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03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.

fm Page 76 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

NUMBER

Numbers form many interesting patterns. You already know about odd and even numbers. Pascals
triangle is a number pattern that looks like a triangle and contains number patterns. Fibonacci numbers
are found in many living things: the number of petals on a ower will be a Fibonacci number. You will
learn how these different patterns are formed to help you to understand how numbers behave.

1234

48901234

4567890123 8901234
5
567890123

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0123456789
7890123 8901234
23456789
4567890123456789012345
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234567890123 4567890123

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56789
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234
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03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 77 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

0123456789

48901234
0123456789

0123456789
567890123
3 8901234
456789
012345
0123456789
678901234

4567890123 8901234
0123456789

In this chapter you will:


56789012345678
5678

567890123

4567890123 8901234
Wordbank
0123456789
4567890123456789012345

56789012345678

composite number A number


identify special groups of numbers: triangular, 1234567890123456789
5678 with more than
0123456789
square,
Fibonacci, Pascals triangle and 234567890123 45678901234
two factors. 0123456789
56789012
456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678
56789012
8
7890123456789012
3456789012345678
palindromes
divisibility test A rule for testing whether a
789012345678
901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678
test567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345
numbers for divisibility
number is divisible by a specic value, for
0123456789
56789012345678901234567890
1234567890123456789
example, divisible by 3.

identify
the
factors
of
a
number
and
distinguish
78901234
5678
234567890123 45678901234
0123456789
between prime and composite numbers
factor A value that divides evenly into a given
45678901456789012345678901234567890123456
7890123456789012
345678901
number, for example, 3 is a factor of 15.
456789012 9012345
678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901
nd
the highest common factor of two or more
6789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123
numbers

tree A diagram that lists the prime factors


89012345678
345678
9012345 67890123456789012345678 factor
90123456789012345678901234567890123456
7890123456789012
345678901234567890123
901234567890123
01234567890
123456789012345678901234
5678
012345678901234
5678901
of a number.

express
a
number
as
a
product
of
its
prime
factors
0123
4567890 1234567890123456789 012345678901234567
890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678
45678901234567890123456
789012345678901234567
8901234
678901234567890
2345678901
234567
index notation Using powers to write the
calculate squares6789012345678901
and cubes
756789012345678901234 45678901234
34567890123456789012345678901234567
0123456789012345
repeated
multiplication
of
a
number,
for
901234567890123456789
5678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567
estimate
and calculate square roots and cube
4567890123456789012340123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012
example, 35.
roots
890123456789012345678
567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 123456
palindrome A number or word that reads the
345678901234567890123901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
nd4567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456
square roots and cube roots of numbers
890123456789012345678
same forward and backward, for example, 2002,12345678901234567890
234567890123456789012
9012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
expressed
as a product of their prime factors.
7890123456789012345673456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345
and madam.
2345678901234567890128901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
prime number A number with only1234567890123456789012345678901234
two factors,
678901234567890123456 34567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
1234567890123456789017890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789
1 and the number itself.
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03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 78 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Start up
Worksheet
3-01
Brainstarters 3

Skillsheet
3-01
Classifying whole
numbers

1 List the rst ten even numbers.


2 Sort these numbers, putting all the even numbers in one group, and the odd numbers
in another:
17
2002
371
134
60 023
2
748
691
90 704 006
1
95
13
2074
1 000 000
99 999
1256
3 Find all the numbers that divide into 6.
4 Find all the numbers that divide into 24.
5 Find all the even numbers that divide into 36.
6 Find all the odd numbers that divide into 90.
7 How can you tell if a number is even without dividing it?
8 How can you recognise an odd number?
9 Write the next three numbers in each of these patterns:
a 8, 10, 12,

c 101, 103, 105,

e 44, 39, 34,

b 27, 30, 33,

d 39, 37, 35,

f 7, 15, 23,

10 What is 8 squared?
11 What is 3 27 ?
12 Find two numbers that have a product of 48.

3-01 Special number patterns


Worksheet
3-02

The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, are called the counting numbers. There are groups of
counting numbers which make special patterns. We will investigate some of them.

Triangular and square


numbers

Exercise 3-01
TLF

L 1936

1 Triangular numbers are shown in the diagram below.

Circus towers:
triangular towers

78

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

10

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 79 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

a Why are they called triangular numbers?


b Work out all the triangular numbers less than 100.
c Complete four more lines of this pattern:
1=1
1+2=3
1+2+3=6
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10
d Describe how the pattern in part c works.
e Use what you have worked out to help you nd the 100th triangular number.
(Hint: Do you know a quick way to add up all the numbers from 1 to 100?)
2 Square numbers are shown in the diagram below.

