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FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

3.1 Introduction
As well as the passive components described in the previous chapter, modern transmission systems contain a growing number of power electronic devices with the aim of enhancing the power transfer controllability. These are discussed in this chapter under the two categories of FACTS (Flexible a.c. Transmission Systems) and HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current Transmission). Power electronic devices are not amenable to easily manageable equivalent circuits, as their constituent elements vary with the operating condition in a non-linear fashion. Therefore, the steady state models of the power electronic devices are described in this chapter in the form of mathematical relationships instead of circuit equivalents.

3.2 Flexible a.c. Transmission Systems [l]


In the conventional free flow mode of operation of a.c. transmission networks, the power flow on individual transmission circuits is determined by the characteristics of the transmission network itself. Moreover, for stable operation sufficient transmission margin must be available at all times to accommodate the almost instantaneous redistribution of power flow that results from a power system disturbance. Instead of this free flow mode of operation, the power flow through one or more transmission lines can be controlled in a predetermined manner, through the application of power electronic controlled devices at strategic locations. The use of such devices reduces the need for network reinforcements by improving the utilization and performance of existing facilities. The main control actions in a power system, such as changing transformer taps, switching current or governing turbine steam pressure, are currently achieved through the use of mechanical devices, which necessarily impose a limit on the speed at which control action can be made. FACTS devices, based on solid-state control, are capable of control actions at far higher speed. The three parameters that control transmission line power flow are line impedanceand the magnitude and phase of line end voltages. Conventional control of these parameters, although adequate during steady-state and slowly changing load conditions, cannot, in general, be achieved quickly enough to

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3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

Sending end

Receiving end

Figure 3.1 Simplified transmission system

0
a

Figure 3.2 Effect of different power flow controllers

handle dynamic system conditions. It is shown below that the use of FACTS technology can change this situation. The real and reactive power transferred via the simplified transmission line of Figure 3.1 are determined by the following relationships:

p = - ' s V R sin 8,

XL

(3.1) (3.2)

VS Q = -[v,

XL

case - VR]

Figure 3.2, graph (l), shows the variation of real power transmission with voltage phase angle difference (6) for the case when (Vsl = l V ~ = V . The effect of the l different power flow controllers is also shown in Figure 3.2, graph (2) is achieved by the insertion of series capacitance, graph (3) by the presence of a constant voltage source in the middle of the line in the form of a static VAR compensator and graph (4)by the use of a phase shifter. The characteristics and modelling of FACTS devices used to implement the above power flow controls are discussed next.

3 2 1 Thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) ..


The TCSC unit shown in Figure 3.3 constitutes the basic module of an Advanced Series Compensator (ASC). By exercising phase-angle control of the switching instants the ASC alters the transmission line impedance in a controllable manner [2,3].

3.2 FLEXIBLE A.C. TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS [I]

55

Transmission line

Figure 3.3 Thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC)

Figure 3.4 Equivalent circuit of the basic TCSC module

A number of these modules in series permits, within specified limits [4] the following:
0

Flexible, continuous control of the effective line impedance, and thus of the compensation level. Direct dynamic control of power flow within the network. Damping of local and inter-area oscillations, as well as subsynchronous resonances.

0 0

Figure 3.5 shows the ASC voltage V C (diagram (a)), the thyristor pair asymmetrical c current pulses i~ (diagram (b)), the capacitor current i (diagram (c)) and the line current i~ (diagram (d)), which is assumed sinusoidal. The chosen time reference is the positive-going zero crossing of the TCSC voltage. The waveforms of Figure 3.5 are derived by applying the Laplace Transform to the circuit of Figure 3.4. The resulting steady state current [4] has the following expression:
iT(t)

= A C O S U -~A

cos B cos fi&t cos ka

(3.3)

where
A=--@ ;

@;
- w2 LC
1

0;=

k =q / w
and the firing angle a = R - a.

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3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

4 f

Line current

Figure 3.5 ASC voltage and current waveforms


I I I

$
Q

Inductive

I I
I
1

3, 1 E I

Capacitive

I I
1

1 I

Figure 3.6 Effective ASC circuit impedance

The ASC circuit effective reactance at fundamental frequency (XI) derived from is Fourier analysis of the waveforms and has the following expression:

XI=--- -[2a + sin 2a] +


WC

R6X

4A cos 2a[k tan k a - tan a]. noc(2k - 1)

(3.4)

Equation (3.4) has poles at:


ka = (2n - l)n/2

for n = 1 , 2 , 3 , . , .

A plot of the effective impedance is shown in Figure 3.6.

