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Flow through Centrifugal & Axial Flow Compressors

NITISHBHUSHAN IITDELHI Tutor ProfS.Sarkar

Outline of the Presentation


Compressors
WhatisaCompressor? WhyincreaseaFluidsPressure? Classification

CentrifugalCompressors
Configuration Working BladeTypes

AxialFlowCompressors
Configuration BasicOperation

Efficiency CentrifugalCompressorPerformanceCurve
FLOW THROUGH CENTRIFUGAL & AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

Outline of the Presentation


CentrifugalCompressors Analysis AxialFlowCompressors Analysis SizingParameters

CentrifugalCompressors AxialFlowCompressors

LossesinCompressors Centrifugalcompressorsvs.AxialFlowCompressors

AdvantagesofAxialFlowCompressors AdvantagesofCentrifugalCompressors

Summary References Acknowledgements


FLOW THROUGH CENTRIFUGAL & AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

Compressors - What is a compressor?


Machinetoraisepressureofafluid Usesseveralenergytransformations
1. 2. 3.

Inputenergyconvertedtorotatingmechanicalenergy Rotatingimpellerincreasesfluidskineticenergy(velocity) Decreaseinkineticenergyduetoflowareaexpansion& increaseinpressureenergy

Energyinputs:electricity,highpressuresteam,fuel

oil,compressedair,etc.

FLOW THROUGH CENTRIFUGAL & AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

Compressors Why increase a Fluids Pressure?


1. 2.

StaticElevation

Ex:fromonefloorofabuildingtoahigherfloor Fluidmovingthroughpipingsystemexperiencesfrictional losses Pressureincreasedtoovercometheselosses Pressureincreasedforprocessreasons.Ex:tomovefluid intopressurizedvessel Velocityleavingcompressorhigherthanenteringvelocity


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Friction

3.

Pressure

4.

Velocity

Compressors - Classification
A. PrincipleofEnergyAddition 1. Kinetic

Energycontinuouslyaddedtoincreasevelocity Pressureincreasedwithreductioninvelocity Mostimportantpart:CENTRIFUGALCOMPRESSORS Energyadditionisperiodic(notcontinuous) Directapplicationofforcetofluid Causesanincreaseinpressuretorequiredvalue


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2.

PositiveDisplacement

Compressors -Classification
B. HowEnergyAdditionisAccomplished

Secondlevelofclassification Kinetic:Centrifugalpumps,regenerativeturbines& specialcompressors PD:Reciprocating&Rotarycompressors


Thirdlevelofclassification Centrifugal:Supportofimpeller,rotororientation,pump bearingsystem,no.ofstages PositiveDisplacement:manytypesofrotary&reciprocating pumps,eachwithauniquegeometry
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C. GeometryUsed

Centrifugal Compressor

Acentrifugalcompressorisaradialflowrotodynamicfluid machinethatusesmostlyairastheworkingfluidandutilizes themechanicalenergyimpartedtothemachinefromoutside toincreasethetotalinternalenergyofthefluidmainlyinthe formofincreasedstaticpressurehead.Itisbestsuitedto smallunitsofcomparativelylowpressureratiowhereoverall diameterisnotarestrictingcriterion.

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Centrifugal Compressors Configuration


A.Impeller:impartshighvelocitytothefluid Theimpellerinletiscalledtheinduceroreye Theimpellerhassealsrelativetoabackplate Theimpelleroutletiscalledtheexducer Theimpellervanesatexducermayberadialor backswept Freevortexflowuntilleadingedgeofdiffuservanes Flowhashighdegreeofswirl(50o) axialstraightener vanes
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Centrifugal Compressors - Configuration


Schematic views of a centrifugal compressor

Rotating Impeller

Single Sided Impeller

Double Sided Impeller

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Centrifugal Pumps - Configuration


B.Casing
I.

II.

