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No. 43-3 2008 10 Journal of the City Planning Institute of Japan No.

43-3, October, 2008

A Study on the Realization Process of Community Based Green Tourism in Candirejo Village, Borobudur, Indonesia
Titin Fatimah*, Kanki Kiyoko** * ** 2001 NPO NPO 2003 1980 Keywords: Realization Process, Green Tourism, Community, Borobudur, Candirejo Village
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1. Introduction
1.1. Research Background and Objective Candirejo Village is located about 3 km south east of Borobudur Temple, Indonesia. This village is now known as one of tourism villages in Central Java Province(1) as well as in Indonesia(2). Candirejo Village is situated in the surrounding area of Borobudur Temple World Heritage Site, and the area is classified as cultural landscape heritage1) and should be conserved2). Several NPOs, i.e. PATRA-PALA(3) and JAKER(4), have tried to collaborate with local community to carry out village revitalization programs to conserve and utilize village culture and landscape as an alternative solution for recent problems in Borobudur area such as environmental degradation, decrease of farming benefit, mass tourism which is concentrated in the Temple(5). So, NPOs are encouraging the villages in the surrounding area to keep its scenery as cultural landscape around the Borobudur Temple. For instance, NRM-LCE(6) project that conducted by PATRA-PALA covered 10 villages scattered on the foot of Menoreh Hills, and JAKER is talking with almost 20 villages in Kecamatan Borobudur (Borobudur Sub District). Under such situation, only Candirejo Village implemented a concept of Community Based Ecotourism which was titled by the village themselves, and became a tourism village managed by the Tourism Village Cooperation(7). Here we should know why only Candirejo could realize such program in their village while other villages in Borobudur Sub District could not achieve the same level. Green Tourism is one of important ways for village revitalization and it is necessary to know how it starts, so Candirejo can be regarded as a good case study. So, in this paper we would like to clarify the realization process of Community Based Ecotourism in Candirejo Village, how it was managed and how the community mechanism worked. It also aims to clarify when the process have been certainly started, regarding to the common acknowledgement that it was started on 2001 when the assistance from PATRA-PALA supported by JICA, started. 1.2. Literature Review on Study about Realization Process of Green Tourism Among green tourism studies in Japan, we can find very few researches on the realization process. Some papers3) 4) commented that Green Tourism in Japan are mostly promoted by local government at first, but it is supposed activeness of community might be necessary to realize successful community based tourism. In this point Kim5) reported about green tourism where tourism development in agricultural program took place with all farmers in mountainous rural area with Morimitsu Village case, Oguni Town, Niigata Prefecture. Takano6) from Miyama Town local government just emphasized that before starting Green Tourism they had the period of farm land readjustment as collaboration establishment among villagers. From Kim and Takano, we can suppose that before starting Green Tourism with active community, there must be some activity which promotes collaboration among villagers. We will keep this supposed point in the analysis of Candirejo case. On the other hand, about Borobudur, research on Green Tourism was not found, though there are a number of researches on history, archaeology, architecture, etc.
* ** * Doctoral student, Grad. School of Eng., Kyoto Univ. (M. Eng) ** Associate Prof., Grad. School of Eng., Kyoto Univ. (Dr. Eng)

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1.3. Research Methodology This study has been formed by two parts as shown in Figure-1: 1To know the current village condition and the history of village development which resulted in Green Tourism Activity, we did field investigation(8) in which we interviewed village residents who are key persons in village, present and former village chiefs(9), compiled various kinds of supporting documents* (see Table-1), and then tracing the history as well as mapping of Candirejos rural development, 2Additionally, we tried to grasp the village residents awareness. We did questionnaire of Candirejo Village with two other villages as comparison(10). The result of two parts above is then used to evaluate the Community Based Ecotourism in Candirejo Village. 1 Table-1. Supporting documents for research analysis
Interview to 7 people (village chiefs and residents) Compile supporting documents Tracing the history & field mapping Village condition
A, C, E, I, J

Process of Candirejos tourism


B, E, F G, H, J ,

2
Questionnaire & comparative analysis of 3 villages 12: part number in this study
: chapter number in this paper

Evaluation of Community Based Ecotourism in


A, B, C, : documents used

(see Table-1)