TLF

L 1935

Circus towers:
square stacks

16

a Why are these called square numbers?


b Work out all the square numbers up to 100.
c Complete four more lines of this pattern:
1=1
1+3=4
1+3+5=9
1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16
d Describe how the pattern works.
e Work out another pattern to help you nd the square numbers. What is the 50th
square number?
f Complete four more lines of these patterns:
i
1 = 12
ii
22 = 12 + (1 + 2)
32 = 22 + (2 + 3)
1 + 2 + 1 = 22
2
42 = 32 + (3 + 4)
1+2+3+2+1=3
g Each square number is said to be the sum of two consecutive triangular numbers.
+

Show that this is true for the square numbers up to 100.


h Find two numbers that are both triangular numbers and square numbers.
CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

79

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 80 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Original pair of rabbits

4th generation

2 pairs

Birth

2nd generation

3rd generation

1 pair

Birth

1st generation

1 pair

Birth

Fibonacci numbers

3 Leonardo Fibonacci was an Italian mathematician who lived in the early 13th century.
He discovered this pattern when studying the breeding habits of rabbits:
1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .
The diagram below illustrates this. The vertical arrows labelled Birth indicate the new
offspring of a pair of rabbits every two months. The unlabelled arrows indicate the same
pair of rabbits. After each month, the number of pairs is a term in Fibonaccis pattern.

Birth

Worksheet
3-03

3 pairs

5 pairs

a How is the Fibonacci pattern formed?


b Add ve more lines to this pattern:
1
1
1+1=2
1+2=3
2+3=5
3+5=8
c Write the rst 20 Fibonacci numbers.
i Write every third Fibonacci number, beginning with 2. What number divides
evenly into all these numbers?
ii Write every fourth Fibonacci number, beginning with 3. What number divides
evenly into all these numbers?
iii Write every fth Fibonacci number, beginning with 5. What number divides
evenly into all these numbers?
d i Find any triangular numbers in the Fibonacci numbers up to 100.
ii Find any square numbers in the Fibonacci numbers up to 100.
e Pairs of Fibonacci numbers are found by counting along the spirals on pine cones.
Investigate how and where else Fibonacci numbers occur in nature.

80

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 81 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

4 Blaise Pascal, a French mathematician who lived


1
in the 17th century, studied a triangle of
1
1
numbers known to the Chinese as the Yanghui
1
2
1
triangle. Each row of the triangle is created using
1
3
3
1
the numbers in the row above it. The triangle is
1
4
6
4
1
known as Pascals triangle. The rst seven rows
1
5 10 10 5
1
are shown at the right.
6 15 20 15
6
1
a Complete the next four rows of Pascals triangle.
b Describe how the pattern works.
c Add each row in Pascals triangle. What do you notice?
d The diagonals in Pascals triangle produce some interesting patterns. Write the
triangular numbers using Pascals triangle.
Add along the arrows
e We can even nd Fibonacci
1
to
nd the Fibonacci
numbers in this pattern. Rewrite
1
1
numbers.
the triangle above as a right1
2
1
angled triangle.
1
3
3
1
1
1

4
5

6
10

4
10

1
5

5 A palindrome is a word, number or sentence that reads the same forward and
backward. The following number, words and sentence are all palindromes:
noon
151
Able was I ere I saw Elba (Napoleon Bonaparte)

Place names can


be palindromes.

a Select the palindromes from these numbers.


447
373
656
281
37
22
899
191
797
b Find the numbers between 1000 and 2000 that are palindromes.
c The following steps change any number into a palindrome:
choose any number to start with
64
reverse the digits and add
46

516

reverse the digits and add

110
011

repeat until you get a palindrome.

121
CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

81

Worksheet
3-04
Pascals triangle

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 82 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Find out how many steps it takes to form a palindrome from each of these numbers.
i 26
ii 28
iii 47
iv 75
v 149
vi 273
vii 1756
viii 2379
ix 4021
d List some other words and place names that are palindromes.

Using technology

Developing number patterns


Follow the instructions below to set up a spreadsheet.
Enter the headings, as shown below, into the given cells in a spreadsheet.

Enter 1 into cell A2 and 2 into cell A3. Highlight the two cells and Fill Down (click
and hold the square in the bottom right-hand corner of cell A3).

Fill Down to cell A31 (you should see 30 in this cell).


Odd numbers
1 Enter the formula =A2 into cell B2.
2 Enter the formula =B2+2 into cell B3.
3 Click on cell B3, and Fill Down to cell B31 to obtain the rst 30 odd numbers.
Even numbers
1 Enter the formula =A2 into cell C2.
2 Enter the formula =C2+2 into cell C3.
3 Click on cell C3, and Fill Down to cell C31 to obtain the rst 30 even numbers.
Square numbers
1 Enter the formula =A2^2 into cell D2.
2 Click on cell D3, and Fill Down to cell D31 to obtain the rst 30 square numbers.
Triangular numbers
1 Enter the formula =A2 into cell E2.
2 Enter the formula =E2+A3 into cell E3.
3 Click on cell E3, and Fill Down to cell E31 to obtain the rst 30 triangular
numbers.