3.2.2 Static on-load tap changing


The voltage magnitude difference between the sending and receiving ends is primarily responsible for the transfer of reactive power according to Equation (3.2)

3.2 FLEXIBLE A.C. TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS [ l ]

57

Figure 3.7 Equivalent circuit of the two-winding transformer

when 8,the phase angle difference between the sending and receiving end voltages, is kept small for stability reasons. On-Load Transformer tap Changing (OLTC) is widely used to satisfy Equation (3.2) while maintaining a constant voltage on the receiving end transformer secondary side. Figure 3.7 shows the equivalent circuit of a two-winding transformer with complex taps on both primary and secondary windings [ 5 ] . The primary and secondary windings are represented by ideal transformers in series with their respective impedances Z and Z,. They both include complex tap ratios, , which are different for the voltage and the current, i.e.

TVLVV Ti" for the primary =


and
UvLvu V; =

for the secondary.

To account for transformer core loss, the equivalent circuit of Figure 3.7 includes a magnetizing admittance branch Yo. The following expressions can be written for the circuit of Figure 3.7:

(3.5)

or
(3.8) where

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FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

Putting Equations ( 3 . 3 , (3.6) and (3.7) into matrix form:

(3.10)

Matrix Equation (3.10) represents the transformer shown in Figure 3.7. However, a reduced equivalent matrix can be written using only the external nodes p and s, i.e.

3.2.3 Static phase shifter


As shown in Figure 3.2 (graph 4 , the power flow can be kept at its peak value over ) a range of phase angles. This is achieved by means of a quadrature voltage injection, V,, which produces the required phase angle shift in the voltages to keep the power flow at a level which is independent of phase angle 6. No action is taken in the region of 0 < 8 < 90", where the power follows the same trace as case 1. After 90", V,, is altered so the phase angle between the sending and receiving end voltages remains at 90". When the phase is greater than 90" + a , the power flow is decreased sinusoidally towards zero as the angle increases. The voltage phase angle can be adjusted with a Thyristor Controlled Phase Angle (TCPA) device or phase shifter, as shown in Figure 3.8.

Transmission Line

Figure 3.8 Thyristor Controlled Phase Angle (TCPA)

3.2 FLEXIBLE A.C. TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS [ l ]

59

The general model described in the previous section can be adapted for phase-shifting [ 5 ] , if the following substitutions are made in Equation (3.1 1):

Tv = cos@,, + jsin@rv,
Uv = cos Cpuv

+ j sin @,,.

(3.12)

Then the transfer admittance matrix equation becomes:

(3.13)

3 2 4 Static VAR compensator [6] ..


The OLTC does not provide reactive power and, therefore, the receiving voltage level can only be maintained if there exists a 'flexible' and rapidly controllable source of reactive power, either locally or somewhere at the sending end. Power electronics can provide such sources in the form of static VAR Compensators (SVC). An SVC (shown in Figure 3.9) is a parallel combination of capacitors and inductors, the latter under phase angle control (TCR). This combination provides a fast variable source (or sink) of reactive power. TCRs were designed to operate with thyristor switches and have already been used extensively worldwide in the past two decades. The operation of the TCR is illustrated by the equivalent circuit and waveforms shown in Figure 3.10. The following two equations represent the positive and negative half-cycles of the reactor current.
WL

(3.14) (3.15)

Transmission line

I
T
Figure 3.9 Static VAR Compensator (SVC) using (TCR)

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3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

+ I

Figure 3.10

Thyristor controlled reactor

and the fundamental component of this current is (3.16)

3.2.5 The static compensator (STATCOM) [7]


Besides their relatively high cost, SVCs produce harmonic currents that require some filtering. A more flexible alternative recently proposed is the static equivalent to the synchronous compensator, hence termed the STATCOM, based on the principle of a voltage-sourced converter which uses gate turn-off devices and, therefore, does not need the expensive passive reactive components. The basic components of a STATCOM are illustrated in Figure 3.11. For an ideal lossless unit, the (threephase) inverted voltage (Vinv) is in phase with the ax. source voltage ( V s ) . Then (from Equation 3.2) when V , > Vinv, the unit absorbs VARs whereas for V , < Vinv it provides VARs.

Figure 3.11 Static compensator (STATCOM)

3.2 FLEXIBLE A.C. TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS [ I ]

61

While primarily designed for reactive power, the STATCOM is potentially capable of storing energy (e.g. in the form of superconducting coils) for use to improve transient stability.

