Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Cambridge Maths Gold NSW Syllabus for the Australian Curriculum Year 7
- Chapter 1
- Ch11 Probability
- AI4 Rules of Exponents
- Ch 08 Binomial Theorem
- Smarandache - Fibonacci Triplets
- Chapter 2
- Chapter 10
- 2nd qe I
- Chapter 2
- On the History of Geometrization From Minkowski to Finsler Geometry H Goenner.ps
- Eng'g Math
- Euler, Goldbach and Fermat Theorem
- 5 CHAP
- Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
- Ch8 Area and Volume
- crypto-06
- Ds Gmatclub Bunuel
- irmo
- Important Concepts and Formulas - Numbers

Anda di halaman 1dari 28

NUMBER

Numbers form many interesting patterns. You already know about odd and even numbers. Pascals

triangle is a number pattern that looks like a triangle and contains number patterns. Fibonacci numbers

are found in many living things: the number of petals on a ower will be a Fibonacci number. You will

learn how these different patterns are formed to help you to understand how numbers behave.

1234

48901234

4567890123 8901234

5

567890123

4567890123 8901234

0123456789

7890123 8901234

23456789

4567890123456789012345

123456789012345678

234567890123 4567890123

456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678

56789

7890123456789012

3456789012345678

901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345

567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345

56789012345678901234567890

123456789012345678

5678

234567890123 45678901234

0123456789

234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456

7890123456789012 2345 3456789014

9012345 678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901

34

6789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123

234

6789012

345678

9012345 67890123456789012345678

90123456789012345678901234567890123456

7890123456789012

34567890123456

901234567890123

01234567890

123456789012345678901234

5678

012345678901234

567890123456789012345678901

4567890 1234567890123456789 012345678901234567

890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123

45678901234567890123456

789012345678901234567 8901234

678901234567890

2345678901 23456789012

45678901234

6789012345678901

34567890123456789012345678901234567

012345678901234567890123456756789012

56789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456

01234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901

567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 12345678901234567890123456

90123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890

45678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345

9012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 1234567890123456789012345678901234567890

34567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234

89012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789

34567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234

78901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678

23456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123

789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678

12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012

67890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567

1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012

56789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456

01234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901

56789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456

90123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890

45678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345

901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890

34567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234

89012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789

3456789012345678901234567890 1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234

78901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678

23456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123

78901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678

0123456789

48901234

0123456789

0123456789

567890123

3 8901234

456789

012345

0123456789

678901234

4567890123 8901234

0123456789

56789012345678

5678

567890123

4567890123 8901234

Wordbank

0123456789

4567890123456789012345

56789012345678

identify special groups of numbers: triangular, 1234567890123456789

5678 with more than

0123456789

square,

Fibonacci, Pascals triangle and 234567890123 45678901234

two factors. 0123456789

56789012

456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678

56789012

8

7890123456789012

3456789012345678

palindromes

divisibility test A rule for testing whether a

789012345678

901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678

test567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345

numbers for divisibility

number is divisible by a specic value, for

0123456789

56789012345678901234567890

1234567890123456789

example, divisible by 3.

identify

the

factors

of

a

number

and

distinguish

78901234

5678

234567890123 45678901234

0123456789

between prime and composite numbers

factor A value that divides evenly into a given

45678901456789012345678901234567890123456

7890123456789012

345678901

number, for example, 3 is a factor of 15.

456789012 9012345

678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901

nd

the highest common factor of two or more

6789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123

numbers

89012345678

345678

9012345 67890123456789012345678 factor

90123456789012345678901234567890123456

7890123456789012

345678901234567890123

901234567890123

01234567890

123456789012345678901234

5678

012345678901234

5678901

of a number.

express

a

number

as

a

product

of

its

prime

factors

0123

4567890 1234567890123456789 012345678901234567

890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678

45678901234567890123456

789012345678901234567

8901234

678901234567890

2345678901

234567

index notation Using powers to write the

calculate squares6789012345678901

and cubes

756789012345678901234 45678901234

34567890123456789012345678901234567

0123456789012345

repeated

multiplication

of

a

number,

for

901234567890123456789

5678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567

estimate

and calculate square roots and cube

4567890123456789012340123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012

example, 35.

roots

890123456789012345678

567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 123456

palindrome A number or word that reads the

345678901234567890123901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890

nd4567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456

square roots and cube roots of numbers

890123456789012345678

same forward and backward, for example, 2002,12345678901234567890

234567890123456789012

9012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890

expressed

as a product of their prime factors.

