occupies land rich in oil. Demand for oil is growing colonisation of areas of the rainforest previously inaccessible. Drilling of oil has been carried out in inland forested areas such as those near Manaus Exploitation of oil has enabled Manaus to expand and become a city & industrial centre Hydroelectricity - Water important and renewable source of clean & cheap energy stored behind dam and released in controlled manner generate constant supply of energy crucial for running of various industries in the country. Constructions of large dams and reservoirs caused huge areas of the Amazon rainforest to be flooded and destroyed Itaipu Dam on the Parana River at the border with Paraguay costs US$18 billion to build and has the capacity oto generate 126000MW of electricity. - Despite attempts to minimise the environment impact on the forest and its flora and fauna, 700km2 still lost. 3 Impacts of Deforestation in the Amazon Rainforest, Brazil Global - Plants: Warming Absorb Carbon Dioxide and produce Oxygen during Photosynthesis Play an important role in supporting life on Earth since all living things require Oxygen. - Deforestation lack of plants change in atmospheric conditions increase in carbon dioxide in atmosphere More heat trapped in atmosphere leads to global warming Changes to - Nutrients needed to sustain living organisms in an ecosystem plant food consisting of minerals and chemicals Nutrient derived from the decomposition of organic matter. Cycle & Soil - Nutrient cycle pathway which involves minerals and chemical compounds going through different stores of the Deterioration ecosystem essential in supporting life in the ecosystem consists of three major stores linked together

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The three stores are biomass (all living organic matters such as vegetation, expressed as kg/m 2), soil and litter. Litter refers to forest material, such as leaves and branches that have fallen and accumulated on forest floors. Stores represented by circles and the different sizes represent their relative importance in the cycle, while the thickness of each linkage represents the relative significance of the link The nutrient cycle for a tropical region, showing how The nutrient cycle fragile the rainforest is when deforestation takes place

Floods and Water Quality

Soils in tropical regions not fertile due to soil leaching. Soil leaching: process whereby soil nutrients are dissolved and removed from the soil by water flowing downwards. Trees help improve soil fertility by absorbing nutrients into the roots before these nutrients can be washed or leached away. When trees die, they decompose quickly under hot and humid conditions and the nutrients they have absorbed are released back into the soil. This is known as the nutrient cycle. Deforestation takes away this storage mechanism soil fertility reduced increases soil erosion as topsoil no longer protected by the leaves and branches that intercept the rainfall and the tree roots which normally hold the soil in place. When rain falls, the topsoil will be washed away and soil fertility diminishes Deforestation no trees to intercept rainfall increase in surface runoff exceeds carrying capacity of river floods in low-lying areas. Lack of tree roots to hold soil together topsoil washed into rivers deposited onto riverbed raises height of riverbed increases likelihood of floods in low-lying areas. It is believed that floods in low-lying areas of Brazil have become more frequent and more severe in recent years not just because of heavy rainfall but also because of rapid deforestation

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Air Pollution Loss of Biodiversity -

Impact on Inhabitants of Rainforest

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Deposition of organic debris collects on the forest floor into the river affect quality of water. Decomposition of organic debris decrease pH levels increase acidity of water change living environments for aquatic life plants and animals unable to adapt die. 1997: Brazil affected by forest fires in Amazon Rainforest destroyed large areas of rainforest killed wildlife haze produced airport closures + affected health of others (especially those with respiratory illnesses) Satellite images picked up about 25000 cases of forest fire, with smoke clouds larger and thicker than those in Southeast Asia millions of square kilometres of rainforest affected. Deforestation extinction of flora and fauna Many of which not discovered & studied yet. Amazon rainforest largest collection of plants and animals estimated that 1ha contains 2000 species of plants contribute to genetic diversity of forests Destruction and eventual extinction reduction in biodiversity lessens chances of other living organisms Many highly effective medicine drugs such as quinine are produced from plants only found in tropical rainforests. Many undiscovered flora may contain chemicals that can be used for medicine, cosmetics and food. Chances of discovering them diminishes Population of native Brazilians or the Amazonian Indians greatly reduced. Portuguese arrival in 1550s: More than 1 million Present: About 70000 Deforestation disrupts their culture & traditional way of life many, like the Kayapo, can no longer survive by living in the rainforest. Some tribal groups have been resettled on reserved land However, some, especially the younger members have chosen to migrate to the cities. Eventually, thousands of years of culture, knowledge and a way of life will be lost.