3.2.6 Unified power flow controller (UPFC)


The UPFC is a device capable of controlling the active and reactive power, as well as the voltage magnitude. Within specified operating limits, the UPFC can control the three variables simultaneously. Thus, the UPFC can operate as a shunt VAR Compensator, as a thyristor controlled series compensator, or as a phase-shifter controller. The main components of the UPFC, shown in Figure 3.12, are the shunt and series converters. The output voltage of the latter is added in series to the a.c. terminal voltage VO via a coupling transformer. Therefore, the injected voltage, V c ~acts as a series , voltage source and alters the sending-end voltage at node rn. The active and reactive power exchanged between the series converter and the a.c. system is given by the product of the transmission line current, I,, and the series voltage source, V c ~ . The active power provided by the series converter is derived from the a.c. power system via the shunt converter and a d.c. link. The shunt converter can generate or absorb controllable reactive power in both operating modes, i.e. rectification and inversion. The reactive power can be independently controlled to maintain the shunt converter terminal a.c. voltage magnitude at a specified value. The steady-state model of the UPFC [8] is straightforward, as shown by the equivalent circuit in Figure 3.13. It consists of two ideal voltage sources representing the fundamental component of the voltage waveforms at the a s . terminals of the shunt and series converters. These are:
V,,R = V,~(cos

+ j sin OUR) V c = V,R(COS 6cR + j sin & R ) ~

(3.17)

(3.18)

V,,R and V c ~ have specified upper and lower limits, whereas their corresponding phase angles 6,,R and &R can be placed anywhere between 0 and 2n radians.

_3

lk

__*

*---.

Im

Figure 3.12 UPFC schematic diagram 181 (0 1997 IEE)

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3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

a -n -

Figure 3.13 Equivalent circuit of the UPFC [8] 0 1998 IEE)

ca

Figure 3.14 Basic three-phase rectifier bridge

3.3 High Voltage Direct Current Transmission


3.3.1 The ax.-d.c. converter
The basic converter configuration is the Graetz bridge shown in Figure 3.14. For large power ratings, static converter units generally consist of a number of series and/or parallel connected bridges, some or all bridges being phase-shifted relative to the others. With these configurations, 12-pulse and higher pulse numbers can be achieved to reduce the distortion of the supply current with limited or no filtering. A multiple bridge rectifier can, therefore, be modelled as a single equivalent bridge with a sinusoidal supply voltage at the terminals. The following basic assumptions are normally made in the development of the steady-state model [9,10]: (i) The forward voltage drop in a conducting valve is neglected so that the valve may be considered as an ideal switch. This is justified by the fact that the voltage drop is very small in comparison with the normal operating voltage. It is, further, quite independent of the current and should, therefore, play an insignificant part in the commutation process since all valves commutating on the same side of the

3.3 HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT TRANSMISSION

63

bridge suffer similar drops. Such a voltage drop is taken into account by adding it to that of the d.c. line resistance. The transformer windings resistance is also ignored in the development of the equations, though it should also be included to calculate the power loss. (ii) The converter transformer leakage reactances, as viewed from the secondary terminals, are identical for the three phases, and variations of leakage reactance caused by on-load tap-changing are ignored. (iii) The direct current ripple is ignored, i.e. sufficient smoothing inductance is assumed on the d.c. side.

Rectification Rectification in HVDC transmission is normally achieved via fullbridge configurations and steady state operation is optimized by means of transformer on-load tap-changing. Referring to the voltage waveforms in Figure 3.15 and using as time reference the instant when the phase-to-neutral voltage in phase b is a maximum, the commutating voltage of valve 3 can be expressed as:
eb

- e, = Z/Z;;vterrn ut + - , sin

;>

(3.19)

where a is the off-nominal tap-change position of the converter transformer. The shaded area in Figure 3.15(b) indicates the potential difference between the common cathode

wt=O

Figure 3.15 Diode rectifier waveforms. (a) Alternating current in phase b; (b) Common anode (ca) and cathode (cc) voltage waveform; ( c ) Rectified voltage

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3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

(cc) and common anode (ca) bridge poles for the case of uncontrolled rectification. The maximum average rectified voltage is therefore:

However, uncontrolled rectification is rarely used in large power conversion. Controlled rectification is achieved by phase-shifting the valve conducting periods with respect to their corresponding phase voltage waveforms. With delay angle control, the average rectified voltage (shown in Figure 3.16) is thus (3.21) In practice, the voltage waveform is that of Figure 3.17, where a voltage area (SA) is lost due to the reactance (X,)of the a.c. system (as seen from the converter), referred to as commutation reactance. The energy stored in this reactance has to be transferred from the outgoing to the incoming phase, and this process results in a commutation or conduction overlap angle (u). Referring to Figure 3.17 and ignoring the effect of resistance in the commutation circuit, area SA can be determined as follows:
eb -e,

= 2--

X, di,
o dt'

(3.22)

Figure. 3.16 Thyristor controlled waveform. (a) Alternating current in phase 'b'; (b) Rectified d.c. voltage waveforms

3.3 HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT TRANSMISSION

65

Figure 3.17 forms

Effect of commutation reactance, (a) Alternating current; (b) d.c. voltage wave-

where e,, e b are the instantaneous voltages of phases a and b, respectively, and i, is the incoming valve (commutating) current.