82

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 83 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Fibonacci numbers
1 Enter the formula =A2 into cell F2.
2 Enter the formula =F2 into cell F3.
3 Enter the formula =F2+F3 into cell F4.
4 Click on cell F4, and Fill Down to cell B31 to obtain the rst 30 Fibonacci
numbers.
Questions
1 Use your spreadsheet to answer the following questions.
a Name the two smallest odd numbers that are also square. Write your answer in
cell H1. (Note: separate your answers with a comma.)
b Name all the even numbers less than 30 that are also triangular. Write your
answer in cell H2.
c Find all the triangular numbers less than 60 that are also Fibonacci numbers.
Write your answer in cell H3.
d Find all the square numbers between 300 and 600. Write your answer in cell H4.
e State the 18th Fibonacci number. Write your answer in cell H5.
f
i In cell H6, write a formula to nd the difference between the 24th and 25th
Fibonacci numbers.
ii What cell in column F corresponds to your answer in (i)? Write your answer
in cell H7.
g i Extend column A to represent the rst 50 numbers.
ii Extend the square and triangular numbers to represent the rst 50 numbers
in each pattern.
h Name the rst number over 1000 that is both square and triangular. Write your
answer in cell H8.
Extension: Factorials
Factorials: a denition:

1! = 1
2! = 1 2 = 2
3! = 1 2 3 = 6
.
.
.
n! = 1 2 3 n

1 Enter the formula =A2 into cell G2.


2 Using the denition given, develop a formula for 2! in cell G3, using cells G2
and A3.
3 Click on cell G4, and Fill Down to cell G31 to obtain the rst 30 factorial numbers.
Displaying large numbers
a Highlight all the cells that dont show full numbers (e.g. 4.79E+08). Right click and
choose Format Cells. Change the settings to number and 0 decimal places.
b ######## in a cell indicates that the column is not wide enough to hold the number
with all digits showing. You may need to widen the column until you can see all
numbers down to cell G31.

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

83

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 84 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Working mathematically

Reasoning and communicating

Figurate numbers
TLF

Numbers formed from geometric shapes, such as triangular or square numbers, are
called figurate numbers. There are many gurate number patterns.
1 Investigate the pentagonal numbers.

L 1939

Circus towers:
square pyramids

2 Investigate the hexagonal numbers.


3 What are the names of the other types of gurate numbers?

More types of numbers

Worksheet
3-05

Investigate one or more of the following types of numbers and nd out the
relationships and patterns in them. You may nd the Internet useful. Prepare a short
talk for the class on your topic.
Amicable numbers
Perfect numbers
The golden ratio/rectangle
Irrational numbers
Pythagorean triads
Binary, octal and hexadecimal numbers
Factorial numbers, for example the meaning of 5!

Perfect and amicable


numbers

3-02 Tests for divisibility


8

82

79 is NOT divisible
by 3 since 7 + 9 = 16,
and 3 does not go
evenly into 16.

39 6

04

2
5
8

A number is divisible
by 3 if the sum of its
digits is divisible by 3.

00
00

78

962

00
0

A number
is divisible
by 2 if it
ends in 0,
2, 4, 6 or 8.

10

Divisibility tests

It is often useful to know if a number is divisible by another number. Here are some simple
divisibility tests to help you.

4136

A number is
divisible by
5 if it ends in
0 or 5.
26
040

50 005

Worksheet
3-06

279

84

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

3 4
6 7
9 10

A number is divisible
by 9 if the sum of its
digits is divisible by 9.
171
1+7+1=9
812 754 4 = 27
74
7+5+
8 592 8 + 1 + 2 +

2
59

13 592 is
divisible by 8.

364 805

4506
4 + 5 + 6 = 15

ends in 6

13

A number is
divisible by 8 if
the last three
digits are
divisible by 8.

840

A number is divisible
by 6 if it is divisible
by both 2 and 3.
ends in 8
48 { 4 + 8 = 12

67

A number is
divisible by 4
if its last two
digits are
divisible
by 4.

32
0

5
4 20

679 320 is
divisible by 4.

There is no
simple test
for divisibility
by 7.

90

6
27

A number
is divisible
by 10 if it
ends in 0.
300

20 304050

10

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 85 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Example 1
Which of the numbers 2 to 10 divide exactly into 112?
Solution
2: 112 ends in a 2 so it is divisible by 2.
3: 1 + 1 + 2 = 4: 4 is not divisible by 3, so 112 is NOT divisible by 3.
4: 12 4 = 3 so 112 is divisible by 4.
5: 112 does not end in 0 or 5 so is NOT divisible by 5.
6: 112 is not divisible by 3, so it is NOT divisible by 6.
16
7: Check by division: 7 112 so 112 is divisible by 7.
14
8: Check by division: 8 112 so 112 is divisible by 8.
9: 1 + 1 + 2 = 4: 4 is not divisible by 9 so 112 is NOT divisible by 9.
10: 112 does not end in 0 so it is NOT divisible by 10.
Answer: 2, 4, 7 and 8 divide exactly into 112.