Managing the Amazon Rainforest, Brazil Introduction Rapid deforestation prompts Brazilian government and governments of other countries covered by the Amazon rainforest to take measures to protect it ensures sustained management of rainforest (if carried out properly). Sustainable management ensures the use of the forest and its resources in a way and at a rate that maintains its biodiversity, vitality and regenerative capacity. Allows present consumer needs of forest products to be met without compromising needs of future generations. Measures taken Measures

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Effectiveness

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Advantages (+) SELECTIVE LOGGING In Brazil, Venezuela, Bolivia, Guyana, the governments require loggers to practise selective logging which involves the careful selection of the specific tree species in logging activities. Only trees that have been identified are cut, and the rest are left to grow and this is effective as it allows the younger trees in the forests to continue to grow and helps conserve the forest.

Disadvantages (-) Gaps in the canopy created by selective logging wil lead to the penetration of more sunlight into the forest, causing more fires in dry seasons. Lack of commitment from loggers and lack of strict legislation and monitoring by the authorities would make it difficult to monitor illegal logging in the dense and remote parts of the forests.

LIMITING DEFORESTATION ACTIVITIES In 1968, the Brazilian government stopped giving financial help and tax incentives to cattle ranchers.

30% less tropical rainforests was cleared between 1988 and 1990 in Brazil.

Not successful if the government cannot generate enough revenue through other economic activities and may be pressured to continue the pro-deforestation activities as a source of income. Possibility of illegal logging and poaching, requiring tight monitoring by the government.

SETTING ASIDE PROTECTED AREAS Amazonian governments have also set aside certain portions of the rainforests as protected areas. These areas are to be left undisturbed for natural vegetation to grow over time. In Venezuela, 60% of TRF set aside as protected areas. SETING ASIDE TRIBAL LAND RESERVES Only native Amazonian Indians can clear the forests and use the land for cultivation of crops and housing. They are not allowed to sell or exchange land with anyone and this means that loggers, commercial farmers and investors are kept out of the areas where the Amazonian Indians live.

Biodiversity is protected

In Columbia, nearly 200000km2 of the tropical rainforest has been set aside for the Amazonian Indians as tribal land reserves.

It depends on whether the tribal groups will continue to preserve the way of life and reside in the forests as the younger generation may prefer a more urbanised lifestyle and move to cities in search of better standards of living.