VoluteCasing:Singlecutwaterwhereflowis separated.Flowmovingaroundvolutecasing producesnetradialforcethatmustbecarriedby shaft&radialbearingsystem.Doubleortwin compressorvolutesproducenearradialsymmetry& balancethehydraulicradialloadsonpumpshaft DiffuserCasing:Morecomplexcasingarrangement consistingofmultipleflowpaths.Liquidentersthe nearestflowchannelinthecasing.Multiple cutwatersarethere,evenlyspacedaroundthe impeller.
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AdvantageofDiffusercasing:Resultsinnearbalancingof

radialforces,thuseliminatingtheneedforheavyduty radialbearingsystem.Thus,theradialbearingloadis MINIMIZED DisadvantageofDiffusercasing:Diffusercasinghas generallymorecomplexpartsthanvolutecasing.Thus, dependingonthesizeofthecompressor,economics oftendonotjustifyuseofdiffusercasing


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Centrifugal Compressors - Working


Impeller rotatingwithshaft&casing thatencloses

impeller Fluidforcedintoinletbyupstreampressure Fluidmovestodischargesideasimpellerrotates Thiscreatesavoidorreducedpressureatimpeller inlet Pressureatcompressorcasinginletforces additionalfluidintoimpellertofillthevoid

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Centrifugal Compressors- Working


Afterreachingimpeller,fluidenteringmovesalong

impellervanes,increasinginvelocityasitprogresses FluidatimpelleroutlettipisatMax.Velocity Fluidenterscasingwhereexpansionofcross sectionalareaoccurs Diffusionprocessoccurs fluidsvelocitydecreases Pressureoffluidincreases(Bernoullisequation)

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VELOCITY&PRESSURELEVELSOFFLUIDINA CENTRIFUGALPUMP

PRESSURE

PRESSURE OUTLETTIPOF IMPELLERVANE INLETTIPOF IMPELLERVANE VELOCITY

VELOCITY

SUCTION

FLOWPATH

DISCHARGE

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Centrifugal Compressors - Blade Types


Therearethreeimpellervanetypesdefinedaccordingtothe exitbladeangles(DischargeVaneAngles) Impellerswithexitbladeangleequalto90degreesareradial vanes Impellerswithexitbladeanglelessthan90degreesare backwardcurvedor backwardswept Vaneswithexitbladeanglegreaterthan90degreesare knownasforwardsweptvanes Theforwardcurvedbladehasthehighesttheoreticalhead. Radialvanesrepresentacompromisebetweenmaxpressure ratio,maxefficiency&size
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Centrifugal Compressors - Blade Types


FORWARDCURVED

HEAD

RADIAL

BACKWARDCURVED

FLOWRATE

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Axial Flow Compressors

Axialcompressors arerotating,aerofoilbasedcompressorsin whichtheworkingfluidprincipallyflowsparalleltotheaxisof rotation.Thisisincontrastwithcentrifugal,axicentrifugaland mixedflowcompressorswheretheairmayenteraxiallybut willhaveasignificantradialcomponentonexit.

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Axial Flow Compressors


Axialflowcompressoriscapableofhigherpressure

ratio onasingleshaft. Theenergytransferinasinglestageisverylimited (stagepressureratioofabout1.2) Buteaseofcombiningaxialflowstagesleadsto pressureratiosofupto6/1orevenhigher Thusaxialflowcompressorisconsideredasconsisting ofmanystages Singlestageisconsideredasafan Formostaircraft&industrialgasturbine,axialflow compressorisusedinpreferencetoradialflowtype
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Axial Flow Compressors- Configuration


Onestagecomprisesarowofrotor bladesfollowed

byrowofstator vanes Ano.ofsuchstageswithrotorsonacommonshaft formthecompressor OftenarowofOutletGuideVanes(OGVs)are requireddownstreamtocarrystructuralload VariableInletGuideVanesmaybeemployed Thesearearowofstatorvaneswhoseanglemaybe changedtoimproveoffdesignoperation

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Axial Flow Compressors Basic Operation

Workingfluidinitiallyacceleratedbyrotorblades,then deceleratedinstatorbladeswherekineticenergy transferredinrotorisconvertedtostaticpressure Manystagesnecessaryforrequiredoverallpressureratio Flowalwayssubjecttoadversepressuregradient Processconsistsofseriesofdiffusionsinbothrotor& statorbladepassages Carefuldesignofcompressorbladingnecessarytoprevent wastefullossesandminimizestalling Flowreversalsmayoccuratmassflowconditionsdifferent frombladedesignconditions
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Flow through stages in Axial Flow Compressor