Exercise 3-02
1 Copy this table and work out which of the numbers from 2 to 10 divide exactly into
the given numbers (88 has been done for you).
Number

Ex 1

10

252
600
88

121
6215
3720
747
4753
110 001
40 436
840
75
2 000 646
20 106
7434
601 295

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

85

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 86 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

2 Which number is divisible by both 4 and 5? Select A, B, C or D.


A 10
B 15
C 20
D 25
3 Write a number less than 100 which is divisible by:
a 3 and 5
b 4 and 5
c 6 and 7

d 2 and 6

4 Write a number greater than 100 which is divisible by:


a 6
b 5
c 7
d 2 and 3

e 8 and 9

Just for the record

Karl Gauss
Karl Gauss was a German mathematician and astronomer who lived from 1777 to
1855. He invented a new way of nding the positions of heavenly bodies and was one
of the rst to study electricity.
Gauss showed his mathematical ability early in life. When he was in primary school,
the class was given the task of adding all the numbers from 1 to 100. The teacher
thought this would keep the class busy for some time but Gauss was very quick to
nd the answer and even quicker to explain why he was not working on the problem.
This is how he did it:
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + + 96 + 97 + 98 + 99 + 100
1 + 100 = 101
2 + 99 = 101
3 + 98 = 101, etc.
Find how many pairs of numbers there are and then nd the answer to the
problem.

Skillsheet
3-02

3-03 Factors

Factors and primes

The factors of a number are those whole numbers that divide exactly into it.

Example 2
What are the factors of 12?
Solution
The possible ways of multiplying to get 12 are:
4 3 or 3 4
6 2 or 2 6
The factors of 12 are: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12.
(Note that 1 will be a factor of every number.)

86

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

1 12 or 12 1

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 87 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Example 3
Find the highest common factor of 24 and 30.
Solution
The factors of 24 are: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24
The factors of 30 are: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30
The common factors of 24 and 30 are: 1, 2, 3 and 6.
The highest common factor is 6.

The highest common factor (HCF) of two or more numbers is the largest factor that is
common to all those numbers.

Exercise 3-03
1 In each of these pairs, is the smaller number a factor of the larger number?
a 8, 24
b 3, 39
c 4, 42
d 9, 45
e 8, 54
f 7, 91
g 7, 133
h 6, 48
i 5, 57
j 11, 143
2 List all the factors of:
a 16
b 21
f 48
g 52
k 28
l 100

Ex 2

c 24
h 80
m 45

d 36
i 112
n 200

e 35
j 144
o 363

3 Which of these numbers is not a factor of 45? Select A, B, C or D.


A9
B5
C7
D3
4 Find the common factors for each of these pairs of numbers.
a 2, 4
b 9, 6
c 6, 14
e 50, 150
f 46, 69
g 10, 15
i 30, 20
j 18, 24
k 60, 90
m 45, 15
n 36, 39
o 27, 64

d
h
l
p

8, 12
12, 16
39, 26
350, 210

5 Find the common factors for each of these sets of numbers.


a 2, 4, 6
b 10, 50, 60
c 22, 33, 121
d 24, 36, 144
e 6, 9, 12
f 16, 24, 40, 56
g 28, 70, 42, 98
h 30, 90, 75, 135
i 50, 60, 90, 120
6 Find the highest common factor for each of these pairs of numbers.
a 12 and 60
b 33 and 22
c 132 and 60
d 9 and 21
e 45 and 78
f 64 and 144
g 16 and 12
h 8 and 14
i 50 and 150
j 18 and 24
k 48 and 72
l 15 and 25
m 35 and 21
n 45 and 18
o 75 and 125
CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

Ex 3

87

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 88 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

7 Every whole number has at least two factors. Is this true or false? Why?
8 Using your answers to Question 5, nd the highest common factor for each of the given
sets of numbers.

Working mathematically

Applying strategies and reasoning

Factor path puzzle


1 Copy this grid, and try to reach the
100 square at the bottom corner,
starting at the 200 square in the top
corner and using related factors.
You can move from one number to
another by going sideways, up or down
the page (not diagonally), but only if
the numbers have a factor (not 1) in
common. So you can move from 80 to
65 (common factor 5), but not from 65
to 72 (no common factor).

200

80

65

91

143

156

195

175

32

96

71

110

77

121

35

28

15

209

87

90

21

39

169

117

95

57

37

81

63

11

29

72

76

75

51

14

98

56

132

48

78

85

105

45

44

187

112

221

100

2 Find a factor path starting in the bottom corner (105) and nishing top right (195).
3 Choose different starting and nishing positions. Do they all have connecting
factor paths?

Just for the record

Korean mathematics
In Korea, school students nd the highest common factor (HCF) using the following
method. To nd the HCF of 24 and 30:
divide by the rst prime number
divide by the next prime number

2 24 30
3 12 15
4 5
Since it is not possible to divide any more, stop.
The HCF = 2 3 = 6
Use this method to nd the HCF of each of the following sets of numbers.
a 12 and 15
b 18 and 48
c 13, 20 and 28
d 15, 21 and 45
e 8, 12, 16 and 48
f 120 and 250
g 48 and 120
h 96 and 144
i 256, 144 and 48
j 675, 1350 and 825

88

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 89 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Mental skills 3

Maths without calculators

Calculating differences and making change


In every subtraction problem, for example 135 47, think of nding the gap between the
two numbers. That is, nd the number in this case that must be added to 47 to get 135.
1 Examine these examples.
a 135 47
135
47
50
35
Think: 47 +
= 135
3
100