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DEFINITIONS 1. A biome is the living (or biotic) part of an ecosystem. It refers to an community of plants and animals in a region. 2. An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and people) within a physical (abiotic) environment and the interactions between them. 3. Natural Vegetation refers to plants that grow naturally in a place with little or no human interference 4. Forests that are evergreen have leaves that remain green all yar round due to constant high rainfall throughout the year. The trees also do not shed their leaves at the same time in the year. 5. Forests that are deciduous shed their leaves seasonally. For example, the trees in the tropical monsoon forest shed their leaves during the dry season to reduce water loss due to transpiration. 6. Tropical Rainforests grow in places that experience high temperatures (About 270C) and rainfall (over 1500mm) throughout the year. 7. Mangroves (or mangrove forests) grow along sheltered coastal regions and river anks that experience high temperatures (20 0C to 300C) and rainfall (1000mm to 2000mm) throughout the year. 8. Tropical Monsoon Forests grow in places that experience high temperatures (about 260C) and rainfall (over 1500mm) but with wet and dry seasons every year. 9. Coniferous Forests grow in places that experience low temperatures (-400C In winter, 210C in summer) and precipitation (300mm to 635mm) throughout the year. 10. The canopy layer is the continuous leaf cover or foliage formed by the interlocking crowns of tall trees. 11. The emergent layer in the tropical rainforest consists of very tall trees that range from 30m to 50m, which tower above the canopy layer. 12. The buttress roots of tall trees in tropical rainforests are thick and spread out widely to support the weight of the trees. 13. Drip-tip leaves have pointed ends which allow rainwater to drain off easily and prevent harmful bacteria from growing on them. 14. The trees in coniferous forests have needle-like leaves that help reduce water and heat loss due to transpiration. 15. Epiphytes are plants that grow on trees for physical support. They do not feed on the host tree and are able to produce their own food. 16. Lianas are thick woody climbers that wind upwards around tree trunks to reach sunlight. 17. Halophytes, such as mangrove trees, can tolerate salt water found in the soil along the coast. 18. The Aerial Roots of some species of mangrove trees, such as the Avicennia and Sonneratia, protrude out of the soil to take in oxygen from the air. 19. The prop roots of some mangrove species such as Rhizophora anchor the trees firmly into the muddy soil. 20. The undergrowth forms the bottom or ground layer of a forest. It is made up of shrubs, grasses, ferns, mosses and fungi. 21. A water catchment is an area over which rain falls and is collected and stored. 22. The renewal of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide through photosynthesis has given forests the name Green Lungs of the Earth. 23. A habitat is the environment where plats and animals live in. 24. Flora refers to the plant life of a region. 25. Fauna refers to the animal life of a region. 26. A resource refers to any component of the physical environment that can be used by people to meet their needs. It can be a renewable

2235/ 01 GEOGRAPHY TOPIC THREE: NATURAL VEGETATION 2192/ 02 COMBINED HUMANITIES (GEOGRAPHY ELECTIVE) TOPIC ONE: NATURAL VEGETATION CONCLUSION

or non-renewable resource. 27. Renewable Resources are resources that can be replenished as long as they are not used up faster than they are replaced. 28. Sustainable Development refers to the careful use of resources in which the needs and development of the present generation are met, without affecting the ability of future generations to meet their own needs and attain development. 29. Shifting Cultivation is also known as slash and burn cultivation. It is a type of farming in which the farmers cut down and burn part of the forest to grow crops. Later, they move to other parts of the forest as the soil fertility is exhausted. The old plot is left to fallow or rest. 30. Deforestation is the permanent clearing and destruction of forests. 31. Agricultural activities involve the cultivation of crops and rearing of animals. 32. Logging refers to cutting of trees in order to sell the timber for profit. 33. Forest fires refer to fires that occur in forests which results in the destruction of forests and air pollution. 34. Urbanisation refer to the growth and expansion of towns and cities 35. Housing refers to houses for people to reside in. 36. Industrial activities refer to any activity that is carried out for economic gain. An industrial activity can be categorised into primary, secondary and tertiary industries 37. Transport refers to the movement of people and goods from one place to another. 38. Biodiversity refers ot the variety of organisms in an ecosystem. 39. Extinction f species occurs when a plant or animal species disappears and no longer exists on Earth. 40. The Nutrient cycle refers to the intake, use, release and storage of nutrients by plants and their environments. 41. Biomass refers to the combined weight of all organisms in an ecosystem and is measured in terms of kcal of stored energy. This stored energy represents the total amount of food produced and he ability of the ecosystem to support life. 42. Leaching is a process in which water seeps into the ground and transports soluble minerals downwards into the soil layers. This results in the removal of nutrients from the top layer of the soil. 43. Water Quality refers to how clean the water is and whether it is safe to consume or live in. 44. The pH level or potential Hydrogen level is the standard measure of acidity or alkalinity. The pH value ranges from 0 to 14. The neutral value is 7. Acids have pH values lower than 7, while alkaline have pH values above 7. 45. The Sediment Level refers to the amount of materials, like sand and mud, in a water body such as a river. 46. Air pollution occurs when substance such as dust, smoke or harmful gases are released into the atmosphere. 47. Haze occurs when forest fires cause dust and smoke particles to be suspended in the air, which results in low visibility. 48. Sustainable Management refers to the careful use of resources that allows people to continue using the resources in the future. 49. Controlled Logging involves the selective cutting and replanting of trees in forests that have been logged. 50. Afforestation refers to the planting of trees on areas that were not originally covered with forests. 51. Reforestation refers to the planting of tres in formerly forested areas that had been cleared by logging. 52. Conservation refers to careful use of resources to protect them from destruction. SUMMARY CHART