7890123456789012345673456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345

and madam.

2345678901234567890128901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890

prime number A number with only1234567890123456789012345678901234

two factors,

678901234567890123456 34567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890

1234567890123456789017890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789

1 and the number itself.

6789012345678901234562345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234

012345678901234567890 789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678

5678901234567890123451234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123

0123456789012345678906789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678

456789012345678901234 1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012

9012345678901234567895678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567

4567890123456789012340123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012

890123456789012345678 56789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456

345678901234567890123901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890

8901234567890123456784567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456

234567890123456789012 901234567890123456789012345678901234567890 123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890

7890123456789012345673456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345

2345678901234567890128901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890

678901234567890123456 3456789012345678901234567890 12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234

1234567890123456789017890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789

6789012345678901234562345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234

012345678901234567890 78901234567890 1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678

Start up

Worksheet

3-01

Brainstarters 3

Skillsheet

3-01

Classifying whole

numbers

2 Sort these numbers, putting all the even numbers in one group, and the odd numbers

in another:

17

2002

371

134

60 023

2

748

691

90 704 006

1

95

13

2074

1 000 000

99 999

1256

3 Find all the numbers that divide into 6.

4 Find all the numbers that divide into 24.

5 Find all the even numbers that divide into 36.

6 Find all the odd numbers that divide into 90.

7 How can you tell if a number is even without dividing it?

8 How can you recognise an odd number?

9 Write the next three numbers in each of these patterns:

a 8, 10, 12,

f 7, 15, 23,

10 What is 8 squared?

11 What is 3 27 ?

12 Find two numbers that have a product of 48.

Worksheet

3-02

The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, are called the counting numbers. There are groups of

counting numbers which make special patterns. We will investigate some of them.

numbers

Exercise 3-01

TLF

L 1936

Circus towers:

triangular towers

78

10

b Work out all the triangular numbers less than 100.

c Complete four more lines of this pattern:

1=1

1+2=3

1+2+3=6

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10

d Describe how the pattern in part c works.

e Use what you have worked out to help you nd the 100th triangular number.

(Hint: Do you know a quick way to add up all the numbers from 1 to 100?)

2 Square numbers are shown in the diagram below.

TLF

L 1935

Circus towers:

square stacks

16

b Work out all the square numbers up to 100.

c Complete four more lines of this pattern:

1=1

1+3=4

1+3+5=9

1 + 3 + 5 + 7 = 16

d Describe how the pattern works.

e Work out another pattern to help you nd the square numbers. What is the 50th

square number?

f Complete four more lines of these patterns:

i

1 = 12

ii

22 = 12 + (1 + 2)

32 = 22 + (2 + 3)

1 + 2 + 1 = 22

2

42 = 32 + (3 + 4)

1+2+3+2+1=3

g Each square number is said to be the sum of two consecutive triangular numbers.

+

h Find two numbers that are both triangular numbers and square numbers.

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

79

4th generation

2 pairs

Birth

2nd generation

3rd generation

1 pair

Birth

1st generation

1 pair

Birth

Fibonacci numbers

3 Leonardo Fibonacci was an Italian mathematician who lived in the early 13th century.

He discovered this pattern when studying the breeding habits of rabbits:

1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, . . .

The diagram below illustrates this. The vertical arrows labelled Birth indicate the new

offspring of a pair of rabbits every two months. The unlabelled arrows indicate the same

pair of rabbits. After each month, the number of pairs is a term in Fibonaccis pattern.