(3.23)
Finally, by combining Equations (3.20),(3.21)and (3.23), following a.c.-d.c. the voltage relationship is obtained.

(3.24)
It must be emphasized that the commutating voltage (Vterm) is the a.c. voltage at the closest point to the converter bridge where sinusoidal waveforms can be assumed. The commutation reactance (X,) is the reactance between the point at which Vterm exists and the bridge. Where filters are installed, the filter busbar voltage can be used e. as V, In the absence of filters, V,,,, must be established at some remote point and X , must be modified to include the system impedance from the remote point to the converter. With perfect filtering, only the fundamental component of the current waveform will appear in the a.c. system. This component is obtained from the Fourier analysis of the current waveform in Figure 3.17,and requires information of i, and u.

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3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION


(eb

Taking as a reference the instant when the line voltage (3.22) can be written as X , dic &avtermsin o = 2- -, r w dt and integrating with respect to (or):

- e,) is zero, Equation


(3.25)

/%
Jz

sin wtd(wt) = X ,

di,,

(3.26)

or

--1 uVtermcos wt + K = X&.

(3.27)

From the initial condition: i, = 0 at wt = a,the following expressions for K and i, are obtained 1 (3.28) K = --aVterm cos 01,

1,

= - a - cos w t ] . [cos

avterm

Ax,

(3.29)

From the final condition: i, = t d at and u are obtained.

wt

=a

+ u, the following expressions for I d


(3.30) (3.31)

Equation (3.29) provides the time-varying commutating current and Equation (3.3 1) the limits for the Fourier analysis. Fourier analysis of the a.c. current waveform, including the effect of commutation (shown in Figure 3.17) leads to the following relationship between the r.m.s. of the fundamental component and the direct current: (3.32) where

k='

[cos 2a - cos ~ ( C Y u)I2


4[cos

- coS(a + u)]

+ [2u + sin 2a - sin 2(a + u)I2

(3.33)

for values of u not exceeding 60". The values of k are very close to unity under normal operating conditions, i.e., when the voltage and currents are close to their nominal values and the a.c. voltage waveforms are symmetrical and undistorted. Taking into account the transformer tap position, the current on the primary side becomes 46 (3.34) I, = k-atd. TT
c

3.3 HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT TRANSMISSION

67

When using per unit values based on a common power and voltage base on both sides of the converter, the direct current base has to be f i times larger than the alternating current base and Equation (3.34)becomes

(3.35)
Using the fundamental components of voltage and current and assuming perfect filtering at the converter terminals, the power factor angle at the converter terminals is 4 (the displacement between fundamental voltage and current waveforms) and the following applies: (3.36) P = f i v t e r m l p cos 4 = V d l d , or

(3.37)
and

(3.38) Inversion Owing to the unidirectional nature of current flow through the converter valves, power reversal (i.e. power flow from the d.c. to the a.c. side) requires direct voltage polarity reversal. This is achieved by delay angle control which, in the absence of commutation overlap, produces rectification between 0" < a < 90" and inversion between 90" -= a < 180". In the presence of overlap, the value of a at which inversion begins is always less than 90". Moreover, unlike with rectification, full inversion (i.e. a = 180") cannot be achieved in practice. This is due to the existence of a certain deionization angle y at the end of the conducting period, before the voltage across the commutating valve reverses, i.e.

+ u 5 180" - yo,
If the above condition is not met (yo being the minimum required extinction angle), a commutation failure occurs; this event would upset the normal conducting sequence and preclude the use of the steady-state model derived in this chapter. The inverter voltage, although of opposite polarity with respect to the rectifier, is usually expressed as positive when considered in isolation. Typical inverter voltage and current waveforms are illustrated in Figure 3.18. By similarity with the waveforms of Figure 3.17,the following expression can be written for the inverter voltage in terms of the extinction angle:

(3.39)
which is the same as Equation (3.24)substituting y for a, It should by now be obvious that inverter operation requires the existence of three conditions, as follows:
(i)

An active a.c. system which provides the commutating voltages.

(ii) A d.c. power supply of opposite polarity to provide continuity for the unidirectional current flow (i.e. from anode to cathode through the switching devices). (iii) Fully controlled rectification to provide firing delays beyond 90".

