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NETWORK CONCEPTS

Basic Cabling :
Describe the three most common types of cabling media used in LANs. The three most common types of cabling media used in LANs are: Coaxial Cable. Coaxial cable comes in two versions: Thinnet and Thicknet. Thinnet looks like regular TV cable.* It is about 1/4 inch in diameter and is very flexible and easy to work with. In contrast, Thicknet is about 1/2 inch in diameter and not very flexible. Thicknet is older and not very common anymore except as a backbone within and between buildings. Coax transmits at 10 Mbps.. Twisted Pair. Twisted pair looks like telephone wire and consists of insulated strands of copper wire twisted together. There are two versions of twisted pair cable: Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) and Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP). STP is commonly used in Token Ring networks and UTP in Ethernet networks where it is referred to as "10baseT." Transmission rates vary between 10-100 Mbps.. Fiber-Optic Cable. Fiber-optic cable consists of a thin cylinder of glass surrounded by glass cladding, encased in protective outer sheath. Fiber-optic cable is very fast (100 Mbps). It can transmit over long distances (2 km +) but is expensive.

*Dont confuse Thinnet cable (RG 58) with cable TV cable (RG 59). They look alike but they are not interchangeable. What are the recommended maximum segment lengths for each type of cable? The type of cable plays a role in how fast a signal will degrade as it is transmitted. The following are the recommended maximum cable lengths: Thinnet- maximum length of segment (terminator to terminator) is 185 meters (607 feet) Thicknet -maximum length of segment (single run) is 500 meters (1,640 feet) Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) - maximum length of cable between hub and computer is 100 meters (328 feet) Fiber-Optic - maximum length of cable is 2 kilometers. (6,562 feet) What is a backbone? A backbone is a generic term used to describe media that interconnects a number of computers, segments or subnets.

In its most common form, a backbone is used to connect hubs. Each hub represents a segment on which individual workstations are connected via UTP cable. The hubs from different segments are then connected to each other with thinnet cable. In this case, the thinnet cable functions as the backbone that links the hubs. In another example, a backbone may be a length of cable that serves as a trunk. Drop cables are attached from the backbone to connect individual workstations. A backbone is often used to connect networks in separate buildings. Organizations typically use fiber-optic cable for this type of backbone. Thicknet is also used as a backbone.

What are the characteristics of coaxial cable? Coaxial cable (coax) has the following characteristics: Transmission rate of about 10 Mbps Maximum cable length of 185 meters for Thinnet, 500 meters for Thicknet Good resistance to electrical interference Less expensive than fiber-optics but more expensive than twisted pair. Flexible and easy to work with (Thinnet) Wire type is 20 AWG for Thinnet (R-58) and 12 AWG for Thicknet. Ethernet designation is 10base2 (Thinnet) or 10base5 (Thicknet, also referred to as 'standard Ethernet').

What are the different types of coaxial cable? The following designations are used to distinguish the different types of coaxial cable: RG-58 RG-58 RG-59 RG-62 A/U Thinnet, stranded wire core, 50 ohms /U Thinnet, solid wire core, 50 ohms Thicknet, cable television, broadband ArcNet, 75 ohms

A cable's designation is typically printed on the its outer sheathing. As a general rule, you cannot mix coax cable types on the network. What connection hardware is used with thinnet coaxial cable? Thinnet utilizes the following connection hardware referred to as BNC components:

Terminator a resister used to absorb the signal once it reaches the end of the bus; connects to a T- or barrel connector; RG-58 requires a 50-ohm terminator; RG-62 requires a 75-ohm terminator. Cable Connector the interface at the end of the cable that is used to connect to a barrel or T-connector T-Connector used to connect to a NIC and another cable connector or a terminator (you cannot connect directly to a NIC with a cable connector; you must use a Tconnector) Barrel Connector used to splice to segments of cable together or attach a terminator at the end of the cable

What connection hardware is used with thicknet coaxial cable? Thinnet utilizes the following connection hardware referred to as BNC components: Thicknet utilizes an AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) connector to attach to a Network Interface Card (NIC). The AUI connector has 15 pins and is alternatively referred to as a DB-15 or DIX connector. One of the unique characteristics of Thicknet is the use of an external transceiver. (The transceiver is used to convert signals from parallel to serial for transmission on the network.) The Thicknet cable attaches to the transceiver via a clamp or vampire tap. The NIC connects to the transceiver using a drop cable with AUI connectors.