50

Count: 47, 50, 100, 135


Add:
3 + 50 + 35 = 88

150

Answer: 135 47 = 88
b 244 115
Think: 115 +

115
5

= 244

80
150

100

244

44
200

Count: 115, 120, 200, 244


Add:
5 + 80 + 44 = 129
Answer: 244 115 = 129
c $60 $47.65

$47.65
35c
$2

$60
$10
$60

$50

$70

Count: $47.65, $48, $50, $60


Add:
$0.35 + $2.00 + $10.00 = $12.35
Answer: $60 $47.65 = $12.35
d $100 $88.45

$88.45

55c
$1

$80

$90

$10

$100

$100

Count: $88.45, $89, $90, $100


Add:
$0.55 + $1.00 + $10.00 = $11.55
Answer: $100 $88.45 = $11.55
2 Now simplify the following.
a 176 88
d 425 340
g $70 $58.40
j $100 $69.95

b
e
h
k

221 54
518 389
$80 $73.25
$30 $22.90

c
f
i
l

670 356
199 78
$45 $40.30
$50 $17.10

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

89

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 90 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Working mathematically

Applying strategies

More factor paths


Make your own 7 7 factor path grid similar to the one in the Factor path puzzle on
page 88. Try making a 4 4 grid rst, then a 5 5 grid and then a 7 7 grid.
Discuss with your teacher the decisions you need to make as you develop your grid.

Skillsheet
3-02

3-04 Prime and composite numbers

Factors and primes

A prime number has only two factors: 1 and itself.


The prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, . . .
A composite number has more than two factors.
The composite numbers are 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, . . .

Note: 1 is neither prime nor composite. (It has only one factor.)

Exercise 3-04
Worksheet
3-07
Sieve of Eratosthenes

1 Eratosthenes, a mathematician in ancient Greece, found an easy way to work out prime
numbers. It is called the Sieve of Eratosthenes and works by deleting multiples of
numbers. (Use the link to go to a spreadsheet version of the Sieve.)
a Copy the grid below or print out Worksheet 3-07.
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108

109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120

b Cross out 1. It is neither prime nor composite.


c Except for 2, colour all the multiples of 2 red.

90

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 91 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

d Except for 3, colour all the multiples of 3 green.


e Continue, with different colours, until there are no more multiples. What do you
notice about the numbers that are not coloured?
2 Divide these numbers into two groups (primes and composites).

2
47

33

04

5
67

71

59

62

27

41

99

1 129
17

10

2064

77

10

3 Write any whole numbers which are neither prime nor composite.
4 a
b
c
d

List the prime numbers between 36 and 50.


List the composite numbers between 65 and 80.
List the prime numbers less than 20.
List the composite numbers larger than 30 but less than 47.

5 Which number is divisible only by prime numbers, itself and 1? Select A, B, C or D.


A 12
B 14
C 16
D 18
6 Look up other meanings for the word composite. Suggest why this word is used the
way it is in mathematics.

3-05 Prime factors


Every composite number can be written as a product of its prime factors. The prime
factors can be found by using a factor tree.

Worksheet
3-08
Factor trees

Example 4
Skillsheet
3-03

Write 24 as a product of its prime factors.


Solution
Factor tree

Prime factors by
repeated division

24
3

3 and 8 are factors


2 and 4 are factors of 8
3 is prime
2

2 is a factor of 4
2 is primestop

As a product of prime factors, 24 = 2 2 2 3.

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

91

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 92 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Example 5
Find the highest common factor (HCF) of 1960 and 2000.
Solution
1960

10

2000
196

2 5 4 49
2

5 2 2 7 7

1960 = 2 2 2 5 7 7

100
10

1000

10

10

10

5 2 5 2 5 2

2
Both numbers contain 2 2 2 5.
The HCF is 2 2 2 5 = 40.

2000 = 2 2 2 2 5 5 5

Example 6
Write 648 as a product of its prime factors, using index notation (powers).
Solution
648

2
2

So

324

81

648 = 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
= 23 34

34 is read 3 to the power 4 and


4 is called the power or index.

2 2 9 9

2 2 2 3 3 3 3

Exercise 3-05
Ex 4

1 Use factor trees to express each of these numbers as a product of its prime factors.
a 8
b 63
c 45
d 36
e 51
f 49
g 90
h 27
i 130
j 200
k 275
l 342
m 1250
n 1020
o 837

92

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 93 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

2 What are the prime factors of 1260? Select A, B, C or D.


A 233357
B 222357
C223337
D223357
3 Find the highest common factor of each of these pairs of numbers.
a 324 and 486
b 6000 and 1260
c 2475 and 3375
d 4900 and 1960
e 4950 and 1530
f 1404 and 900

Ex 5

4 Use factor trees to write each number as a product of its prime factors in index
notation.
a 18
b 20
c 45
d 72
e 98
f 196
g 32
h 135
i 200
j 900

Ex 6

Just for the record

Big numbers
Here are the names of some very large numbers.
Name

Numeral

Power of 10

one

100

ten

10

101

hundred

100

102

thousand

1000

103

million

1 000 000

106

billion

1 000 000 000

109

trillion

1 000 000 000 000

1012

1 000 000 000 000 000

1015

1 000 000 000 000 000 000

1018

sextillion

1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000

1021

septillion

1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000

1024

1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000

1027

nonillion

1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000

1030

decillion

1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000

1033

quadrillion
quintillion

octillion

Find the names of some numbers greater than a decillion.