Analysis & Chapter Link Land use analysis Distribution of bamboo & rambutan Statistic Population al data Comparative analysis of 3 villages Report Village potentials &tourism activity Condition & potentials of Candirejo Visitor data, Coop organization Homestay program in the village HandNatural & social-culture condition, out Comparative analysis of 3 villages Candirejos potentials for ecotourism J. Seminar about ecotourism in Candirejo Village (2003) th th th Newspa K. Kompas (Dec 14 2002, Jan 25 2003, Feb 24 2003) Jagad Jawa problem in 2002-2003 -per clip L. Suara Merdeka (June 7th 2007) Kalpataru award information Material resources: : Institution (government and NPO) : through participating the events : through the research *): It is quite difficult to gather such kind of documents in the field.

Type Map

Documents A. Land Use Map, Bakosurtanal , scale 1:50 (1902, 1934, 2001) B. Field Investigation Map (2008) C. Population Data of Candirejo Village (1988-2007) D. Borobudur in Figure (1998-2004) E. Master Plan of Tourism Development of Candirejo (2003) F. NRM-LCE Project, Patrapala Foundation-JICA (2004) G. Annual report of Candirejo Tourism Vil. Coop ( 2006, 2007) H. Profile of Homestay in Candirejo Village by KKN-UGM I. Handout of Borobudur Field School (2004, 2005, 2006, 2007)

Figure-1 Conceptual Framework

2. Candirejo Village
2.1. Site context, topography and land use Candirejo Village is situated on the foot of Menoreh Hills on the south side, while the north side is bordered by Progo River. There is a smaller river called Sileng River flows in the middle of village. Topographically this village has two types of land topography, hilly area on the south side and plain area on the north side. This village situated on 100-600 meter above sea level. Candirejo Village has 366.25 ha area includes: rice field, dry field, pekarangan/yard, settlement, etc7). Physically, settlement area in Candirejo Village has unique character with their wide yard planted of rambutan tress and bordered by green fences. Traditional houses are still in use. There are a number of historical sites in the village which are potentials as one of tourist attractions. 2.2. Social system and community organization The population of Candirejo Village is 4192, and there are 1152 households. Their occupation is mostly farmer, 83% independent farmer and 6% labor farmer (Figure-4). The residents of Candirejo Village still live in a traditional way. They have their own social system and social customs which are still practiced in their daily life, for instance they practice gotong-royong8)(11) spirit to keep their surrounding environment clean. They also still highly appreciate the principle of tepo-seliro9)(12) as one of their common wisdoms. The village residents have a regular community forum called selapanan in which they discuss any problems occurred in their village. This meeting is also called rembuk desa which means village meeting. The forum is held every 35 days, either in village level as well as in the hamlet level. Actually there are other meetings such as arisan and pengajian which are also become a gathering place in smaller group. There are several main organizations (LSD/LPMD, BPD, PKK, POKJA)(13) that form the institutional framework of Candirejos community system (Figure-5).

Figure-2 Location map of field study villages


(Source: Field survey)
6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2001 2004 2006 2008

Legend: Independent farmer Labor farmer Fisherman Building const. labor Trader Transportation Gov. employee Pension

(2.370) (183) (150) (48) (27) (12) (81) (10)

population

household

Figure-3 Population of Candirejo Village


(Source: Statistic data, 2008)

- 518 (Source: Statistic data, 2003)

Figure-4 Occupation in Candirejo Village

Figure-5 Community system in Candirejo Village


(source: compiled by author, based on field survey)

2.3. Current Tourism Activity in Candirejo Village Tourism activity in Candirejo Village is under the management of Tourism Village Coop (Figure-5). There are a number of village tour packages such as village tour by bicycle, walking or andong (traditional horse carriage), sun rise trekking to Watu Kendil Site on the top of Menoreh Hills, cooking lesson, lunch in traditional house, home stay, etc. Visitor can enjoy the atmosphere of daily life in the village, seeing the beautiful scenery of village, playing traditional music gamelan, etc. Home stay program has been started since 2002 by utilized mostly traditional houses in the village as accommodation facility. Details of tourism activity will be discussed further in chapter 3.