Birth

Worksheet

3-03

3 pairs

5 pairs

b Add ve more lines to this pattern:

1

1

1+1=2

1+2=3

2+3=5

3+5=8

c Write the rst 20 Fibonacci numbers.

i Write every third Fibonacci number, beginning with 2. What number divides

evenly into all these numbers?

ii Write every fourth Fibonacci number, beginning with 3. What number divides

evenly into all these numbers?

iii Write every fth Fibonacci number, beginning with 5. What number divides

evenly into all these numbers?

d i Find any triangular numbers in the Fibonacci numbers up to 100.

ii Find any square numbers in the Fibonacci numbers up to 100.

e Pairs of Fibonacci numbers are found by counting along the spirals on pine cones.

Investigate how and where else Fibonacci numbers occur in nature.

80

1

in the 17th century, studied a triangle of

1

1

numbers known to the Chinese as the Yanghui

1

2

1

triangle. Each row of the triangle is created using

1

3

3

1

the numbers in the row above it. The triangle is

1

4

6

4

1

known as Pascals triangle. The rst seven rows

1

5 10 10 5

1

are shown at the right.

6 15 20 15

6

1

a Complete the next four rows of Pascals triangle.

b Describe how the pattern works.

c Add each row in Pascals triangle. What do you notice?

d The diagonals in Pascals triangle produce some interesting patterns. Write the

triangular numbers using Pascals triangle.

Add along the arrows

e We can even nd Fibonacci

1

to

nd the Fibonacci

numbers in this pattern. Rewrite

1

1

numbers.

the triangle above as a right1

2

1

angled triangle.

1

3

3

1

1

1

4

5

6

10

4

10

1

5

5 A palindrome is a word, number or sentence that reads the same forward and

backward. The following number, words and sentence are all palindromes:

noon

151

Able was I ere I saw Elba (Napoleon Bonaparte)

be palindromes.

447

373

656

281

37

22

899

191

797

b Find the numbers between 1000 and 2000 that are palindromes.

c The following steps change any number into a palindrome:

choose any number to start with

64

reverse the digits and add

46

516

110

011

121

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

81

Worksheet

3-04

Pascals triangle

Find out how many steps it takes to form a palindrome from each of these numbers.

i 26

ii 28

iii 47

iv 75

v 149

vi 273

vii 1756

viii 2379

ix 4021

d List some other words and place names that are palindromes.

Using technology

Follow the instructions below to set up a spreadsheet.

Enter the headings, as shown below, into the given cells in a spreadsheet.

Enter 1 into cell A2 and 2 into cell A3. Highlight the two cells and Fill Down (click

and hold the square in the bottom right-hand corner of cell A3).

Odd numbers

1 Enter the formula =A2 into cell B2.

2 Enter the formula =B2+2 into cell B3.

3 Click on cell B3, and Fill Down to cell B31 to obtain the rst 30 odd numbers.

Even numbers

1 Enter the formula =A2 into cell C2.

2 Enter the formula =C2+2 into cell C3.

3 Click on cell C3, and Fill Down to cell C31 to obtain the rst 30 even numbers.

Square numbers

1 Enter the formula =A2^2 into cell D2.

2 Click on cell D3, and Fill Down to cell D31 to obtain the rst 30 square numbers.

Triangular numbers

1 Enter the formula =A2 into cell E2.

2 Enter the formula =E2+A3 into cell E3.

3 Click on cell E3, and Fill Down to cell E31 to obtain the rst 30 triangular

numbers.

82

Fibonacci numbers

1 Enter the formula =A2 into cell F2.

2 Enter the formula =F2 into cell F3.

3 Enter the formula =F2+F3 into cell F4.

4 Click on cell F4, and Fill Down to cell B31 to obtain the rst 30 Fibonacci

numbers.

Questions

1 Use your spreadsheet to answer the following questions.

a Name the two smallest odd numbers that are also square. Write your answer in

cell H1. (Note: separate your answers with a comma.)

b Name all the even numbers less than 30 that are also triangular. Write your

answer in cell H2.

c Find all the triangular numbers less than 60 that are also Fibonacci numbers.

