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Homework Title/No.

Course Code: ______INT506__________

Course Instructor: _____Mr.Abhinav Khurana______ Course Tutor (If Applicable): ________ Date of Allotment: _ _______Date of Submission: __28-04-2010______________ : _____RD2601A28___________Section No:

Students Roll No. __D2601_________________ Declaration:

I declare that this assignment is my individual work. I have not copied from any other students work or from any other source except where due acknowledgement is made explicitly in the text, nor has any part been written for me by another person.

Students Signature: __Sushil Goyal___ Evaluators Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Marks Obtained: ________ ___out of ____________ Content of Homework should start from this page only:

Q1. Write command that will show that EIGRP is connected to a specific network of your choice and also with an Autonomous System number of 300? ANS:- Command that will show that EIGRP is connected to a specific network with an autonomous system number of 300:-

ROUTER1:Router1# config t Router1(config)#router eigrp 300 Router1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 Router1(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0 Router1(config-router)#exit

ROUTER2:Router2# config t Router2(config)#router eigrp 300 Router2(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 Router2(config-router)#network 192.168.3.0 Router2(config-router)#exit Q2. Take a sample network of your own to illustrate the concept of load-balancing with EIGRP. Load Balance at least 4 equal cost links ANS:- Every routing protocol supports equal cost path load balancing. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and EIGRP also support unequal cost path load balancing. Use the variance n command in order to instruct the router to include routes with a metric of less than n times the

minimum metric route for that destination. The variable n can take a value between 1 and 128. The default is 1, which means equal cost load balancing. Traffic is also distributed among the links with unequal costs, proportionately, with respect to the metric. EIGRP not only provides unequal cost path load balancing, but also intelligent load balancing, such as traffic sharing. In order to control how traffic is distributed among routes when there are multiple routes for the same destination network that have different costs, use the traffic-share balanced command. With the keyword balanced, the router distributes traffic proportionately to the ratios of the metrics that are associated with different routes.

Q3. Take a sample OSPF network and show the concept of wildcard in use. ANS:-concept of wildcard:-

ROUTER1:-

Router1#config t Router1(config)#router ospf 20 Router1(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 Router1(config-router)#network 192.168.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 Router1(config-router)#exit ROUTER2:Router2#config t Router2(config)#router ospf 20 Router2(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 Router2(config-router)#network 192.168.3.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 Router2(config-router)#exit In this example the wild card we have used is 0.0.0.255 as CIDR is /24 which means the block size is 256 and wild card mask is always 1 less than the block size. Q4. Enlighten upon the concept of STP & illustrate the various Tree terms in use. ANS:-STP:- STP is stands for spanning tree protocol. Spanning tree protocol is used to stop the network loop from occurring on layer 2 network. For this purpose it is used STA (spanning tree algorithm). The STA first create a topology database and then search out and destroy redundant links. VARIOUS SPANNING TREE TERM:ROOT BRIDGE:- Root bridge is bridge which has best bridge ID. The all important decision is taking by bridge root like which port is to be blocked mode, which port is to be forwarding port. BPDU:- BPDU is stands for bridge protocol date unit. BPDU sends to one neighbour with the one that it receives from another neighbour. Bridge ID:- bridge ID is combination of port priority and MAC address. The bridge ID assign to all ports, which port has lowest bridge ID that port become a root bridge in the network. NON-ROOT BRIDGE:- Except root bridge the all other bridges are called non-root bridges. The non-root bridge exchanges the BPDU with all bridge.

