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Electrical Formulae
Electrical Quantities
Quantity Electromotive force Potential difference Current Magnetic ux Frequency Flux linkage Resistance Inductance Capacitance Impedance Reactance Power,dc,or active Power, reactive Power, total or apparent Power factor angle Angular velocity Rotational velocity Symbol E, e* V, v* I, i* f R L C Z X P Q S n Unit Name Unit Symbol Volt Volt Ampere Weber Hertz Weber-turns Ohm Henry Farad Ohm Ohm Watt Volt-ampere reactive Volt-ampere Radians per second Revolutions per second Revolutions per minute Efciency Number of pairs of poles p V V A Weber Hz H F W VAr, var VA , deg. rads-1 s-1 ,rev s-1 min-1, rpm

AC Three-Phase (Assuming Balanced Symmetrical Waveform) All quantities r.m.s values: Vl = Line-to-line voltage Vp = Phase voltage (line-to-neutral) Il = line current (wye) Ip = Phase current (delta) In a WYE connected circuit, Vp = Vl 3, Vl = 3Vp, Il = Ip In a DELTA connected circuit: Ip = Il 3, Il = 3 Ip Vl = Vp Total of apparent power in VA = 3 Vl Il Active power in watts,W = 3 Vl Il cos Reactive power in VAr = 3 Vl Il sin Power factor (pf) = cos = Active power / Apparent power = W / VAr Three-Phase Induction Motors All quantities rms values: kWmech = horsepower x 0.746 kWelec = 3 Vl Il cos at rated speed and load where Vl = supply voltage Il = rated full load current cos = rated full load power factor Efciency, = (kWmech kWelec) x 100 per cent Phase current Ip = Il for wye connection Ip = Il 3 for delta connection Loads (phase values) Resistance R, measured in Ohms (no energy storage) Inductive reactance, XL = L = 2 L Ohms (stores energy) Where = frequency (Hz), L = Inductance (H) Capacitative reactance, XC = 1/(C) = 1/(2C) Where = frequency (Hz), C = Capacitance (F) Impedance Impedance is the algebraic sum of the separate load values thus: Z= (R2 + XL2) or (R2 + XC2)

Symbols & Formulae

* Capital and small letters designate rms and instantaneous value respectively.

AC Single-Phase All quantities r.m.s. values: V=I Z Total or apparent power in VA = Vl = I2Z = V2 Z Active power in watts, W =Vl cos Reactive power in VAr = Vl sin

If R, XL and XC are present in series in the same circuit then XL and XC may be summated, treating XC as negative, thus Z= (R2 + (XL - XC)2)

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CTi Automation - Phone: 800.894.0412 - Fax: 208.368.0415 - Web: www.ctiautomation.net - Email: info@ctiautomation.net

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Electrical Formulae
Ohms Law Amperes = or Volts Ohms or Ohms = Volts Amperes

Mechanical Variables
Material Densities Materials Aluminum Brass Bronze Copper Hard Wood Soft Wood Plastic Glass Titanium Paper Polyvinyl chloride Rubber Silicone Rubber, without ller Cast Iron, gray Steel lb/in3 0.096 0.299 0.295 0.322 0.029 0.018 0.04 0.079-0.090 0.163 0.025-0.043 0.047-0.050 0.033-0.036 0.043 0.274 0.28 gm/cm3 2.66 8.3 8.17 8.91 0.8 0.48 1.11 2.2-2.5 4.51 0.7-1.2 1.3-1.4 0.92-0.99 1.2 7.6 7.75

Volts = Amperes x Ohms

Power in DC Circuits Horsepower = Volts x Amperes 746

Watts = Volts x Amperes Kilowatts = Volts x Amperes 1,000 Volts x Amperes x Hours 1,000

Kilowatts-Hours = Power in AC Circuits

Symbols & Formulae

Kilovolt-Amperes (KVA): kVA (1) = kVA (3) = Kilowatts (Kw) kW (1) = Volts x Amperes x Power Factor 1,000 Volts x Amperes 1,000 Volts x Amperes x 1.73 1,000

kW (3) = Volts x Amperes x Power Factor x 1.73 1,000 Power Factor = Kilowatts Kilovolts x Amperes

Other Useful Formulae


Three-Phase (3) Circuits HP = E x I x 3 x Eff x PF 746 HP x 746 E x 3 x Eff x PF kVA x 1000 3 xE kW x 1000 3 x E x PF kW x 1000 ExIx 3 E x I x Hours x 3 x PF 1000

Friction Coefcients Materials Steel on Steel (greased) Plastic on Steel Copper on Steel Brass on Steel Aluminum on Steel Steel on Steel Mechanism Ball Bushings Linear Bearings Dove-tail Slides Gibb Ways

Ffr=WL ~0.15 ~0.15-0.25 ~0.30 ~0.35 ~0.45 ~0.58 <0.001 <0.001 ~0.2++ ~0.5++

Motor Amps = Motor Amps = Motor Amps = Power Factor = Kilowatt Hours =

Mechanism Efciencies Acme screw with brass nut Acme screw with plastic nut Ballscrew Chain and Sprocket Preloaded Ballscrew Spur or Bevel gears Timing Belts Worm Gears Helical Gear (1 reduction)

~0.35-0.65 ~0.50-0.85 ~0.85-0.95 ~0.95-0.98 ~0.75-0.85 ~0.90 ~0.96-0.98 ~0.45-0.85 ~0.92

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Power (Watts) = E x I x 3 x PF

CTi Automation - Phone: 800.894.0412 - Fax: 208.368.0415 - Web: www.ctiautomation.net - Email: info@ctiautomation.net