Figure-6 Photo of a house used for home stay (source: field survey)

3. Realization Process of Community Based Ecotourism in Candirejo Village


In this chapter we utilize interview and supporting documents to make an analysis of the realization process of Community Based Ecotourism in Candirejo Village which is summarized in Figure-7. In this figure of interviewed events related up to Green Tourism realization, we can read the developing process by vertically order (), and the mechanism of each process by horizontally order (). From left to right, the village inside community is considered from the resident level into administration level.

1 2 9 3

4 5

6 7 8

Figure-7 The realization process in of Community Based Ecotourism in Candirejo Village (source: compiled by author, based on field survey)14

3.1. The First Phase: Agricultural Changes (1980-1990) The rural development program in Candirejo Village has started around 1980 through a yard cleaning program (1 in Figure-7). The residents cut unnecessary and overcrowded trees (i.e. bamboo, coconut, jackfruit, etc) inside their settlement area and replaced them with more productive trees (i.e. rambutan, papaya). Figure-8 compares Candirejos bamboo trees distribution in 1980 and 2008 as well as show the rambutan trees distribution in 2008. This program was supported by government through P2WKSS( 15 ), and Pucungan Hamlet

1980

2008

Legend: Houses River Bamboo trees Rambutan trees

Figure-8 Vegetation changes in Kedung Ombo and Mangundadi Hamlet, Candirejo Village (source: interview and field investigation)

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became the pilot project at first. After it seemed to be successful, then the program was applied to other hamlets in the village (2 in Figure-7). In addition to the plantation of rambutan trees, they also optimized the yard space by cultivating any smaller vegetables and fruits in between the rambutan trees (3 in Figure-7). The interviewees said that village residents did the program together hand in hand. Therefore it raised a spirit of togetherness among them. The implementation of this program also brought good effects to the village. The environment inside the settlement area became clean and well organized, show the better appearance. 3.2. The Second Phase: Cultural Improvement and Community Empowerment (1991-1998) After the vegetation replacement program had done, some improvement programs on nonphysical aspects such as managerial skill, art, craft, and home industry were also carried out. Candirejo Village received supports from government, academic institutions and NPOs. A number of trainings and assistances on farming were held to increase the benefit of their farming activity. Trainings on craft such as bamboo carving, wood carving, batik, etc. were carried out to increase their skill. Assistances were also held to train the art performance groups in each hamlet such as jatilan, gatholoco, kobrasiswa, etc (4 in Figure-7). The implementation of yard cleaning program on the first phase had result a better environment in Candirejo Village. As the result, they also got some awards from several village competitions (5 in Figure-7). The Interviewees also said these achievements brought up a new motivation of village residents to participate the village program on keeping their surrounding environment. It has raised pride and sense of belonging among village residents. 3.3. The Third Phase: Starting of Tourism Activity and Concept Formation (1999-2003) Candirejo Village has good potentials both on natural and cultural aspects which are important to develop a tourism activity. In addition, this village is easily accessible as it is only 3 km for Borobudur Temple or 1.5 hours from Jogjakarta by car. Hence, this village has good challenge to catch the tourists who visit those places10). After two times got the awards of village competition, Candirejo became a good example in village environment management for other villages. In 1999 Candirejo Village was established as Desa Binaan Wisata (Tourism Assisted Village) by the government of Magelang Regency. In order to develop further, Candirejo Village had contacted PATRA-PALA Foundation, and then supported by JICA in 2001-2004 they got assistance from PATRA-PALA Foundation whose project is called NRM-LCE (6 in Figure-7). During the assistance program, they develop the concept of Community Based Ecotourism. A Mapping of village potentials by using Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was taken place. In 2000 they made a principle that has been the basic philosophy of tourism activity in the village called catur daya (four powers). It consists of daya tarik (power of fascinating), daya tumbuh (power of grow), daya manfaat (power of benefit), and daya tangkal (power of parry). This principle forces the village residents to be a member of conducive-dynamic-active community. Conducive means they obey the leader, respect each other among the village residents as well as highly appreciate the common convention and spirit of gotong-royong. Dynamic means they are innovative and highly motivated to participate any programs. Active means they always do the program actively and proactive7). This village also has a slogan called Candirejo Bersatu which means Candirejo Unite. 3.4. The Fourth Phase: Independent Management and Widely Promotion (2003- now) Tourism activity in Candirejo Village is formally started in 2003, when this village was designated as ecotourism village by Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Indonesia. Since then, the number of visitor has been increasing, especially foreign visitors11) (see Figure-9). Tourism Village Coop was established in 2003 (7 in Figure-7), just after the designation of Candirejo as Community Based Ecotourism Village. This organization built to manage the operation of tourism activities carried out in the village. Membership of this organization is open but limited. Until now, the members are representatives of organizations in the village such as art performance groups, andong association, home stay association, youth group, and chiefs of each hamlet. From interview, they explained that the reason for the establishment of Cooperation instead of Company is that the cooperation is more suitable to the character of village residents. Traditional customs and sense of togetherness is still dominant in the social system of Candirejo Village. An annual meeting is held every year to give a report of a year The Visitor of Candirejo Village 1200 1071 1057 1056 through activities. This meeting is participated by all members. 973 912 1000 During the meeting, each representative can show the opinion or 800 644 611 600 suggestion from each group freely. The current village chief used 432 400 to be the coordinator of this cooperation, and then he was elected 200 61 43 as Village Chief in 2007. Recently, Tourism Village Coop also 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 has collaboration with private sector such as travel agents and dom estic visitor foreign visitor several hotels around the Borobudur Temple to promote their Figure-9 The visitors of Candirejo Village (Source: Statistic data of Candirejo Village and field survey) tourism packages (8 in Figure-7). Therefore, the number of foreign visitor has been significantly increasing.
year

