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4. 4. 0 PENGENALAN
- Sist em per samaan ser ent ak boleh diselesaikan dengan bant uan t eor i mat r iks.
- Car a ini lebih mudah dan menj imat kan masa ber banding kaedah gant ian dan kaedah penghapusan.
4. 4. 1 KAEDAH SONGSANGAN MATRI KS (I NVERSE)
- Per lu mendapat kan songsangan t er lebih dahulu, kemudian menggunakan r umus
- Cont oh
Dapat kan penyelesaian bagi set per samaan ser ent ak dibawah
x - y + z = 3
4x 3y z = 6
3x + y + 2z = 23
Penyelesaian
Langkah 1: Tuliskan per samaan ser ent ak dalambent uk per samaan mat r iks
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2 1 3
1 3 4
1 1 1
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z
y
x
=
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23
6
3
,dengan
A =
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2 1 3
1 3 4
1 1 1
X =
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z
y
x
B =
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23
6
3
Langkah 2: Car i songsangan A
- 1
=
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2 1 3
1 3 4
1 1 1
* r uj uk not a 4.3.5
Mula-mula dapat kan penent u A
A = ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | 3 3 1 4 1 3 1 2 4 1 1 1 2 3 1 + = 19
Car i minor A
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1 5 4
4 1 3
13 11 5
Kemudian dapat kan kof akt or t er hadap minor A
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1 5 4
4 1 3
13 11 5
Set er usnya dampingan A (lakukan t r ansposisi t er hadap kof akt or )
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1 4 13
5 1 11
4 3 5
4. 4: PENYELESAI AN PERSAMAAN SERENTAK LI NEAR TI GA PEMBOLEHUBAH
X = A
- 1
B
22
Selepas it u, guna r umus = adj oin x
penent u
1

19
1
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1 4 13
5 1 11
4 3 5
=
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19
1
19 19
13
19
5
19
1
19
11
19 19
3
19
5
4
4
Langkah 3: Guna r umus X = A
- 1
B
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z
y
x
=
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19
1
19 19
13
19
5
19
1
19
11
19 19
3
19
5
4
4
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23
6
3

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z
y
x
=
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+
+
+ +
19
23 24 39
19
115 6 33
19
92 18 5 `
dar abkan
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z
y
x
=
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2
4
5
Maka x = 5, y = 4, z = 2
- Cont oh
Dapat kan penyelesaian bagi set per samaan ser ent ak dibawah
3x
1
x
2
= 4
-2x
1
4x
2
+ 2x
3
= -8
3x
1
+ 9x
2
3x
3
= 18
Penyelesaian
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3 9 3
2 4 2
0 1 3
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3
2
1
x
x
x
=
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18
8
4
A =
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3 9 3
2 4 2
0 1 3
X =
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3
2
1
x
x
x
B =
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18
8
4
Rumus adj oin x
penent u
1
=
18
1