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Distribution

Tropical RainF 00 100 N & S of Equator Equatorial Climate hot (~ 270C), wet (>1500mm) all year round 5 distinct vertical layers 1. Emergent 2. Canopy 3. Understorey 4. Shrub 5. Undergrowth 1. Dense 2. Evergreen 3. Hardwood 1. Large and Broad 2. Thick and Leathery 3. Smooth and Waxy 4. Downward Pointing Drip Tips 1. Shallow Roots 2. Buttress Roots Smooth and thin Most Little; Leaf Litter Decomposes Quickly Hardwoods; Resins; Spices; Local Fruits; Medicinal Value

Tropical Monsoon F 100 250 N & S of Equator Tropical areas with a distinct wet & dry season. 3 distinct vertical layers 1. Canopy 2. Understorey 3. Undergrowth/ Ground 1. Less dense than TRF 2. Deciduous 3. Hardwood 1. Thick and Leathery 2. Smooth and Waxy 3. Downward Pointing Drip Tips 4. Deciduous Deep Roots

Structure of Forest

Tree Characteristics Leaves

Mangrove F 00 250 N & S of Equator Along sheltered, low-lying coastal areas where ground is muddy and water-logged No distinct vertical layering Distinct horizontal zones parallel to shore 1. Coastal Zone 2. Middle Zone 3. Inland Zone 1. Dense 2. Evergreen 3. Hardwood 1. Thick and Leathery 2. Smooth and waxy 3. Downward pointing drip tips 4. Secretes excess salts OR stored in older leaves Aerial Root System 1. Breathing Roots 2. Prop/ Stilt Roots 3. Buttress Roots NA Halophytes NA Valuable Resources

Temperate Coniferous F 600 700 N of Equator Places which experience the 4 seasons No distinct layers

1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3.

Dense Evergreen Softwood Conical in Shape Small, narrow, needle-like Thick Evergreen

Roots

Shallow Roots

Bark & Branches


No. of Species of Plants/ Vegetations

Thick and rough About 200 varieties/ ha land Dense Commerically Valuable Trees

Thick Very few Little; Leaf Litter Decomposes Slowly Softwoods and Wood Pulp

Undergrowth Uses

Ecological/ Environmental

USES OF FORESTS Economic

Social

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Maintaining Water Supply Quantity of Water in forested areas Quality of Water in forested areas Replenishing Oxygen & Removing Carbon Dioxide Green Lungs of the Earth Maintaining Nutrients in the Soil Decomposing Vegetation Roots of Vegetation Preventing Floods Absence of Vegetation Protecting Coasts Mangrove Forests Natural Treatment of Waste Water Mangrove Forests Habitat for Flora and Fauna Natural Habitats

Source of Useful Materials Timber & Other sources of Building Materials Fuelwood & Charcoal Food Medicines Chemicals

People Habitat Habitat for People Recreation Ecotourism Research & Education Conduction of Scientific Research

DEFORESTATION Reasons for Deforestation

Impacts

Kalimantan, Indonesia demand for agricultural land use Growth of Settlements Improved Transport Networks Growth of Industries Forest Fires Loss of Biodiversity Loss in Biomass Change in Global Climate Changes in Quality/ Quantity of Water Loss of Soil Fertility Afforestation & Reforestation Controlled Logging Conservation Controlling Forest Fires

Measures Taken

Amazon Rainforest, Brazil population; Settlements Rapid Urbanisation; Land Transport Systems Agriculture Forest Fires Economic Development & Debt Repayment Global Warming Changes to Nutrient Cycle & Soil Deterioration Floods & Water Quality Air pollution Loss of Biodiversity Impacts on Inhabitants of Rainforest Selective Logging Limiting Deforestation Activities Setting aside Protected Areas Setting aside Tribal Land Reserves