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3.5. The Realization Process We recognized developments through four phases and the first two phases happened before 2001, when PATRA-PALA came to assist. This shows that developments were initiated by local community. During the process, local community took an important and significant role. The local community is the main actor throughout the process, while government, NPOs, academic institutions, and private sectors only play the role as supporter or facilitator. The figure-7 almost shows how local initiatives have worked. It is almost the local community who initiated contact or request to the Table-2 Village inhabitants role and participation counterpart organizations (represented in the Figure by arrows came Participation type Program T I P S M G from village community) (9 in Figure-7). These initiatives are then 1982 Yard cleaning & vegetation replacement followed by assist from the counterparts. In other words, Figure-7 1985 Garden planting program (vegetables plot) 1991 Visiting some places for comparative hence indicated that some programs would not have been carried out study without local community initiatives (contact and requests to the 1994 Assistance of art performance group, craft and home industry counterparts outside the village). In addition, the village residents 1999 Pathways renovation (asphalt & paving ) have an important role during the process by give any kind of 2001 Collaboration with NPO 2002 Home stay program contribution (see Table-2). They contributed time/attendance, idea, 2003 Establishment of Tourism Village Coop manpower, skill, and money as well as possession goods. Both 2003 Idea of tourism village development 2003 Master Plan of Tourism Development Figure-7 and Table-2 give evidence regarding the importance and T: time/attendance I: idea P: manpower S: skill M: money G: goods/possession significance of local community initiatives. Community system in this village is still strong as well as social and traditional customs. Some organizations accommodate the village residents idea, and they hope these organizations are still utilized as communication media among the residents.

4. Comparative Analysis with Other Villages


Table-3 Comparative analysis of three villages
A. Candireo Village
Area Population 366,250 ha 4192 people, 1152 household

B. Giritengah Village
432,245 ha 3222 people, 886 household

C. Wringinputih Village
377,461 ha 4933 people., 1027 household

Land Use Map Legend :

Location from the temple 3 km, south east Transportation access car, private bus, motorcycle, and andong Natural condition Situated on the slope of Menoreh Hills and plain area along Progo River. Rural development and Since 1980 started murazukuri, tourism activities 1991 established as Desa Binaan, 2003 established as ecotourism village. P ATRA-P ALAs assistance Village Festival Saparan/Perti Desa, an annual festival held by inhabitants since the past time. Recently this festival became a promotion event

5 km, south car and motorcycle Topographically mostly hilly area, only a few parts on the north side is rather plain. Since 2005 a program for tourism activity has been implemented. Recently, a big festival named Sendang Suruh Festival is held annually. This festival is held as memorial event of Sendang Suruh historic site.