Write your answer in cell H3.

d Find all the square numbers between 300 and 600. Write your answer in cell H4.

e State the 18th Fibonacci number. Write your answer in cell H5.

f

i In cell H6, write a formula to nd the difference between the 24th and 25th

Fibonacci numbers.

ii What cell in column F corresponds to your answer in (i)? Write your answer

in cell H7.

g i Extend column A to represent the rst 50 numbers.

ii Extend the square and triangular numbers to represent the rst 50 numbers

in each pattern.

h Name the rst number over 1000 that is both square and triangular. Write your

answer in cell H8.

Extension: Factorials

Factorials: a denition:

1! = 1

2! = 1 2 = 2

3! = 1 2 3 = 6

.

.

.

n! = 1 2 3 n

2 Using the denition given, develop a formula for 2! in cell G3, using cells G2

and A3.

3 Click on cell G4, and Fill Down to cell G31 to obtain the rst 30 factorial numbers.

Displaying large numbers

a Highlight all the cells that dont show full numbers (e.g. 4.79E+08). Right click and

choose Format Cells. Change the settings to number and 0 decimal places.

b ######## in a cell indicates that the column is not wide enough to hold the number

with all digits showing. You may need to widen the column until you can see all

numbers down to cell G31.

83

Working mathematically

Figurate numbers

TLF

Numbers formed from geometric shapes, such as triangular or square numbers, are

called figurate numbers. There are many gurate number patterns.

1 Investigate the pentagonal numbers.

L 1939

Circus towers:

square pyramids

3 What are the names of the other types of gurate numbers?

Worksheet

3-05

Investigate one or more of the following types of numbers and nd out the

relationships and patterns in them. You may nd the Internet useful. Prepare a short

talk for the class on your topic.

Amicable numbers

Perfect numbers

The golden ratio/rectangle

Irrational numbers

Pythagorean triads

Binary, octal and hexadecimal numbers

Factorial numbers, for example the meaning of 5!

numbers

8

82

79 is NOT divisible

by 3 since 7 + 9 = 16,

and 3 does not go

evenly into 16.

39 6

04

2

5

8

A number is divisible

by 3 if the sum of its

digits is divisible by 3.

00

00

78

962

00

0

A number

is divisible

by 2 if it

ends in 0,

2, 4, 6 or 8.

10

Divisibility tests

It is often useful to know if a number is divisible by another number. Here are some simple

divisibility tests to help you.

4136

A number is

divisible by

5 if it ends in

0 or 5.

26

040

50 005

Worksheet

3-06

279

84

3 4

6 7

9 10

A number is divisible

by 9 if the sum of its

digits is divisible by 9.

171

1+7+1=9

812 754 4 = 27

74

7+5+

8 592 8 + 1 + 2 +

2

59

13 592 is

divisible by 8.

364 805

4506

4 + 5 + 6 = 15

ends in 6

13

A number is

divisible by 8 if

the last three

digits are

divisible by 8.

840

A number is divisible

by 6 if it is divisible

by both 2 and 3.

ends in 8

48 { 4 + 8 = 12

67

A number is

divisible by 4

if its last two

digits are

divisible

by 4.

32

0

5

4 20

679 320 is

divisible by 4.

There is no

simple test

for divisibility

by 7.

90

6

27

A number

is divisible

by 10 if it

ends in 0.

300

20 304050

10

Example 1

Which of the numbers 2 to 10 divide exactly into 112?

Solution

2: 112 ends in a 2 so it is divisible by 2.

3: 1 + 1 + 2 = 4: 4 is not divisible by 3, so 112 is NOT divisible by 3.

4: 12 4 = 3 so 112 is divisible by 4.

5: 112 does not end in 0 or 5 so is NOT divisible by 5.

6: 112 is not divisible by 3, so it is NOT divisible by 6.

16

7: Check by division: 7 112 so 112 is divisible by 7.

14

8: Check by division: 8 112 so 112 is divisible by 8.

9: 1 + 1 + 2 = 4: 4 is not divisible by 9 so 112 is NOT divisible by 9.

10: 112 does not end in 0 so it is NOT divisible by 10.