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Efficiency
Isentropicefficiencyisratioofidealspecificwork

input,ortotalTrise,forgivenpressureratiotoactual Definitionofisentropicisadiabatic+reversible TotalTrise&powerinputtosustaingivenPratiois proportionaltoinlettotaltemperature Polytropicefficiency isisentropicefficiencyofan infinitesimallysmallcompressionstep,suchthatits magnitudeisconstantthroughout Isentropicefficiencyfallsaspressureratioisincreased forsamepolytropicefficiency
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Efficiency
Isentropic efficiency c c = (T03s T01)/(T03 T01)

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Centrifugal Compressor Performance Curve

Letsanalysewhatwilloccurwhenavalveplacedinthe deliverylineofacompressorrunningatconstantspeedis slowlyopened Thevariationinpressureratioisshownabove


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Centrifugal Compressor Performance Curve


PointA occurswhenthevalveisshut&massflowis

zero.Itcorrespondstocentrifugalpressurehead producedbyactionofimpellerontheairtrapped betweenthevanes. AtpointB,efficiencyandpressureratioapproach maximumvalue.Furtherincreaseinmassflowwill resultinfallofpressureratio. Formassflowsgreatlyinexcessofdesignmassflow, airangleswillbewidelydifferentfromvaneangles leadingtobreakawayofair&fallinefficiency. Thepressureratiodropstounityat'C',whenthe valveisfullyopenandallthepowerisabsorbedin overcominginternalfrictionalresistances
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Centrifugal Compressor Performance Curve - Surging


Theoperatingpoint'A'couldbeobtainedbutapartofthecurve

between'A'and'B'couldnotbeobtainedduetoSurging. Surgingisassociatedwithsuddendropindeliverypressure& withviolentaerodynamicpulsationwhichistransmitted throughoutthemachine ForanyoperatingpointD onthepartofcharacteristicscurve havingapositiveslope,adecreaseinmassflowwillbe accompaniedbyafallindeliverypressure. Ifthepressureoftheairdownstreamofthecompressordoes notfallquicklyenough,theairwilltendtoreverseitsdirection andwillflowbackinthedirectionoftheresultingpressure gradient. Whenthisoccurs,thepressureratiodropsrapidlycausinga furtherdropinmassflowuntilthepoint'A'isreached,where themassflowiszero.
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Centrifugal Compressor Performance Curve - Surging


Surgingstartstooccurinthediffuserpassageswhere

flowisretardedbyfrictionalforcesnearthevanes Tendencytosurgeincreaseswithnumberofdiffuser vanes Severaldiffuserchannelstoeveryimpellerchannel tendencyforairtoflowuponechannel&downanother (conditionsconducivetosurging) Onlyinonepairofchannelsthedeliverypressurewillfall &increaselikelihoodofsurging Thusnumberofdiffuservanesislessthanno.ofimpeller vanes Surgingisthennotlikelytooccur
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Centrifugal Compressor Performance Curve- Rotating Stall


Itisanotherimportantcauseofinstability&poor performancewhichcanexistinthenominallystable operatingrange. A,B&Carethreeconsecutiveflowchannels Whenthereisnonuniformityinfloworgeometryof channelsbetweenvanesorblades,breakdowncanoccur inonechannel(saychannelB) AirdeflectsinsuchawaythatCreceivesfluidatreduced incidence&Aatincreasedincidence ChannelAstallswhichreducesincidenceinBenabling flowinthatchanneltorecover Rotatingstallmayleadtoaerodynamicallyinduced vibrationsleadingtofatiguefailuresinotherparts
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Centrifugal Compressor Performance Curve

Thereisanadditionallimitationtotheoperatingrange, between'B'and'C'.Asthemassflowincreasesandthe pressuredecreases,thedensityisreducedandtheradial componentofvelocitymustincrease. Atconstantrotationalspeedthismeansanincreasein resultantvelocityandhenceanangleofincidenceatthe diffuservaneleadingedge. Atsomepointsay'E',thepositionisreachedwhereno furtherincreaseinmassflowcanbeobtainednomatter howwideopenthecontrolvalveis CHOKING Thispointrepresentsthemaximumdeliveryobtainableat theparticularrotationalspeedforwhichthecurveis drawn.
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Centrifugal Compressor Analysis