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18
8
4
=
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18
14
18
30
18
6
18
6
18
9
0
18
2
18
3
18
6
x
1
= 2, x
2
= 2, dan x
3
= 2 =
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3
2
1
x
x
x
=
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18
14
18
30
18
6
18
6
18
9
0
18
2
18
3
18
6
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18
8
4
A
- 1
B
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3 9 3
2 4 2
0 1 3
= -18
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14 6 2
30 9 3
6 0 6
Minor
Penent u
Kof akt or
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14 6 2
30 9 3
6 0 6
Tr ansposisi
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14 30 6
6 9 0
2 3 6
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14 30 6
6 9 0
2 3 6
Rumus X = A
- 1
B
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+
+
+
18
252 240 24
18
108 72 0
18
36 24 24
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2
2
2
23
Lakukan kaedah songsangan mat r iks t er hadap
7x + 4y + 3z = 26
6x + 11y = 60
4x + 6y +12z = 68
4. 4. 2 PETUA CRAMER (CRAMERS RULE)
- Memer lukan kemahir an mendapat kan penent u unt uk mat r iks
- Cont oh
Selesaikan per samaan ser ent ak ber ikut :
5x - y + 7z = 4
6x - 2y + 9z = 5
2x + 8y 4z = 8
Penyelesaian
Langkah 1: Tuliskan dalam bent uk per samaan mat r iks
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4 8 2
9 2 6
7 1 5
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=
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8
5
4
z
y
x
A =
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4 8 2
9 2 6
7 1 5
X =
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z
y
x
B =
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8
5
4
Langkah 2: Gant ikan set iap laj ur dengan mat r iks B, sement ar a unsur lain dikekalkan
A =
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4 8 2
9 2 6
7 1 5
A
1
=
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4 8 8
9 2 5
7 1 4
A
2
=
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4 8 2
9 5 6
7 4 5
A
3
=
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8 8 2
5 2 6
4 1 5
Langkah 3: Car i penent u bagi A , A
1
, A
2 ,
A
3
A =
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4 8 2
9 2 6
7 1 5
A = ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | 2 2 8 6 7 2 9 4 6 1 - 8 9 4 2 5 + = 2
Gant ikan laj ur per t ama
dengan mat r iks B
Gant ikan laj ur kedua
dengan mat r iks B
Gant ikan laj ur ket iga
dengan mat r iks B
C ub a i ni ! ! !
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A
1
=
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4 8 8
9 2 5
7 1 4

1
A = ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | 8 2 8 5 7 8 9 4 5 1 - 8 9 4 2 4 + = 44
A
2
=
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4 8 2
9 5 6
7 4 5

2
A = ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | 2 5 8 6 7 2 9 4 6 4 - 8 9 4 5 5 + = -26
A
3
=
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8 8 2
5 2 6
4 1 5

3
A = ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( ) | | ( ) ( ) | | 2 2 8 6 4 2 5 8 6 1 8 5 8 2 5 + = -34
Langkah 4: Selesaikan Pet ua Cr amer unt uk mendapat kan nilai X =
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z
y
x
x =
A
A
1
=
2
44
= 22 y =
A
A
2
=
2
26
= -13 z =
A
A
3
=
2
34
= - 17
- Cont oh
Selesaikan per samaan ser ent ak ber ikut kepada t iga t empat per puluhan:
2x - 3y + z = 5
x + y + z = 7
3x 4z = 10
Penyelesaian:
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4 0 3
1 1 1
1 3 2
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=
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10
7
5
z
y
x
A =
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4 0 3
1 1 1
1 3 2
X =
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z
y
x
B =
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10
7
5
A =
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4 0 3
1 1 1
1 3 2
A
1
=
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4 0 10
1 1 7
1 3 5
A
2
=
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4 10 3
1 7 1
1 5 2
A
3
=
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10 0 3
7 1 1
5 3 2
Penent u A = -32
1
A = -144
2
A = -52
3
A = -28
Rumus x =
A
A
1
=
32
144

= 4. 5 y =
A
A
2
=
32
52

= 1. 625 z =
A
A
3
=
32
28

= 0. 875
Lakukan kaedah cr amer t er hadap
7x + 4y + 3z = 26
6x + 11y = 60
4x + 6y +12z = 68
C ub a i ni ! ! !
25
ASSESSMENT 4c
1. Dengan menggunakan kaedah mat r iks songsangan
a) 2x
1
-x
2
+3x
3
=2
x
1
+3x
2
-x
3
=11
2x
1
-2x
2
+ 5x
3
=3
b) x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 2x
3
= 3
2x
1
- x
2
- 3x
3
= -8
5x
1
+ 2x
2
+ x
3
= 9
c) 2i +j + k = 8
5i 3j + 2k =3
7i + j +3k = 20
d) 3x + 2y + 4z = 3
x + y + z = 2
2x y + 3z = -3
2. Dengan menggunakan pet ua cr amer
a) x + 2y - 3z = 3
2x y z = 11
3x + 2y + z = -5
b) x - 4y - 2z = 21
2x + y + 2z = 3
3x + 2y - z=-2
c) 4a 5b + 6c = 3
8a 7b 3c = 9
7a 8b + 9c = 6
d) 3x + 2y 2z = 16
4x + 3y + 3z = 2
-2x + y + z = 1