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

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Working mathematically

Applying strategies and reasoning

Goldbachs conjecture
In 1742, Christian Goldbach said:
Every even number greater than 2 can be written as the sum of two prime numbers.
Show that his theory is true for all the even numbers between 1 and 100. Primes may
be repeated, for example 10 = 5 + 5, and a number can have more than one pair of
prime numbers.

Skillsheet
3-04
Square roots and
cube roots

Worksheet
3-09

3-06 Squares, cubes and roots


Finding square roots and cubes
Raising a number to the power 2 gives its square.
Raising a number to the power 3 gives its cube.

Powers and roots

Example 7
Find
a the square of 11

b the cube of 5

Solution
a 112 = 11 11 = 121
The square of 11 is 121.

b 53 = 5 5 5 = 125
The cube of 5 is 125.

The x 2 , x 3 and ^ keys on a calculator can be used to nd the square, cube and
other powers of a number.

Finding square roots and cube roots


The process that undoes squaring is finding the square root (symbol
). The square
root of a given number is the positive value which, when multiplied by itself, produces the
given number.
The process that undoes cubing is finding the cube root (symbol 3

Square root sign first used in 1220

94

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

).

Cube root sign created in 1525

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 95 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Example 8
What is:
a the square root of 64?

b the cube root of 27?

Solution
a The square root of 64 =

64 = 8 (because 8 8 = 64).

b The cube root of 27 = 3 27 = 3 (because 3 3 3 = 27).

Example 9
Estimate the value of

40.

Solution
There is no exact answer for the square root of 40, because there isnt a number which,
if squared, equals 40 exactly. Instead, we nd a number whose square is close to 40.
Looking at the square numbers 52 = 25, 62 = 36, 72 = 49, we can tell 40 must be between
6 and 7. Because 40 is closer to 36 than to 49, the square root must be closer to 6.
40 6.3.

As an estimate,

The

and

keys on a calculator can be used to nd the square root and cube


40 , press

root of a number. To calculate

= . The result is 6.324555,

40

a more accurate answer than our estimate above.

Finding square roots and cube roots using a factor tree

Example 10
Use a factor tree to nd the value of

196 .

Solution

196 = 2 2 7 7

So

196

196 = 2 2 7 7
=27
= 14

49

2 2 7

(Note:

2 2 = 2)

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

95

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 96 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Example 11
Use a factor tree to nd the value of 3 216 .
Solution
216
4
2 2
2

216 = 2 2 2 3 3 3

So
3

54

2 27

2 2 3

2 2 2

216 = 3 2 2 2 3 3 3
=23
=6

(Note: 3 2 2 2 = 2)

3 3 3

Exercise 3-06
Ex 7

1 Copy and complete the following table.


Number

10

11

16

Number squared

512

Number cubed

2 Which number(s) from Question 1 are both square and cube numbers?
3 Use your calculator to nd the square of each of these numbers.
a 84
b 123
c 24
d 42
4 Use your calculator to nd:
a 112
b 153
d 673
e 0.12
Ex 8

5 Find the square root of:


a 9
b 16
e 25
f 4

c 1002
f 3.53
c 81
g 36

d 121
h 100

Ex 8

6 Find the cube root of each of these numbers, using the table from Question 1.
a 8
b 125
c 343
d 1000
e 729
f 27 000

Ex 9

7 Between which two numbers does


calculator).
A 4 and 5

B 5 and 6

8 Between which two numbers does


A 14 and 16
B 4 and 5

96

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

27 lie? Select A, B, C or D (without using a


C 26 and 28

D 756 and 784

15 lie? Select A, B, C or D.
C 196 and 225
D 3 and 4

12

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 97 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

9 Between which two consecutive whole numbers does

80 lie?

10 Give estimates for the following, then use a calculator to check.


a

50

d 3 66

142

e 3 999

1000

f 3 123

11 Find the following square roots, using factor trees.

Ex 10

484

1764

625

900

784

256

196

400

3136

12 Find the following, using a factor tree.


a

10 648

d 3 64 000

Ex 11

2744

e 3 4913

3375

f 3 9261

Using technology

Absolute cell referencing


Using a spreadsheet to calculate powers
1 Set up your spreadsheet by entering the information in the cells as shown below.

2 We need to use absolute cell referencing to complete this task easily. We use this
technique to maintain a particular value in a cell without changing it when writing
a formula. For example: to write 21 in cell B2, enter =$B$1^A2. This formula will
not change the 2, but will change the power to each consecutive number as we Fill
Down (i.e. 21, 22, 23, etc.)
3 Click on cell B2 and Fill Down to cell B13. Your spreadsheet will now show the
rst 12 powers of 2.
4 By modifying the formula given in point 2, repeat this process, using the
appropriate cells, absolute cell referencing and Fill Down for columns C, D and
E to show the rst 12 powers of 3, 5 and 7.