2 km, north Public bus, car, motorcycle and andong Located on the plain area; it combined by wet land and dry farm land. Up till now, there is no such significant program related to tourism activity. There is no big festival, but there are a number of traditional customs which are still performed in their daily life.

To check the village residents awareness for their village condition in Candirejo, we conducted questionnaire survey in 3 villages. Giritengah is one of villages received PATRA-PALAs assistance as well as Candirejo. Wringinputih is outside the PATRA-PALA activity. So, we conduct a comparative analysis (see Table-3). We asked village residents to evaluate their attitude related to the environment by indicating the level within five ranges as shown in Figure-10. Through the survey result shown in Figure-10 we can see that Candirejo shows significant level of village resident awareness compared with Giritengah and Wringinputih. It shows Candirejos residents are conditionally interested in village management rather than villages without implementation of tourism activity.
Wringinputih Village
2 26
7 6 7 8 9 6 9 7 19 14 14 13 18 23 11 15 18 17 22 17 23 20 17 5 1 1 1 2 1

Candirejo Village
Awareness of their village environment Effort to keep environment clean Utilization of natural resources Effort to keep trees/greenery Knowledge about historical sites Effort to conserve the historical sites Effort to conserve traditional houses
1 10 32 11

Giritengah Village
7
5

5 4 10 5 12 20 11

19 23 27 32 25 16 20 21

26

17

30

6 5 4

10

34

16 4 7 23 9 1 2

5 4 3 2 1 1

32

14

25

17

3 2 1 1 3

15

32

23

23

0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100% 0%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%

very bad

bad

average

good

very good

Figure-10 Village residents awareness level (source: questionnaire) - 521 -

5. Conclusion
From analysis of this study, we can conclude that: Realization process of Candirejo Village can be divided into four phases: a) agricultural changes by yard cleaning and vegetation replacement (1980-1990), b) cultural improvement and community empowerment (1991-1998), c) starting of tourism activity and concept formation (1999-2003), d) independent management and widely promotion (2003- now). Local community played a central role in the process of Candirejo Village during 1980-2007. Local communitys initiatives have been the main factor of Candirejo Village development. Social and community system inside the Candirejo Village is conducive for village program implementation. Therefore it is no doubt to label their tourism program as Community Based Ecotourism, as community is the main actor throughout the process. Rural development activity in Candirejo Village had been started since 1980. This conclusion denies previous common acknowledgement that rural development was started on 2001 when the assistance from PATRA-PALA with their NRM-LCE project started. Compared with other villages in Borobudur Sub District, Candirejo Village community has significant awareness to keep and conserve their village environment. References:
1) Taylor, Ken (2003), Cultural Landscape as Open Air Museum: Borobudur World Heritage Site and Its Setting in: Humanities Research Vol. 10 No.2, 2003 pp. 5, The Australian National University 2) Engelhardt. Richard, Brooks. Graham and Schorlemer. Alexa (2003), Mission Report: Borobudur Temple Compound, Central Java, Indonesia: UNESCO-ICOMOS Reactive Monitoring mission 16-20 April 2003, pp. 18, UNESCO-ICOMOS 3) (2000), , 2000 12 pp. 277-282, 4) (2001), , 544 2001 6 pp. 179-184, 5) (2003), , , 2003 4 pp 46-55, 6) (2003), 2003 9 pp. 739-740, 7) Suhandi, Ari S et al (2003), Master Plan of Tourism Development of Candirejo Village, pp. 4, Candirejo Village PATRA-PALA INDECON , Magelang, Indonesia 8) Gumisawa Hideo (2007), On the Thought of gotong royong: An Insight into Indonesian Nationalism (abstract), doctoral thesis, Tokyo University of Foreign Student, Japan 9) Atmosumarto, Sutanto (2005), A Learner's Comprehensive Dictionary of Indonesian pp. 583, Atma Stanton, United Kingdom 10) Silalahi, Monika L, et al (2003), A Memory of Candirejo Village, Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia, pp. 3, NRM-LCE Project JICA & PATRA-PALA Foundation, Magelang, Indonesia 11) Adiyanto, Saryan et al (2008), Annual Report of Candirejo Tourism Village Coop, Year book 2007 pp 13, Candirejo Tourism Village Cooperation, Magelang, Indonesia