ROOT PORT:- the directly connected port to the root bridge is called root port. The lowest cost port is also become root port. DESIGNATED PORT:- Designated port is port which has lowest port cost or best cost. Designated port also acts as a forwarding port. NON-DESIGNATED PORT:- Non-designated port is port which has highest cost. Nondesignated port marked as a blocking port. FORWARDING PORT:- Forwarding port is used to forward the frames. BLOCKED PORT:- Blocked port is not forward the frames. It only listen the frames, will not forward the frames. Q5. Write about the 3 switch functions at Layer 2 and use suitable examples to illustrate the concept. ANS:- Three switch functions at layer 2 are as follows:1) Address learning:- The switch is a layer 2 device because it works on MAC address

within a particular network. Every switch creates a MAC forward/ filter table of its own. When a switch is powered on its MAC table is empty, taking reference of the below network:

Switch>en

Switch#config t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Switch(config)#do sh mac-address-table Mac Address Table -------------------------------------------

Vlan ----

Mac Address -----------

Type -----

Ports

--------

The switch does nothing until and unless a request for data transmission is sent by connecting devices. When a device transmits and an interface receives a frame the switch places the frames sending address into the MAC table. After that when we show the mac- address table of switch, it is just like as: Switch#sh mac-address-table Mac Address Table Vlan ---1 1 1 1 1 Mac Address ----------Type ----Fa0/2 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 Fa0/1 Fa0/3 Ports

--------

0001.639e.a347 0001.974d.5701 0005.5ee5.49da 000c.856a.6d49 000c.cfda.8bb1

DYNAMIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC DYNAMIC

2) Forward/filter decision:- When a frame is received its destination hardware address is stored and matched with the entries in the table if it matches then only it is forwarded. When a frame is received on an interface, the switch takes note the destination hardware address and finds the exit interface i.e. the interface through which the frame will be sent for its destination and only that interface is to be used. 3) Loop avoidance:- Loop avoidance is done by using spanning tree protocol. STP is stands for spanning tree protocol. Spanning tree protocol is used to stop the network loop from occurring on layer 2 network. For this purpose it is used STA (spanning tree algorithm). The STA first create a topology database and then search out and destroy redundant links. We select one root bridge, root port, forwarding and blocking ports to avoid loops. S1(config)#do show spanning-tree VLAN0001 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32769

Address Cost Port

0005.5E70.331C 19 2(FastEthernet0/2)

Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec

Bridge ID Priority Address

32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)

0060.70A3.3B34

Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 20

Interface

Role Sts Cost

Prio.Nbr Type

---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- -------------------------------Fa0/1 Desg FWD 19 128.1 P2p

Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

Root FWD 19 Desg FWD 19 Altn BLK 19

128.2 128.3 128.4

P2p P2p P2p

Q6. Write about the procedure of selecting the Root Bridge, quote an example to support the answer. ANS:- Procedure of selecting the root bridge:1) S1#config t 2) S1(config)#do show spanning-tree VLAN0001 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 32769

Address Cost Port

0005.5E70.331C 19 2(FastEthernet0/2)

Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec

Bridge ID Priority Address

32769 (priority 32768 sys-id-ext 1)

0060.70A3.3B34

Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 20

Interface

Role Sts Cost

Prio.Nbr Type

---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- --------------------------------

Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4

Desg FWD 19 Root FWD 19 Desg FWD 19 Altn BLK 19

128.1 128.2 128.3 128.4

P2p P2p P2p P2p

3) S1(config)# spanning-tree vlan 1 priority 4096 4) S1(config)#do show spanning-tree VLAN0001 Spanning tree enabled protocol ieee Root ID Priority 4097

Address

0060.70A3.3B34

This bridge is the root Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec

Bridge ID Priority Address

4097 (priority 4096 sys-id-ext 1)

0060.70A3.3B34

Hello Time 2 sec Max Age 20 sec Forward Delay 15 sec Aging Time 20

Interface

Role Sts Cost

Prio.Nbr Type

---------------- ---- --- --------- -------- -------------------------------Fa0/1 Fa0/2 Fa0/3 Fa0/4 Desg FWD 19 Desg FWD 19 Desg FWD 19 Desg LRN 19 128.1 128.2 128.3 128.4 P2p P2p P2p P2p