Answer: 2, 4, 7 and 8 divide exactly into 112.

Exercise 3-02

1 Copy this table and work out which of the numbers from 2 to 10 divide exactly into

the given numbers (88 has been done for you).

Number

Ex 1

10

252

600

88

121

6215

3720

747

4753

110 001

40 436

840

75

2 000 646

20 106

7434

601 295

85

A 10

B 15

C 20

D 25

3 Write a number less than 100 which is divisible by:

a 3 and 5

b 4 and 5

c 6 and 7

d 2 and 6

a 6

b 5

c 7

d 2 and 3

e 8 and 9

Karl Gauss

Karl Gauss was a German mathematician and astronomer who lived from 1777 to

1855. He invented a new way of nding the positions of heavenly bodies and was one

of the rst to study electricity.

Gauss showed his mathematical ability early in life. When he was in primary school,

the class was given the task of adding all the numbers from 1 to 100. The teacher

thought this would keep the class busy for some time but Gauss was very quick to

nd the answer and even quicker to explain why he was not working on the problem.

This is how he did it:

1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + + 96 + 97 + 98 + 99 + 100

1 + 100 = 101

2 + 99 = 101

3 + 98 = 101, etc.

Find how many pairs of numbers there are and then nd the answer to the

problem.

Skillsheet

3-02

3-03 Factors

The factors of a number are those whole numbers that divide exactly into it.

Example 2

What are the factors of 12?

Solution

The possible ways of multiplying to get 12 are:

4 3 or 3 4

6 2 or 2 6

The factors of 12 are: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 12.

(Note that 1 will be a factor of every number.)

86

1 12 or 12 1

Example 3

Find the highest common factor of 24 and 30.

Solution

The factors of 24 are: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24

The factors of 30 are: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 15, 30

The common factors of 24 and 30 are: 1, 2, 3 and 6.

The highest common factor is 6.

The highest common factor (HCF) of two or more numbers is the largest factor that is

common to all those numbers.

Exercise 3-03

1 In each of these pairs, is the smaller number a factor of the larger number?

a 8, 24

b 3, 39

c 4, 42

d 9, 45

e 8, 54

f 7, 91

g 7, 133

h 6, 48

i 5, 57

j 11, 143

2 List all the factors of:

a 16

b 21

f 48

g 52

k 28

l 100

Ex 2

c 24

h 80

m 45

d 36

i 112

n 200

e 35

j 144

o 363

A9

B5

C7

D3

4 Find the common factors for each of these pairs of numbers.

a 2, 4

b 9, 6

c 6, 14

e 50, 150

f 46, 69

g 10, 15

i 30, 20

j 18, 24

k 60, 90

m 45, 15

n 36, 39

o 27, 64

d

h

l

p

8, 12

12, 16

39, 26

350, 210

a 2, 4, 6

b 10, 50, 60

c 22, 33, 121

d 24, 36, 144

e 6, 9, 12

f 16, 24, 40, 56

g 28, 70, 42, 98

h 30, 90, 75, 135

i 50, 60, 90, 120

6 Find the highest common factor for each of these pairs of numbers.

a 12 and 60

b 33 and 22

c 132 and 60

d 9 and 21

e 45 and 78

f 64 and 144

g 16 and 12

h 8 and 14

i 50 and 150

j 18 and 24

k 48 and 72

l 15 and 25

m 35 and 21

n 45 and 18

o 75 and 125

CHAPTER 3 EXPLORING NUMBERS

Ex 3

87

7 Every whole number has at least two factors. Is this true or false? Why?

8 Using your answers to Question 5, nd the highest common factor for each of the given

sets of numbers.

Working mathematically

1 Copy this grid, and try to reach the

100 square at the bottom corner,

starting at the 200 square in the top

corner and using related factors.

You can move from one number to

another by going sideways, up or down

the page (not diagonally), but only if

the numbers have a factor (not 1) in

common. So you can move from 80 to

65 (common factor 5), but not from 65

to 72 (no common factor).