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3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

Figure 3.18

Inverter waveforms. (a) Alternating current; (b) d.c. voltage waveforms

Qi

Qr

Figure 3.19 P and Q vector diagram

When these three conditions are met, a negative voltage of a magnitude given by Equation (3.39) is impressed across the converter bridge and power (-VdId) is inverted. Note that the power factor angle (4) is now larger than go", i.e.
P = JSv,,,r,
Q = d3Vte,.,,Ip

cos rp = -&VtermIp

cos(n - 4)

(3.40) (3.41)

sin 4 = 3 V t e m I p sin(n - 4).

Equations (3.40) and (3.41) indicate that the inversion process still requires reactive power supply from the a.c. side, The vector diagram of Figure 3.19 illustrates the sign of P and Q for rectification and inversion.

3.3.2 Commutation reactance


Figure 3.20 shows the general case of n bridges connected in parallel on the a.c. side. In the absence of filters, the pure sinusoidal voltages exist only behind the system source impedance ( X s s ) and the commutation reactance ( X , j ) for the jth bridge is thus
Xcj

= Xss

Xtj.

(3.42)

3.3 HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT TRANSMISSION

69

"dl

"dfl

Figure 3.20 n bridges connected in series on the d.c. side and in parallel on the a s . side

However, if the bridges are under the same controller or under identical controllers, then it is preferable to create a single equivalent bridge. The commutation reactance of such an equivalent bridge depends upon the d.c. connections and also the phase shifting between bridges. If there are k bridges with the same phase shift, then they will commutate at the same time and the equivalent reactance must reflect this. For a series connection of bridges, the commutation reactance of the equivalent bridge is:
Xcre,ies= kxss

+Xtj,

(3.43)

where j represents any of the n bridges. For bridges connected in parallel on the d.c. side, the equivalent bridge commutation reactance is: (3.44) It should be noted that with perfect filtering or when several bridges are used with different transformer phase shifts, the voltage on the a.c. side of the converter transformers may be assumed to be sinusoidal and hence X,, has no influence on the commutation.

3.3.3 d.c. link control


The invention of the high voltage mercury valve half a century ago paved the way for the development of the HVDC transmission technology. By 1954, the first commercial d.c. link came successfully into operation and was soon followed by many other schemes, orders of magnitude larger. Each terminal of the HVDC link consists of at least two bridges (like the one shown in Figure 3.14) in a 12-pulse configuration using solid state valves formed by many thyristor levels in series. HVDC transmission systems can be configured in different ways to take into account cost, flexibility and operational requirements. Three basic configurations are illustrated in Figure 3.21 in order of increasing complexity. The simplest is the back-to-back interconnection (Figure 3.2 1(a)) in which the two converters are on the same site, as there is no transmission line. They can be designed more economically (a 15% to 20% saving in converter plant is quoted) than those of

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3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

Figure 3.21 Basic configurations

long distance schemes, and are designed for relatively low voltages (50 to 150 kV), although still use the highest current rating of the single thyristors. The two units are identical and each can be used on the rectification or inversion modes as ordered by the system control. In the monopolar link (Figure 3.21(b)), the two converter stations are joined by a single conductor line, and earth (or the sea) is used as the return conductor, requiring two electrodes capable of carrying the full current. Next, and the most common configuration, is the bipolar link (Figure 3.21(c)) which consists of two monopolar systems combined, one at positive and one at negative polarity with respect to ground (middle). Each monopolar side can operate on its own with ground return; but if the two poles have equal current, they cancel each others ground current to practically zero. In such cases, the ground path is used for limited periods in an emergency, when one pole is temporarily out of service. The sending and receiving ends of the two-terminal d.c. transmission link can be modelled as single equivalent bridges with terminal voltages v d , and v d , , respectively, as shown in Figure 3.22. The direct current is thus given by: (3.45) where R d is the resistance of the link and includes the loop transmission resistance (if any), the resistance of the smoothing reactors and the converter valves. The prime considerations in the operation of a d.c. transmission system are to minimize the need for reactive power at the terminals and to reduce system losses. These objectives require maintaining the highest possible transmission voltage and this is