FLOW THROUGH CENTRIFUGAL & AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal Compressor Analysis


Noworkisassumedtobedoneinthediffuser Energyabsorbedisdeterminedbyinletandoutlet conditionsattheimpeller Airenterstheimpellerinaxialdirection,soinitialangular momentumiszero. Vaneshaveacurvedaxialportionforsmoothentryofair. Nomenclature:


anglemadebytheleadingedgeofthevanewiththe tangentialdirection. Vr1 relativevelocityofairattheinlet V2 absolutevelocityofairattheimpellertip Vw2 tangential/whirlcomponentofV2 U Impellerspeedatthetip


FLOW THROUGH CENTRIFUGAL & AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS

Centrifugal Compressor Analysis


UnderidealconditionswhirlcomponentofV2 isequalto theimpellertipspeedU Duetoinertia,airtrappedbetweentheimpellervanes doesntmoveroundwiththeimpeller. Thisresultsinahigherstaticpressureattheleadingface thanthetrailingface. SlipFactor, takesintoaccountthiseffect; =Vw2/U Awidelyusedexpressionfor suggestedbyStanitzwhich isthemostsuitabletoradialvanedimpellers =1 (0.63/n) wherenisnumberofvanes
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Centrifugal Compressor Analysis


Theoreticalworkdone:U2 Duetofrictionbetweencasingandaircarriedroundby thevanesandotherlosseslikewindage,actualwork inputisgreaterthantheoretical Powerinputfactor takesthisintoaccount actualworkdone=U2 Typicalvaluesfor liebetween1.035 1.04 StagnationTemperaturerepresentsthetotalenergyheld bythefluid. Noenergyisaddedinthediffuser,so,stagnation temperatureriseacrosstheimpelleristhatequaltothe wholecompressor.
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Centrifugal Compressor Analysis


Adiabaticworkdoneisgivenby

w=Cp(T02 T01) Ifstagnationtemperatureattheoutletofthediffuser isT03 thenT03 =T02 p03/p01 =[1+c(T03T01)/T01]/1

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Axial Compressor Analysis Velocity Triangles

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Axial Compressor Analysis


AirapproachesrotorwithvelocityV1 atangle1

inaxialdirection CombiningV1 vectoriallywithbladespeedU givesvelocityrelativetobladeVr1 atangle1 FluidleavesrotorwithrelativevelocityVr2 at angle2 Airleavingrotoratangle2 thenpassestostator whereitisdiffusedtovelocityV3 atanangle3 Typicaldesignissuchthat V3 =V1 &3=1
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Axial Compressor Analysis


AssumingVf=Vf1=Vf2 thefollowingequationsemerge

U/Vf =tan1 +tan1 U/Vf =tan2 +tan2 Powerinputisgivenby W=mcp(T02 T01) &W=mU(Vw2 Vw1) Theexpressioncanbeputintermsofvelocity&air anglestogive W=mUVf(tan2 tan1) orW=mUVf(tan1 tan2)
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Axial Compressor Analysis


Thisinputenergywillbeabsorbedusefullyinraising

pressureofair&wastefullyinovercomingvarious frictionallosses Regardlessoflosses,thewholeofinputwillrevealas riseinstagnationtemp.ofair

T0S =T03T01 =(UVf/cp)(tan2 tan1) Pressureratioisthengivenby p03/p01 =[1+s(T03T01)/T01]/1

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Sizing Parameters - Centrifugal


1. MeanInletMachnumber ThisistheMachnumberatcompressorface Whileitisdesirabletohavehighinletmachno.to minimizefrontalarea,thisleadstohighrelative velocitiesatfirststagebladetip,&inefficiency. Valuesbetween0.4 0.6arecommon 2. TiprelativeMachnumber Conservative&ambitiousdesignlevelsare0.9&1.3 Foracentrifugalrearstageofanaxicentrifugal compressorevenlowervaluesmightbeinevitable
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Sizing Parameters - Centrifugal


3. RotationalSpeed

Mustbesettomaximizeefficiencybyoptimisingspecific speed,keepingotherparameterswithintargetlevels Highestpressureratiofromasinglestageis9:1,andfrom twostages15:1 Owingtoductingdifficulties,unusualtousemorethan twocentrifugalstagesinseries Formaxefficiency,backsweepangleof40o ispractical Howeverthisresultsinincreaseddiameterforgivenmass flow&pressureratio
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4. Pressureratio&no.ofstages

5. Backsweep

Sizing Parameters - Centrifugal


6.