200

80

65

91

143

156

195

175

32

96

71

110

77

121

35

28

15

209

87

90

21

39

169

117

95

57

37

81

63

11

29

72

76

75

51

14

98

56

132

48

78

85

105

45

44

187

112

221

100

2 Find a factor path starting in the bottom corner (105) and nishing top right (195).

3 Choose different starting and nishing positions. Do they all have connecting

factor paths?

Korean mathematics

In Korea, school students nd the highest common factor (HCF) using the following

method. To nd the HCF of 24 and 30:

divide by the rst prime number

divide by the next prime number

2 24 30

3 12 15

4 5

Since it is not possible to divide any more, stop.

The HCF = 2 3 = 6

Use this method to nd the HCF of each of the following sets of numbers.

a 12 and 15

b 18 and 48

c 13, 20 and 28

d 15, 21 and 45

e 8, 12, 16 and 48

f 120 and 250

g 48 and 120

h 96 and 144

i 256, 144 and 48

j 675, 1350 and 825

88

Mental skills 3

In every subtraction problem, for example 135 47, think of nding the gap between the

two numbers. That is, nd the number in this case that must be added to 47 to get 135.

1 Examine these examples.

a 135 47

135

47

50

35

Think: 47 +

= 135

3

100

50

Add:

3 + 50 + 35 = 88

150

Answer: 135 47 = 88

b 244 115

Think: 115 +

115

5

= 244

80

150

100

244

44

200

Add:

5 + 80 + 44 = 129

Answer: 244 115 = 129

c $60 $47.65

$47.65

35c

$2

$60

$10

$60

$50

$70

Add:

$0.35 + $2.00 + $10.00 = $12.35

Answer: $60 $47.65 = $12.35

d $100 $88.45

$88.45

55c

$1

$80

$90

$10

$100

$100

Add:

$0.55 + $1.00 + $10.00 = $11.55

Answer: $100 $88.45 = $11.55

2 Now simplify the following.

a 176 88

d 425 340

g $70 $58.40

j $100 $69.95

b

e

h

k

221 54

518 389

$80 $73.25

$30 $22.90

c

f

i

l

670 356

199 78

$45 $40.30

$50 $17.10

89

Working mathematically

Applying strategies

Make your own 7 7 factor path grid similar to the one in the Factor path puzzle on

page 88. Try making a 4 4 grid rst, then a 5 5 grid and then a 7 7 grid.

Discuss with your teacher the decisions you need to make as you develop your grid.

Skillsheet

3-02

The prime numbers are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, . . .

A composite number has more than two factors.

The composite numbers are 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, . . .

Note: 1 is neither prime nor composite. (It has only one factor.)

Exercise 3-04

Worksheet

3-07

Sieve of Eratosthenes

1 Eratosthenes, a mathematician in ancient Greece, found an easy way to work out prime

numbers. It is called the Sieve of Eratosthenes and works by deleting multiples of

numbers. (Use the link to go to a spreadsheet version of the Sieve.)

a Copy the grid below or print out Worksheet 3-07.

1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

61

62

63

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120

c Except for 2, colour all the multiples of 2 red.

90

e Continue, with different colours, until there are no more multiples. What do you

notice about the numbers that are not coloured?

2 Divide these numbers into two groups (primes and composites).

2

47

33

04

5

67

71

59

62

27

41

99

1 129

17

10

2064

77

10

3 Write any whole numbers which are neither prime nor composite.

4 a

b

c

d

List the composite numbers between 65 and 80.

List the prime numbers less than 20.

List the composite numbers larger than 30 but less than 47.

A 12

B 14

C 16

D 18

6 Look up other meanings for the word composite. Suggest why this word is used the

way it is in mathematics.

Every composite number can be written as a product of its prime factors. The prime

factors can be found by using a factor tree.

Worksheet

3-08

Factor trees

Example 4

Skillsheet

3-03

Solution

Factor tree

Prime factors by

repeated division

24

3

2 and 4 are factors of 8

3 is prime

2

2 is a factor of 4

2 is primestop

91

Example 5

Find the highest common factor (HCF) of 1960 and 2000.