Notes:
(1) In Central Java, there are 7 villages which are acknowledged for tourism activities, including Candirejo, Dieng, Duwet, Karangbanjar, Karimunjawa, Selo Wonolelo, and Ketenger (source: http://www.central-java-tourism.com/desa-wisata/en/candirejo.htm). (2) In Indonesia, there are 3 villages that are listed as tourism villages by Indonesian Ecotourism Center, those are: Candirejo (Borobudur, Central Java), Cinangneng (Bogor, West Java), Sibetan and Nusa Ceningan (Bali) (source: http://www.indecon.or.id/ecosites/index.html). (3) PATRA-PALA Foundation is a Non Profit Organization based in Yogyakarta which is focused on social ecology and ecotourism. It was established in 1993 with NR. Wibowo as the Executive Director. (4) JAKER (Jaringan Kerja Kepariwisataan Borobudur Borobudur Tourism Network) whose leader is Jack Priyana, has an idea of One Village One Production to encourage the local product of each village in Borobudur. They also started to manage an alternative tourist package called heritage trail visiting many villages in Borobudur Sub Dictrict by andong (traditional horse carriage). (5) At the end of 2002 and early 2003, a proposal called Jagad Jawa that plan to develop a new site entry and retail shopping complex in Zone 3 had been protested by local people. A number of local communities and NPOs such as JAKER, BCA (Borobudur Care Association), Borobudur Vendor Association, Mediation Team, etc held many demonstration to avoid the plan. They proposed the government to not only focus on the development of the temple and its nearest park area, but also including the surrounding villages. (Source: Kompas Newspaper - Dec 14th 2002, Jan 25th 2003, Feb 24th 2003) (6) The project named NRM-LCE (Natural Resources Management for Local Community Empowerment). It covered 10 villages scattered on the foot of Menoreh Hills, and Candirejo Village became the main focus of the project (Dec 2001- Nov 2004). (7) Candirejo Village has been selected as one of pilot projects of community based tourism in Indonesia (May-Nov 2003) and also honored some awards. Recently, in 2007 a Kalpataru award was honored for its successfulness of implementing tumpangsari (mixed cultivation system). (8) Field surveys were conducted on August 2004, August 2005, August 2006, May 2007, and March 2008 with some helps from students of Gadjah Mada University (UGM). (9) Since Indonesian independence on 1945, Candirejo Village has been lead by 4 village chiefs, they are: Niti Pawiro (1945-1975), Teguh (1975-1989), Slamet Tugiyanto (1989-2007), and Saryan Adiyanto (2007-now). Village chiefs were chosen by general election participated by all village residents (17 years old and above). During the field investigation, we held interviews to the last three village chiefs. We also held interviews with the village residents such as Sareh Haryanto (Village secretary), Tatak Saryawan (Leader of Tourism Village Coop), Budi, and Ijem (Member of Tourism Village Coop). Interviews were carried out on March 13th -28th , 2008 (10) There are 153 respondents: Candirejo Village (54), Giritengah Village (53) and Wringinputih Village (46). Respondents selected were mostly the leader of community in the village, such as RT, RW, Dusun, etc, so that they know well about the condition of their surrounding village residents. (11) The formal definition of 'Gotong royong' originated in became known in a Javanese dictionary published in 1938. The essential meaning of 'Gotong royong' was that several persons work together to carry a large and heavy object. At this time 'Gotong royong' meant traditional mutual cooperation among villagers and between the villagers and the village administration. (Gumisawa, 2007) (12) A Javanese advice that a person should not do things he expects other would not to do him (Atmosumanto, 2005) (13) Explanation of those organizations can be seen on the Legend of Figure 7 (14) The same as note number 8. (15) P2WKSS: Peningkatan Peranan Wanita menuju Keluarga Sehat Sejahtera (Woman role upgrading toward the healthy and prosperous family). It is a governmental program to optimize the yard space to increase family income by planting productive trees. Government gave the seed of rambutan trees to the village residents.

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