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Explain why: 1. concrete is brittle in tension but relatively tough in compression.

Explanation: Concrete is strong in compression, as the aggregate efficiently carries the compression load. However, it is weak in tension as the cement holding the aggregate in place can crack, allowing the structure to fail. adding either steel reinforcing bars, steel fibers, glass fiber, or plastic fiber in a concrete can carry tensile loads. that is why usually concrete is reinforced to withstand the tensile loads upon it.

2. although concrete components are elastic, concrete is inelastic. Explanation: The elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but starts decreasing at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops. Concrete has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion, and as it matures concrete shrinks. All concrete structures will crack to some extent, due to shrinkage and tension.

3.concrete compressive strength is 10 times its tensile strength. Explanation: The tensile strength of concrete is usually considered about onetenth of the compressive strength; Although there is no fixed relation between the two values, the general law of increase in strength due to increasing the percentage of cement and the density, seems to hold in both cases

4. cement mortar is stronger than concrete of same age, cement type and water cement ratio. Explanation: The weak point in most concrete is the strength of the cementaggregate bond. By increasing the surface area available for bonding, you increase the amount of load you can apply to the concrete before exceeding the bond strength. Thats why mortar is stronger than concreteby eliminating the coarse aggregate, you increase the specific surface of the aggregate and increase the area of the bonding interface.

5. concrete in large aggregate weaker than that of smaller aggregate.

Explanation: tensile strength of the smallest aggregates is about 50% higher than the biggest ones. Large aggregate tend to form weaker transition zone containing more micro-cracks than smaller aggregates.

6. Permeability of concrete is 10 times the permeability of cement paste. Explanation: The existence of micro-crack in the transition zone and high porosity of the concrete makes it more permeable than cement paste.

7. What is transition zone? Explanation: The transition zone is the weakest link in the composite system; its presence may considerably affect the overall elastic moduli and the stress distributions in a concrete material. The transition zone has a relatively more porous structure compared with that of bulk paste, and it may not be perfectly bonded to the aggregate.

De La Salle University Dasmarinas College of Engineering, Architecture and Technology

Assignment #1 Construction materials and testing

Submitted by: Carambas, Mark Joseph G.

Submitted to: Engr.Dolphy Fadriquela

Date:

07/14/11

Rating:____

John Ernest Zorca ESE 4-1

14/07/11 Assignment no.1

Explain: 1. concrete is brittle in tension but relatively tough in compression. Concrete have strong compressive strength, as the aggregate efficiently carries the compression load. but it is weak in tension as the cement holding the aggregate in place can crack, allowing the structure to fail.

2. although concrete components are elastic, concrete is inelastic. The elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but starts decreasing at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops.

3.concrete compressive strength is 10 times its tensile strength. The tensile strength of concrete is usually considered about one-tenth of the compressive strength; Although there is no fixed relation between the two values, the general law of increase in strength due to increasing the percentage of cement and the density, seems to hold in both cases.

4. cement mortar is stronger than concrete of same age, cement type and water cement ratio. By increasing the surface area available for bonding, you increase the amount of load you can apply to the concrete before exceeding the bond strength. mortar is stronger than concreteby eliminating the coarse aggregate, you increase the specific surface of the aggregate and increase the area of the bonding interface.

5. concrete in large aggregate weaker than that of smaller aggregate. tensile strength of the smallest aggregates is about 50% higher than the larger ones.

6. Permeability of concrete is 10 times the permeability of cement paste. The existence of micro-crack in the transition zone and high porosity of the concrete makes it more permeable than cement paste.

7. What is transition zone? The transition zone is the weakest link in the composite system; its presence may considerably affect the overall elastic moduli and the stress distributions in a concrete material. The transition zone has a relatively more porous structure compared with that of bulk paste, and it may not be perfectly bonded to the aggregate.