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Strong Stabilization of MIMO Systems: An LMI Approach

Abdul-Wahid A. Saif
King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Systems Engineering Department P.O.Box 1626 Dhahran 31261 Saudi Arabia E-mail:

Abstract In this paper, the strong stabilization problem of proper and non-minimum phase linear time-invariant multivariable systems is considered. The formulation of the problem resulted in a sufficient condition in a form of linear matrix inequality (LMI) which will be solved using MATLAB LMI Toolbox. A necessary and sufficient condition is given in a form of quadratic matrix inequality, (QMI). Keywords: Strong Stabilization, Stable Controllers, LMI, QMI.

In [4] the problem was solved for MIMO systems where a finite dimensional optimization problem is formulated to satisfy the Pick interpolation condition. The second category is based on some modifications in the Riccati equations that will result in a stable controller, [2,9,10,11,14,21]. While the modifications are different, all these methods result in nonstandard Riccati equation(s) with solutions that are difficult to obtain and, furthermore, not even guaranteed to exit. A greater restriction on the zeros of the sought stable controller is considered in [6]. The last category was given in [12,15,17,22], where the StSP problem of MIMO systems was formulated as an



The problem of designing a stable controller to stabilize a given plant is known as strong stabilization problem (StSP). The essential difference between a strongly stabilizable plant and one that is not can be stated as follows [5]f G is stabilized using a stable compensator, then the resulting stable transfer function matrix has the same number of right half plane zeros as the original plant. On the other hand, stabilization using an unstable compensator always introduces additional right half plane zeros into the closed-loop transfer function matrix beyond those of the original plant. A study of strong stabilizability is mainly of practical interest for control engineers. As it is known that the right half plane zeros of a plant affect its ability to track reference signals and/or to reject disturbances, it is preferable to use a stable stabilizing compensator whenever possible. In addition, several other problems in reliable stabilization are related to strong stabilizability, such as the simultaneous stabilization problem. addressed and solved for SISO systems by Youla et al. in (1974), [7], who presented a tractable condition, called "parity interlacing property (PIP)", to check whether a The StSP of linear time-invariant systems was first

interpolation technique incorporated with optimization was used to solve the problem in [13].

H -optimization problem. The matrix Nevanlinna-Pick H -

In this paper, the strong stabilization problem of proper and non-minimum phase linear time-invariant MIMO systems is considered. The formulation of the problem resulted in a sufficient condition in a form of linear matrix inequality (LMI) which will be solved using MATLAB LMI Toolbox. A necessary and sufficient condition is given in a form of quadratic matrix inequality, (QMI). This paper is organized as follows. The statement of the problem and its formulation as an LMI/QMI is stated in Section 2. Simulation results are reported in Section 3. Section 4 concludes this paper. In the paper H denotes the set of all real rational matrices whose elements are stable and proper. A matrixvalued function U ( s ) is unimodular in H if U ( s )

and U ( s ) are in H Other notations will be clear from the context. II. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND SOLUTION
r m

said to satisfy the PIP if the number of poles of G between any pair of real right half-plane blocking zeros is even. The PIP was generalized to MIMO systems in [5]. While the PIP is an elegant result, it does not provide a procedure to find a stable controller. A general procedure to construct a stable controller that stabilizes a given MIMO plant was not provided. Since the results reported in [5], the attempts to provide such a stable controller can be classified into three categories. In the first category, the StSP was formulated as interpolation problem, then solved using the NevanlinnaPick interpolation technique as in [1,3,8] for SISO systems.

given plant is strongly stabilizable or not. A plant G is

Let the plant G ( s ) LH coprime factorization form as

be given in the left

A B G ( s ) = M 1 N g = g C 0
The state-space representation of given as [18]

M g and N g are

M g

A + HC H B = N g I 0 C

then Q ( s ) is unimodular in RH . Proof: Suppose that (2.7) is satisfied, then from Schur complement [19] we have
T T T Aq P + PAq + ( Bq PCq )( Bq Cq P ) < 0

Where H is an output feedback gain such that A+HC is stable Let the controller K ( s ) be given in right coprime
k the closed-loop transfer factorization as function from the input to the output is given as


K (s) = N M ,

1 k

T T Aq P + PAq + PCq Cq P Bq Cq P T T T PCq Bq + Bq Bq < 0

T ( s ) = G ( s ) K ( s )( I + G ( s ) K ( s )) 1 = N g N k ( M gM k + N g N k ) 1


which can be written as


M k = I and K ( s ) becomes K ( s ) = N k . Then T ( s )

T ( s ) = N g N k ( M g + N g N k ) 1
Define Q( s ) as

Since K ( s ) is required to be stable, then we may let Since

( Aq Bq Cq ) P + P( Aq Bq Cq )T
T T + PCq Cq P + Bq Bq <0

(2.3) then (2.4)

T T PBq Bq P + Cq Cq 0

Q( s) = M g + N gK

( Aq Bq Cq ) P + P( Aq Bq Cq )T < 0


following state space representation

T ( s) to be stable, K ( s) should be found such that Q( s ) is unimodular in H . Let K ( s ) have the

A B K ( s) = N k = k k Ck Dk (2.5)

Inequality (2.9) implies that ( Aq Bq Cq ) is stable. Therefore

Q( s) is unimodular in RH .

Lemma 2: If the condition in Lemma 1 is satisfied, then

K ( s ) in (2.5) is a stabilizing controller.

Using matrix operations, defined in [ ] Q(s) in (2.4) takes the following state space representation

T ( s) in (2.3) are stable, then T ( s) is stable. Q( s)

Proof: Since Q ( s ) is unimodular and all the factors of

While the previous Lemma gives a sufficient condition

A + HC Q( s) = 0 C Aq Bq = Cq Dq

BCk Ak 0

H + BDk Bk I

for to be a unit, the following Theorem gives necessary and sufficient condition. Theorem 3. : (2.6)

such that the following QMI

Q( s) given in (2.6) is unimodular in B , Dk and P > 0 if and only if there exist k

then Q ( s ) is stable. Then the following result is stated about Q ( s ). in RH . Lemma 1. Let

Assume that the pair

( Ak , Ck ) is chosen to be stable,

T T T Aq P + PAq PBq Bq P Bq PCq < 0 (2.13) T I Bq Cq P

is satisfied. Proof: Due to space limitation, the proof is omitted. III. SIMULATION RESULTS


Q( s) be as given in (2.6), then if there B , Dk and P > 0 such that the following LMI is exist k
T Aq P + PAq T Bq Cq P T Bq PCq <0 I

Example : The theory presented in this paper was applied to the following system.


s 2 1 s 3 G ( s) = 2 s 2 s+3

s + 2 s 3 s+2 s+3

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which is strongly stabilizable, nonminimum-phase and has one unstable pole at p = 3 and one unstable zero at and positive definite matrix to find that the LMI in (2.10) is satisfied. IV. CONCLUSION

z = 2. Then the LMI MATLAB Toolbox [20] was used Bk , Dk P>0


H 2 -Suboptimal Stable Stabilization, Proceedings of the

A procedure is proposed in this paper to find a stable controller for MIMO system. The problem is formulated as a linear matrix inequality which was solved using MATLAB LMI Toolbox. The procedure was illustrated by a numerical example. While a sufficient condition was proved in this procedure, a necessary and sufficient condition was also proved which leads to a quadratic matrix inequality. The only technique known to solve quadratic matrix inequality is by iteration where one unknown is fixed and solve for the second. V. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to thank King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals for its support. VI. REFERENCES

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