Solution

1960

10

2000

196

2 5 4 49

2

5 2 2 7 7

1960 = 2 2 2 5 7 7

100

10

1000

10

10

10

5 2 5 2 5 2

2

Both numbers contain 2 2 2 5.

The HCF is 2 2 2 5 = 40.

2000 = 2 2 2 2 5 5 5

Example 6

Write 648 as a product of its prime factors, using index notation (powers).

Solution

648

2

2

So

324

81

648 = 2 2 2 3 3 3 3

= 23 34

4 is called the power or index.

2 2 9 9

2 2 2 3 3 3 3

Exercise 3-05

Ex 4

1 Use factor trees to express each of these numbers as a product of its prime factors.

a 8

b 63

c 45

d 36

e 51

f 49

g 90

h 27

i 130

j 200

k 275

l 342

m 1250

n 1020

o 837

92

A 233357

B 222357

C223337

D223357

3 Find the highest common factor of each of these pairs of numbers.

a 324 and 486

b 6000 and 1260

c 2475 and 3375

d 4900 and 1960

e 4950 and 1530

f 1404 and 900

Ex 5

4 Use factor trees to write each number as a product of its prime factors in index

notation.

a 18

b 20

c 45

d 72

e 98

f 196

g 32

h 135

i 200

j 900

Ex 6

Big numbers

Here are the names of some very large numbers.

Name

Numeral

Power of 10

one

100

ten

10

101

hundred

100

102

thousand

1000

103

million

1 000 000

106

billion

109

trillion

1012

1015

1018

sextillion

1021

septillion

1024

1027

nonillion

1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000

1030

decillion

1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000

1033

quadrillion

quintillion

octillion

93

Working mathematically

Goldbachs conjecture

In 1742, Christian Goldbach said:

Every even number greater than 2 can be written as the sum of two prime numbers.

Show that his theory is true for all the even numbers between 1 and 100. Primes may

be repeated, for example 10 = 5 + 5, and a number can have more than one pair of

prime numbers.

Skillsheet

3-04

Square roots and

cube roots

Worksheet

3-09

Finding square roots and cubes

Raising a number to the power 2 gives its square.

Raising a number to the power 3 gives its cube.

Example 7

Find

a the square of 11

b the cube of 5

Solution

a 112 = 11 11 = 121

The square of 11 is 121.

b 53 = 5 5 5 = 125

The cube of 5 is 125.

The x 2 , x 3 and ^ keys on a calculator can be used to nd the square, cube and

other powers of a number.

The process that undoes squaring is finding the square root (symbol

). The square

root of a given number is the positive value which, when multiplied by itself, produces the

given number.

The process that undoes cubing is finding the cube root (symbol 3

94

).

Example 8

What is:

a the square root of 64?

Solution

a The square root of 64 =

64 = 8 (because 8 8 = 64).

Example 9

Estimate the value of

40.

Solution

There is no exact answer for the square root of 40, because there isnt a number which,

if squared, equals 40 exactly. Instead, we nd a number whose square is close to 40.

Looking at the square numbers 52 = 25, 62 = 36, 72 = 49, we can tell 40 must be between

6 and 7. Because 40 is closer to 36 than to 49, the square root must be closer to 6.

40 6.3.

As an estimate,

The

and

40 , press

40

Example 10

Use a factor tree to nd the value of

196 .

Solution

196 = 2 2 7 7

So

196

196 = 2 2 7 7

=27

= 14

49

2 2 7

(Note:

2 2 = 2)

95

Example 11

Use a factor tree to nd the value of 3 216 .

Solution

216

4

2 2

2

216 = 2 2 2 3 3 3

So

3

54

2 27

2 2 3

2 2 2

216 = 3 2 2 2 3 3 3

=23

=6

(Note: 3 2 2 2 = 2)

3 3 3

Exercise 3-06

Ex 7

Number

10

11

16

Number squared

512

Number cubed

2 Which number(s) from Question 1 are both square and cube numbers?

3 Use your calculator to nd the square of each of these numbers.

a 84

b 123

c 24

d 42

4 Use your calculator to nd:

a 112

b 153

d 673

e 0.12

Ex 8

a 9

b 16

e 25

f 4

c 1002

f 3.53

c 81

g 36

d 121

h 100

Ex 8

6 Find the cube root of each of these numbers, using the table from Question 1.

a 8

b 125

c 343

d 1000

e 729

f 27 000

Ex 9

calculator).