RimSpeed
Exducerrimspeedshouldnotexceedaround500m/s for aluminium&625m/sfortitanium

7.

ExducerHeight
Initiallysettoachievetargetrelativevelocityratiofrom inducertiptoexitof0.50.6 Thisshouldbeideallyoptimizedbyrigtesting

8.

ExitMachnumber&SwirlAngle
Wherebend&axialstraightenersareemployed,exitmach no.&swirlanglemustbelessthan0.2&10o Ifbend&axialstraightenersarenotemployed,swirlangle willbeoforderof50o
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Sizing Parameters - Axial


1.

MeaninletMachnumber
Commonvaluesliebetween0.4 &0.6 Highestlevelforaeroenginesinsupersonicapplications

2.

TipRelativeMachnumber
Thehighesttiprelativemachno.willoccuronthefirststage Inletabsolutegasvelocitywillusuallybeaxial&maybe consideredconstantacrosstheannulus Conservative&ambitiousdesignlevelsare0.9 &1.3 Thelatterrequireshighdiffusionrelativetobladetoachieve subsonicconditions,whichincreasespressurelosses

3.

StageLoading
Measureofhowmuchworkisdemandedofthecompressoror stage Itistheenthalpyincreaseperunitmassflowofair,dividedby bladespeedsquared(Dimensionless)
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Sizing Parameters - Axial


Efficiencyimprovesasloadingisreduced,butmorestagesare

requiredforgivenpressureratio Loadingalongthepitchlineshouldbe0.25 to0.5


4.

Pressureratio&numberofstages
Achievablepressureratioforgivenno.ofstagesgoverned

mostimportantlybygoodefficiency Highertheoverallpressureratioinagivenno.ofstages,& henceloading,lowertheefficiency


5.

HadeAngle
Angleoftheinnerorouterannuluslinetotheaxial Ahadeangleofupto10o ,butpreferablylessthan50 maybe

usedforouterannulus Innerannuluslineangleshouldbekepttolessthan10o
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Sizing Parameters - Axial


6.

AxialVelocity&AxialVelocityRatio
Axialvelocityratioistheaxialvelocitydividedbyblade speedonthepitchline Axialcomponentofvelocityisnormallykeptconstant throughoutthecompressor Axialvelocityratioisnormallybtw0.5 &0.75

7.

AspectRatio
Definedasheightdividedbyvaneorbladechord Typicaldesignlevelsare1.5 3.5

8.

ExitMachnumber&SwirlAngle
Mustbeminimizedtopreventdownstreampressureloss Machno.shouldntbehigherthan0.35 (ideally0.25) Exitswirlangleshouldbelessthan10O (ideally0)
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Losses in Compressors
FrictionalLosses
Majorportionofthelossesisduetofluidfrictioninstationaryand

rotatingbladepassages Flowinimpelleranddiffuserisdeceleratinginnature Frictionallossesareduetobothskinfrictionandboundarylayer separation Dependonthefrictionfactor,lengthoftheflowpassageand squareofthefluidvelocity


IncidenceLosses

Duringtheoffdesignconditions,thedirectionofrelativevelocityof

fluidatinletdoesnotmatchwiththeinletbladeangle Hence,fluidcannotenterthebladepassagesmoothlybygliding alongthebladesurface Thelossinenergythattakesplacebecauseofthisisknownas incidenceloss

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Losses in Compressors
Thisissometimesreferredtoasshocklosses. However,thewordshockinthiscontextshouldnotbe

confusedwiththeaerodynamicsenseofshock

Clearanceandleakagelosses
Certainminimumclearancesarenecessarybetweenthe

impellershaftandthecasingandbetweentheoutlet peripheryoftheimpellereyeandthecasing Theleakageofgasthroughtheshaftclearanceisminimized byemployingglands. Theclearancelossesdependupontheimpellerdiameterand thestaticpressureattheimpellertip. Alargerdiameterofimpellerisnecessaryforahigher peripheralspeedanditisverydifficultinthesituationto providesealingbetweenthecasingandtheimpellereyetip.