3.3 HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT TRANSMISSION


Convertor I Convertor I1

71

Figure 3.22 Two-terminal d.c. link

achieved by minimizing the inverter end extinction angle, i.e. operating the inverter on constant Extinction Angle (EA) control while controlling the direct current at the rectifier end by means of temporary delay angle backed by transformer tap-change control. EA control applied to the inverter automatically varies the firing angle of advance to maintain the EA y at a constant value. Deionization imposes a definite minimum limit on y , and the EA control usually maintains it at this limit. Constant Current (CC) control applied to the rectifier regulates the firing angle a! to maintain a pre-specified link current I:, within the range of a!. If the value of a required to maintain ISp falls below its minimum limit, current control is transferred to the inverter, i.e. a is fixed on its minimum limit, and the inverter firing angle is advanced to control the current. The converter-transformer tap-change is a composite part of this control. The rectifier transformer attempts to maintain a! within its permitted range. The inverter transformer attempts to regulate the d.c. voltage at some point along the line to a specified level. For minimum loss and minimum-reactive-power absorption, this voltage is required to be as high as possible, and the firing angle of the rectifier should be as low as possible. Figure 3.23 shows the d.c. voltage/current characteristics at the rectifier and inverter ends (the latter have been drawn with reverse polarity in order to illustrate the operating point). The current controller gains are very large and for all practical purposes the slopes of the constant current characteristics can be ignored. Consequently, the operating current is equal to the relevant current setting, i.e. I d f r and Id,, for rectifier and inverter constant current control, respectively. The direction of power flow is determined by the current settings, the rectifier end always having the larger setting. The difference between the settings is the current margin Id,,, and is given by (3.46) Id,,, = Id,, - I d , , > 0. Many d.c. transmission schemes are bi-directional, i.e. each converter operates sometimes as a rectifier and sometimes as an inverter. Moreover, during d.c. line faults, both converters are forced into the inverter mode in order to de-energize the line faster. In such cases, each converter is provided with a combined characteristic as shown in Figure 3.24, which includes natural rectification, CC control and constant EA control. With the characteristics shown by solid lines (i.e. operating at point A ) , power is transmitted from Converter I to Converter 11. Both stations are given the same current command but the current margin setting is subtracted at the inverter end. When power reversal is to be implemented, the current settings are reversed and the broken line characteristics apply. This results in operating point B with direct voltage reversed and no change in direct current.

72
"d

3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

lnvertor c.c.,

,Rectifier

C.C.

1%

Figure 3.23 Normal control characteristics


'd

Conv. I

Figure 3.24 Control characteristics and power flow reversal

3.3 HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT TRANSMISSION

73

Alternative forms of control A commonly used operating mode is constant power


(CP) control. As with constant current control, either converter can control power. The power setting at the rectifier terminal P d , , must be larger than that at the inverter terminal Pd,, by a suitable power margin P d , , , , that is:
Pd,,,

= Pd,,

- Pd,,

'0.

(3.47)

; The CP controller adjusts the CC control setting 1' to maintain a specified power flow P i p through the link, which is usually more practical than CC control from a system-operation point of view. The voltage/current loci now become non-linear, as shown in Figure 3.25. Several limits are added to the CP characteristics, as shown in Figure 3.26. These are:
0

A maximum current limit with the purpose of preventing thermal damage to the converter valves; normally between 1 and 1.2 times the nominal current.

vdt

Figure 3.25

Constant power characteristics

Figure 3 2 Voltage and current limits .6

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3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

A minimum current limit (about 10% of the nominal value) in order to avoid possible current discontinuities which can cause overvoltages.
Voltage dependent current limit (line OA in the figure) in order to reduce the power loss and reactive power demand. In cases where the power rating of the d.c. link is comparable with the rating of either the sending or receiving a s . systems interconnected by the link, the frequency of the smaller a.c. system is often controlled, to a large extent, by the d.c. link. With power-frequency (PF) control, if the frequency goes out of pre-specified limits, the output power is made proportional to the deviation of frequency from its nominal value. Frequency control is analogous to the CC described earlier, i.e. the converter with lower voltage determines the direct voltage of the line and the one with higher voltage determines the frequency. Again, current limits have to be imposed which override the frequency error signal. CPEA and CCEA controls were evolved principally for bulk point-to-point power transmission over long distances or submarine crossings and are still the main control modes in present use. Multi-terminal d.c. schemes have also being considered, based on the basic controls already described. Two alternative are possible, i.e. constant voltage parallel [ 1 I ] and constant current series [ 121 schemes.

3.3.4

Three-phase model [(13)]

Terminology and waveforms The converter model for unbalanced analysis


is considerably more complex than that developed for balanced operation. The additional complexity arises from the need to include the effect of the three-phase converter-transformer connection and of the converter firing control strategies. Under unbalanced conditions, the converter-transformer modifies the source voltages applied to the converter and also affects the phase distribution of current and power. Each bridge operates with a different degree of unbalance, due to the influence of the converter-transformer connections and must be modelled independently. The converter, whether rectifying or inverting, is represented by the circuit of Figure 3.27. As for symmetrical operation, in fundamental frequency studies the converter is assumed to be connecting a system with perfect filtering on the a.c. side and perfect current smoothing on the d.c. side. By using one of the converter angles (e.g. O;.,,, in Figure 3.27) as a reference, the mathematical coupling between the a.c. system and converter equations is weakened and the rate of convergence of the power flow solution improved. Computational simplicity is achieved by using common power and voltage bases on both sides of the converter. The phase-neutral voltage is used as the base parameter and, therefore
MVAb,,, = Base power per phase Vbase = Phase-neutral voltage base.