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

97

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 98 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Displaying large numbers


If the numbers cannot be seen properly follow these steps:
a Highlight all the cells that dont show full numbers (e.g. 244E + 08). Right click
and choose Format cells. Change the settings to number and 0 decimal places.
b ######## in a cell indicates that the column is not wide enough to hold the
number with all digits showing. You may need to widen the column until you can
see all numbers.

Using a spreadsheet to calculate the lowest common multiple


5 This activity nds the lowest common multiple (LCM) of sets of numbers. The
LCM is the smallest number that all numbers in a particular set divide into; e.g. for
the pair of numbers 6 and 20, the LCM = 60. This is the smallest number both 6 and
20 divide into.
Find the LCM of 8, 12 and 16. Open a new sheet and enter the information shown.

a In cell B2, enter the formula =$B$1*A2. Use Fill Down to nd the rst 15
multiples of 8.
b In cells C2 and D2, enter similar formulas and Fill Down to nd the rst 15
multiples of 12 and 16. [Hint: Only change the absolute cell reference.]
c Now, compare the columns and identify the LCM of 8, 12 and 16.
6 Modify your spreadsheet from part a above to nd the LCM of the following sets
of numbers. Note: you may need to extend beyond the rst 15 multiples.
a 6 and 15
b 12 and 18
c 3, 7 and 15
Try other combinations of numbers and calculate each LCM.

d 48, 60 and 75

Power plus
1 Evaluate each of the following.
b 8 42
a 72 33
d 33 + 62 42
e 34 + 33 + 32 + 3

98

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

c 53 22
f 12 + 22 + 32 + 42

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 99 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

2 Arrange each of these sets of index terms in order, from the smallest value to the
largest.
a 23, 32, 35, 53, 25, 52
b 44, 73, 35, 82, 52, 63
c 1002, 114, 27, 34, 54
3 a Copy and complete:
12 =
112 =
1112 =
11112 =
b Based on the patterns in your part a answers, write the squares of these numbers:
i 11 111
ii 1 111 111
iii 111 111 111
iv 1 111.1111
4 a Copy and complete this number pattern.
1 = 1
= (1)3 + (2)3
2+3+4 = 1+
5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 = 8 + 27
= ( )3 + ( )3
10 + 11 + 12 + 13 + 14 + 15 + 16 =
+
= ( )3 + ( )3
b Write the next two lines of the pattern in part a.
c Find the sum without adding each time. Show how you did it.
ii 82 + 83 + + 99 + 100
i 50 + 51 + + 63 + 64
iv 577 + 578 + + 624 + 625
iii 290 + 291 + + 323 + 324
5 Try nding the square root of each number. (Theyre not as hard as they look!)
a 2500
b 8100
c 10 000
d 1 000 000
e 1 210 000
f 100 000 000
g 640 000
h 176 400
i 10 000 000 000
6 Find the cube root of each of these numbers. (What you discovered in Question 5
should help.)
a 8000
b 343 000
c 1 000 000
d 64 000 000
e 1 000 000 000
f 27 000
7 Find the square root of:
a 3322
c 36 49

b 554433
d 16 25 4

8 Find the cube root of:


a 222
c 777666
e 125 64 1000

b 444555
d 8 27
f 343 729

9 Find the value of:


a

92

d 3 29

34

e 3 33 56

54 26

f 4 16

10 Two prime numbers that differ by 2 are called twin primes. For example, 11
and 13 are twin primes, but 23 and 29 are not. Find the sets of twin primes between
1 and 100.

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

99

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 100 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Chapter 3 review
Worksheet
3-10

Language of maths
composite number
estimate
highest common factor
power
square

Exploring numbers
crossword

cube
factor
index notation
prime factors
square root

cube root
factor tree
palindrome
prime number
triangular number

divisibility test
Fibonacci number
Pascals triangle
product

1 Describe in your own words how the Fibonacci numbers are formed.
2 Find the non-mathematical meaning of:
a factor

b index

3 The date 30/11/03 was a palindromic date. When will be the next palindromic date?
4 Describe what a factor tree does.
5 Find as many meanings for these words as you can.
a product
b prime

Topic overview
Write in your own words what you have learnt about number patterns and the way
numbers behave.
What was your favourite part of this topic?
What parts of this topic did you not understand? Talk to your teacher or a friend about
them.
Give examples of where some of the number patterns in this chapter occur or are used.
This diagram provides a summary of this chapter of work. Copy it into your workbook
and complete it. Use bright colours, add your own pictures, and change it, if necessary, to
be sure you understand it.
Triangular
Number patterns

Fa

cto

rs

Fibonacci

is

Div

Exploring
numbers
Sq

trees

ua

m
po
Co

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

im

100

Pr

sit
e

r
Facto

sts

y te

it
ibil

res

,c

ub

es,

ro

ots

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 101 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Chapter revision

Topic test 3

1 Write the next three numbers in each of these patterns.


a 1, 3, 5, 7,
b 2, 4, 6, 8,
d 1, 4, 9, 16,
e 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8,
2 In Question 1, which set of numbers are the:
a square numbers?
b triangular numbers?
3 Write the following.
a a triangular number between 10 and 20
c the next palindrome after 2002
e the rst ve composite numbers

Exercise 3-01

c 1, 3, 6, 10,
f 60, 55, 50, 45,
Exercise 3-01

c Fibonacci numbers?
Exercise 3-01

b the highest Fibonacci number below 40


d the next prime number after 29
f the square number between 40 and 50

4 Write the next three lines of Pascals triangle as shown


on the right.