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Losses in Compressors Dependence of various losses with mass flow

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Losses in Compressors

Theleakagelossescompriseasmallfractionofthetotal loss. Theincidencelossesattaintheminimumvalueatthe designedmassflowrate. Theshocklossesarezeroatthedesignedflowrate. However,Incidencelossescomprisebothshocklossesand impellerentrylossduetoachangeinthedirectionoffluid flowfromaxialtoradialdirectioninthevanelessspace beforeenteringtheimpellerblades. Theimpellerentrylossisverysmallcomparedtoother losses. Thisiswhytheincidencelossesshowanonzerominimum valueatthedesignedflowrate.
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Centrifugal vs. Axial Flow Compressors Advantages of Axial


Frontalareaislowerforgivenmassflow&pressure

ratio.Forex.atpressureratioof5:1,axialcompressor diameterwouldbehalfofcentrifugal Weightislessbecauseoflowerenginediameter Formassflowrates>5kg/s,axialflowcompressor hasgreaterisentropicefficiency Magnitudeofaboveadvantageincreaseswithmass flowrate Owingtomanufacturingdifficultiesthereispractical upperlimitofaround0.8mondiameterofcentrifugal impeller,hencemassflow&pressureratiocapability
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Centrifugal vs. Axial Flow Compressors Advantages of Centrifugal


Over9:1pressureratioachievableinasinglestage.Foraxialflow

compressorthismaytakebetweensixtotwelvestages Centrifugalcompressorsaresignificantlylowerinunitcostfor same massflowrate&pressureratio Atmassflowrates<5kg/sisentropicefficiencyisbetter,asinthis flowrangeaxialflowcompressorefficiencydropsrapidlyassizeis reducedduetoincreasinglevelsoftipclearance,bladeleading & trailingedgethicknesses Centrifugalcompressorissignificantlyshorterforgivenmassflow.This advantageincreaseswithpressureratio Exitmachno.willbelowerincentrifugalcompressor,hencereducing pressurelossesinthedownstreamduct CentrifugalcompressorsarelesspronetoForeignobjectdamage
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Centrifugal vs. Axial Flow compressors


Axialflowcompressorsdominatewherelowfrontalarea,low

weight&highefficiencyareessential Axialflowcompressorsaretheonlychoiceatlargesizes Centrifugalcompressorsdominatewhereunitcostis paramount,andatsmallsize. Thereasonforhighefficiencyinaxialcompressors:Thegas experienceslessdrasticchangesofdirectionasitprogresses throughthestagesofanaxialmachine. Thegeneralflowpathinanaxialcompressorisina predominantlyaxialdirection,withminorperturbationsthrough eachbladerow. Inthecentrifugalcompressor,therearetwo180degreesturns ineachstage,inadditiontoaspiralshapedpathintheradial planeofeachimpeller.Theshorter,straighterflowpathofthe axialresultsinlowerturbulenceandturninglosses
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Summary
Compressorsaremachineswhichraisethepressureofafluid

usingvariousenergytransformations InCentrifugalCompressorspressurizationisachievedbythe actionofarotatingimpellerandsubsequentconversionof kineticenergyinstaticpressureheadinthediffuser. InAxialcompressors,pressureratioisachievedbypassingthe fluidthroughstagesofrotors&stators Optimumvaluesofsizingparametersforbothcentrifugaland axialflowcompressorswerediscussed Frictional,IncidenceandClearance&LeakageLossesfor compressorswerediscussed Bothcentrifugal&axialcompressorshavetheirownadvantages &limitationswhencomparedagainsteachother
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References
GasTurbineTheory byH.I.H.Saravanamuttoo,G.F.C.

RogersandH.Cohen GasTurbinePerformancebyP.P.WalshandP. Fletcher IntroductiontotheGasTurbine byD.G.Shepherd NPTELOnline IITKanpur GoogleSearchEngine

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Acknowledgements
Iwouldliketoexpressmygratitude

towardsProf.SubrataSarkarfromIIT Kanpur,whoseguidance&suggestions wereinvaluableinthepreparationofthis lecture

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