The current base on the a.c. and d.c. sides are also equal. Therefore, the p.u. system does not change the form of any of the converter equations.

3.3 HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT TRANSMISSION

75

G I I I
Primary Secondary

Figure 3.27

Basic converter unit

Figure 3.28 Star-star transformer connection

The phase-to-phase source voltages referred to the transformer secondary are found by a consideration of the transformer connection and off-nominal turns ratio. For example, consider the star-star transformer of Figure 3.28. The phase-to-phase source voltages referred to the secondary are:
(3.48)

(3.50)

which in terms of real and imaginary parts yield six equations.

Variables and equations With reference to Figures 3.27 and 3.29 and
Equations (3.48)-(3.50), the converter model uses 26 variables, i.e.
E l , E 2 , E 3 , 4 1 ,4 2 7 4 3 3 1 ~ 2 , 1 3 , 1, U12r U13r u 2 3 ~ Vdr Id.

m i 30 2 , ~

cl, c 2 , C3r G I , a 2 9 013, al, a 2 , a 3 ,

76

3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

Since the terminal voltage is assumed to be undistorted apart from negative and zero sequence at fundamental frequency, every third delay angle and commutation duration is the same, i.e. 4 4 = ( Y I , ,u4 = p l , etc. and consequently only three commutation durations and three delay angles need be considered. Therefore, 26 equations have to be found involving these variables. Starting from the d.c. side, the average d.c. voltage, found by integration of the waveforms in Figure 3.29(b), may be expressed in the form:
Vd

= -{U21[cos(cI

.Jz

n + U13[COS(C2

4 1

-c 3

+ n)- cos(C2 + 4 2 - c3 + n)]


43

+ 4 2 - CI - cos(C3 + - Cl)] + U23[COS(C3 + 4 3 - C2) - cos(C1 + 4 1 + n - C2)] - Id(Xc1 + x c 2 + Xc3)

(3.51)

where XCi is the commutation reactance for phase i. Another equation is derived from the d.c. system topology relating the d.c. voltages and currents, i.e.
f W d , Id)

= 0.

Phase 1

Figure 3.29 Unbalanced converter voltage and current waveform. (a) Phase voltages, (b) d.c. voltage waveform, (c) assumed current waveshape for Phase 1 (actual waveform is indicated by dotted line)

3.3 HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT TRANSMISSION

77

For example, a monopolar d.c. link with two bridges at each end provides the following equation: Vd, Vd2 vd, v d 4 - I d R d = 0. (3.52)

The three-phase converter transformer is represented by its nodal admittance model, i.e.

where p and s indicate the primary and secondary sides of the transformer on the assumption of a lossless transformer (i.e. Y,, = jb,,, etc.). Turning to the a.c. side, on the assumption of a lossless transformer, the currents at the converter side busbar are expressed as follows:
3 Ii
k= I

exp(jwi>= - x(jbi:Ek exp(j@k) j b i ; ~ f , ,exp[j(ef,,

- e&,,,)i.

(3.53)

By subtracting O:em in the above equation, the terminal busbar angles are related to the converter angle reference. Separating this equation into real and imaginary components, the following six equations result:
3

11 c o s w

= z[b:aEk sin @k
k= I

+ b:,kVfemsin(&,,

- e:,,)],

(3S4a)

1 2 cos 0 2

= x[b:aEk sin @k
k= I

+ b:,k~:,,,

sin(ekrm- e:,,)~,

(3.54b)

1 3 cos 0 3

= x[b::Ek
k-I

sin @k
Ik

+ b;ivfermsin(&,,, - e:,,)],
+ b:,kVfermcOs(e,k,
- e;e,)~,

(3.54c)

3
11

sin 0

= - x [ b , , E~ cos @k
k=l

(3.54d)

12

sin w2 = - x[b::&
k= I

COSok

+ bti~f,, cOs(ekrm- e;,,,,,)],

(3.54e)

k= 1

Three equations are derived from approximate expressions for the fundamental r.m.s. components of the line current waveforms as shown in Figure 3.29(c), i.e. (3.55a)

78

3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

12

4 Id = - -sin(T2/2),
n f i

(3.55b)