1
1
1
5 Which of the numbers from 2 to 10 divide exactly into:
a 81?
b 327?
c 228?
d 170?

2
3

Exercise 3-01

1
3

1
4

1
Exercise 3-02

e 4326?

6 a Write all the factors of 60.


b Write all the factors of 42.

Exercise 3-03

7 a Find the common factors of 42 and 60.


b Find the highest common factor of 20 and 48.
c Find the highest common factor of 36 and 84.

Exercise 3-03

8 Find the prime numbers from:


27
93
6
29
19
100 65
37
17
13

Exercise 3-04

39
1

96
67

31
73

57
83

9 Draw factor trees to nd the prime factors of these numbers.


a 24
b 60
c 27
e 36
f 45
g 72

2
89

51
27
Exercise 3-05

d 200
h 144

10 Write your answers from Question 9 using index notation.


11 Find the square of each of the following.
a 4
b 9

Exercise 3-06

c 6

d 11

12 Find the square root of each of the following.


a 64
b 25
c 49
13 Find the cube of each of the following.
a 2
b 6

Exercise 3-06

d 144
Exercise 3-06

c 9

d 8

14 Find the cube root of each of the following.


a 27
b 64
c 125
15 Use factor trees to nd:
a 225
b

Exercise 3-05

Exercise 3-06

d 1000
Exercise 3-06

256

1764

16 Between which two consecutive whole numbers does

5832

55 lie?

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

Exercise 3-06

101

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 102 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

Mixed revision 1
Exercise 1-03

1 Use our HinduArabic numerals to write the Babylonian number on the right.

Exercise 1-04

2 Write the Roman numeral XXIX using HinduArabic numerals.

Exercise 1-05

3 Use HinduArabic numerals to write the Chinese number shown on the right.

Exercise 1-06

4 What is the value of the digit 6 in each of the following?


a 261
b 1006
c 63 110

Exercise 1-07

Exercise 1-08

5 Write each of the following in expanded notation.


a 38
b 201
6 Complete these number grids.
a
12
+
3

d 210 632
c 3987

b top row side column

17

15

27
11

d top row side column

9
35

28

27

36
12
6

40
Exercise 1-09

Exercise 1-10

Exercise 1-11

7 Find the answers to each of these.


a 390 15
b 294 21

c 259 14

8 Evaluate each of the following.


a 15 3 5
b 73+25
d 7 + 5 (12 3)
e 414 18

c 26 2 14 7
f [(3 + 5) 2 (20 5)] 5

9 True or false?
a 12  20

b 100  25 5

e 12 5  4 15

f 3 3 8

d
Exercise 2-02

62

6=6

10 Measure these angles.


a

102

NEW CENTURY MATHS 7

100 = 10

03 NCM7 2nd ed SB TXT.fm Page 103 Saturday, June 7, 2008 3:51 PM

11 Draw an example of:


a an obtuse angle

Exercise 2-04

b an acute angle

c a reex angle

12 Name this angle using three letters and write the name of
its parts.

Exercise 2-01

13 Find the complement of:


a 66
b 85
c 12
d 89

Exercise 2-05

a
b

14 Find the supplement of:


a 32
b 90

A
Exercise 2-05

c 105

d 153

15 Draw a diagram and mark in vertically opposite angles.

Exercise 2-06

16 a
b
c
d

Exercise 2-11

Draw a pair of parallel lines and cut them with a transversal.


Mark a pair of alternate angles with ().
Mark a pair of corresponding angles with (*).
Mark a pair of co-interior angles with (+).

17 Find the size of each angle marked by a letter.


a
b
c

Exercise 2-12

50

p
m

98
142

110
a

f
p

h
m

88

36

38

70
c

j x

m
56

l
58

64
x 75
45

37

18 Write the next three numbers in each of these patterns.


a 1, 4, 7,
b 1, 3, 6,
c 1, 1, 2, 3, 5,
19 Which of the numbers from 2 to 10 divide exactly into:
a 68?
b 294?
20 Find the factors of:
a 18

122

Exercise 3-01

d 11, 9, 7,
Exercise 3-02

c 6152?
Exercise 3-03

b 45

c 360

21 Using factor trees, write each of the numbers in Question 20 as a product of its prime
factors. Write your answers using index notation.

Exercise 3-05

22 Simplify each of the following.


a 62
b 33
c

Exercise 3-06

25

121

125

64

MIXED REVISION 1

103