What is Plenum cable? Thinnet utilizes the following connection hardware referred to as BNC components: Plenum refers to the space in buildings between the ceiling and the next floor above it. Because of the potential fire hazard, building codes are very specific about what type of wiring can be placed in this area. refers to the space in buildings between the ceiling and the next floor above it. Because of the potential fire hazard, building codes are very specific about what type of wiring can be placed in this area. Plenum cable refers to coaxial cabling that meets the minimum standards to allow it to be strung in the plenum area without having to use special conduit. The insulation and jacket on plenum cabling must be fire resistant and not give off toxic fumes when burned. refers to coaxial cabling that meets the minimum standards to allow it to be strung in the plenum area without having to use special conduit. The insulation and jacket on plenum cabling must be fire resistant and not give off toxic fumes when burned. Not all coaxial cable is plenum cable. The most common type of coaxial cable is PVC (polyvinyl chloride) which is more flexible and easier to work with than plenum but does not have the same fire resistance features. PVC cable can give off toxic fumes when burned.

What are the key characteristics of UTP? Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) has the following key characteristics: Transmission rate of 10-100 Mbps Maximum cable segment of 100 meters Most susceptible to electrical interference or crosstalk (although shielding may lessen the impact)

Less expensive than coax or fiber-optic. In some cases, preinstalled telephone wire may be used in the network (if it is of sufficient grade). Very flexible and easy to work with Wire type is 22-26AWG Uses an RJ-45 connector Ethernet designation is 10baseT

What are the characteristics of shielded twisted pair (STP)? Shielded twisted pair (STP) is similar to UTP except it contains a copper braid jacket to shield the wires from electrical interference. It can support transmissions over greater distances than UTP.

What are the 5 categories of UTP and what is the minimum acceptable category for 10baseT? The following categories of unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable were established by the EIA/TIA* to support the networks indicated: Category Category Category Category Category 1 2 3 4 5 Traditional telephone cable; supports voice only, not data Data transmissions up to 4 Mbps (but not token ring) 10 Mbps Ethernet 16 Mbps token-ring 100 Mbps; supports ATM

The minimum acceptable cable for 10baseT Ethernet is Category 3. *EIA/TIA 568 is the standard developed by the Electronic Industries Association/Telecommunications Industry Association applies to all UTP that works with networks. Are there other cable specifications? Yes. There are several different specifications used to classify cable. One of the oldest is the AWG (American Wire Gauge) rating. This rating measures the thickness or gauge of the wire with the size being inverse to the rating. For example, a 22 AWG cable is thicker than a 24 AWG cable. 22 AWG wire is typically used in telephone wire and UTP. IBM uses its own system of cable classification whereby cables are categorized as types. For example, Type 3 wire is basically equivalent to the Category 3 wire discussed earlier. However, not all of the types used by IBM coincide exactly with a particular category. In the non-IBM world, UTP cable is typically referred to by its category classification and coax by its RG designation. What connectors are used with UTP?

UTP uses a connection called the RJ-45 connector. It looks similar to a common telephone connector (RJ-11) except it is slightly larger. The RJ-45 has 8 pins while the RJ-11 has only 4. UTP cable typically runs from a computers NIC and plugs directly into a wall plate much like a regular telephone. It is not uncommon to find wall plates in newer buildings labeled as Voice (for telephones) or Data (for UTP). The cable running from the wall jack is rarely attached directly into a hub. Instead the individual cables are collected and organized with patch panels located in a wiring closet. Do I have to have a hub to use UTP cable? No. If you have two computers and their NICs have RJ-45 connections, then you can simply connect them with UTP cable. However, you will need a special type of UTP cable called a crossover cable. This cable is a normal UTP cable with the pin connections switched on one end so that the NICs can talk to each other. You can make a crossover cable by removing the RJ-45 connector at one end and switching (or crossing) the wire pairs. The downside to using a crossover cable is that it only allows you to connect two computers. If you need to connect more than two computers, you have to buy a hub or use coax cable.

What is fiber-optic cable and how does it work? Fiber-optic cable uses optical rather than electrical pulses to transmit signals. Fiber-optic cable consists of pure silicon glass cylinders or strands surrounded by cladding. Each strand can pass a signal in only one direction so fiber-optic cable on a network typically consists of at least two strands: one for sending and one for receiving. Electronic signals generated by the computer are converted to optical signals in the form of photons which are transmitted (flashed) down the cable by a laser or light-emitting diode. A photodetector on the other end collects the optical signals and they are converted back to electrical signals. Unlike copper cable, the signals on fiber-optic cable are not subject to the problems of attenuation, capacitance, or crosstalk. This greatly increases the potential transmission distance. In addition fiber-optic cable is more secure than copper cable. It does not generate electromagnetic signals and any external tap is easily detected by a reduction in signal strength. Fiber-optic cable is generally more expense than copper cable.

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