(3 S5C)
where T is the assumed conducting period of each phase. Six further equations can be derived from the transformer connection, interrelating the secondary (converter side) currents and the primary and secondary phase voltages, i.e. from the components of the transformers nodal admittance matrix equation. As an example, the nodal admittance matrix (in per unit) relating these variables for the star-delta connected transformer (assuming the nominal tap position a = 1 is:

-YM
Y I A -YlA
y / A

YIA

$Y -gY
1

-gY

-gY
-jY
I

?Y - g Iy

(3.56)

-y/a

+Y

$Y

The sum of the real powers on the three phases of the transformer secondary may be equated to the total d.c. power, i.e.

i= I

To obtain a reference which may be applied to all transformer secondary windings, an artificial reference node is created corresponding to the position of the zero-sequence secondary voltage. This choice of reference results in the following two equations:

C E; cos 4; = 0,
i= 1

(3.58)

C E ; sin 4; = 0.
i= 1

(3.59)

The nodal admittance matrix for the star-connected transformer secondary is now formed for an unearthed star winding. The restriction on the zero-sequence current flowing on the secondary is, therefore, implicitly included in the transformer model for both star and delta connections. A total of 20 equations have been selected so far. The remaining six are obtained from the control strategies. For three-phase inverter operation it is necessary to retain the variable 01 in the formulation, as it is required in the specification of the symmetrical

3.4 REFERENCES

79

firing controller. Therefore, the restriction upon the extinction advance angle y, requires the implicit calculation of the commutation angle for each phase. Using the specification for y , as defined in Figure 3.29, the following expressions apply: (3.60a) (3.60b) (3.60~) Two further equations result from assuming that the off-nominal tap position is the same in the three phases, i.e.
a 1

= a2,

(3.61a) (3.61b)

a2 = a3,

and a final equation relates to the constant current or constant power controller, i.e.
Id

= Is',

(3.62a) (3.62b)

Summarizing, the formulation of the three-phase converter model involves the following 26 equations: (3.51) .. . 1 (3.52) ... 1 (3.54) ... 6 ... 3 (3.55) (3.56) ... 6 ... 1 (3.57) (3.58) . .. 1 (3.59) . .. 1 . .. 3 (3.60) (3.61) . .. 2 (3.62) ... 1

3.4

References

1. Hingorani, N G, (1993). Flexible a.c. transmission systems, IEEE Spectrum, 40-45. 2. Larsen, E V, Clark, K, Miske, S S and Urbanek, J, (1994). Characteristics and rating considerations of thyristor controlled series compensation, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 9, (2), 992-1000. 3. Larsen, E V, Bowler, C, Damsky, B and Nilsson, S,(1992). Benefits of thyristor controlled series compensation, International Conference on Large High Voltage Electric Systems (CIGRE), PAPER 14/37/38-04.

80

3 FACTS AND HVDC TRANSMISSION

4. Christ], N, Hedin, R, Sadek, K, Lutzelberger, P, Krause, P E, McKenna, S M, Montoya A H and Torgenson, D, (1992). Advanced series compensation with thyristor-controlled impedance, CIGRE paper I4/37/38-05, Paris. 5 . Fuertes-Esquivel, C R and Acha, E, (1996). Newton-Raphson algorithm for the reliable solution of large power networks embedded FACTS devides, Proceeding o the IEE, Gener. f Transm. & Distrib., 143, (S), 447-454. 6. Miller, T J E, (1982). Reactive Power Control in Electric Systems, John Wiley & Sons, New York. 7. Gyugyi, L, (1994). Dynamic compensation of ax. transmission lines by solid state synchronous voltage sources, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, PD-9, (2). 904-91 1. 8. Fuertes-Esquivel, C R and Acha, E, (1998). The unified power flow controller: A critical comparison of Newton-Raphson UPFC algorithms in power flow studies, Proceedings IEE Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 144, (9,437-444. 9. Adamson, C and Hingorani, N G, (1960). HVDC Power Transmission, Garraway. 10. Arrillaga, J, (1999). HVDC Transmission, IEE Publications, London. 11. Lamm, U, Uhlmann, E and Danfors, P, (1963). Some aspects of tapping of HVDC transmission systems, Direct Current, 8, 124- 129. 12. Adamson, C and Arrillaga, J, (1968). Behaviour of multiterminal a.c.-d.c. interconnections with series-connected stations, Proceedings IEE, 115, (1 l), 1685- 1692. 13. Harker, B J and Arrillaga, J, (1979). Three-phase a.c.1d.c. load flow, Proceedings ofthe IEE, 126, (12), 1275-1281.