A 4 and 5

B 5 and 6

A 14 and 16

B 4 and 5

96

C 26 and 28

15 lie? Select A, B, C or D.

C 196 and 225

D 3 and 4

12

80 lie?

a

50

d 3 66

142

e 3 999

1000

f 3 123

Ex 10

484

1764

625

900

784

256

196

400

3136

a

10 648

d 3 64 000

Ex 11

2744

e 3 4913

3375

f 3 9261

Using technology

Using a spreadsheet to calculate powers

1 Set up your spreadsheet by entering the information in the cells as shown below.

2 We need to use absolute cell referencing to complete this task easily. We use this

technique to maintain a particular value in a cell without changing it when writing

a formula. For example: to write 21 in cell B2, enter =$B$1^A2. This formula will

not change the 2, but will change the power to each consecutive number as we Fill

Down (i.e. 21, 22, 23, etc.)

3 Click on cell B2 and Fill Down to cell B13. Your spreadsheet will now show the

rst 12 powers of 2.

4 By modifying the formula given in point 2, repeat this process, using the

appropriate cells, absolute cell referencing and Fill Down for columns C, D and

E to show the rst 12 powers of 3, 5 and 7.

97

If the numbers cannot be seen properly follow these steps:

a Highlight all the cells that dont show full numbers (e.g. 244E + 08). Right click

and choose Format cells. Change the settings to number and 0 decimal places.

b ######## in a cell indicates that the column is not wide enough to hold the

number with all digits showing. You may need to widen the column until you can

see all numbers.

5 This activity nds the lowest common multiple (LCM) of sets of numbers. The

LCM is the smallest number that all numbers in a particular set divide into; e.g. for

the pair of numbers 6 and 20, the LCM = 60. This is the smallest number both 6 and

20 divide into.

Find the LCM of 8, 12 and 16. Open a new sheet and enter the information shown.

a In cell B2, enter the formula =$B$1*A2. Use Fill Down to nd the rst 15

multiples of 8.

b In cells C2 and D2, enter similar formulas and Fill Down to nd the rst 15

multiples of 12 and 16. [Hint: Only change the absolute cell reference.]

c Now, compare the columns and identify the LCM of 8, 12 and 16.

6 Modify your spreadsheet from part a above to nd the LCM of the following sets

of numbers. Note: you may need to extend beyond the rst 15 multiples.

a 6 and 15

b 12 and 18

c 3, 7 and 15

Try other combinations of numbers and calculate each LCM.

d 48, 60 and 75

Power plus

1 Evaluate each of the following.

b 8 42

a 72 33

d 33 + 62 42

e 34 + 33 + 32 + 3

98

c 53 22

f 12 + 22 + 32 + 42

2 Arrange each of these sets of index terms in order, from the smallest value to the

largest.

a 23, 32, 35, 53, 25, 52

b 44, 73, 35, 82, 52, 63

c 1002, 114, 27, 34, 54

3 a Copy and complete:

12 =

112 =

1112 =

11112 =

b Based on the patterns in your part a answers, write the squares of these numbers:

i 11 111

ii 1 111 111

iii 111 111 111

iv 1 111.1111

4 a Copy and complete this number pattern.

1 = 1

= (1)3 + (2)3

2+3+4 = 1+

5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 = 8 + 27

= ( )3 + ( )3

10 + 11 + 12 + 13 + 14 + 15 + 16 =

+

= ( )3 + ( )3

b Write the next two lines of the pattern in part a.

c Find the sum without adding each time. Show how you did it.

ii 82 + 83 + + 99 + 100

i 50 + 51 + + 63 + 64

iv 577 + 578 + + 624 + 625

iii 290 + 291 + + 323 + 324

5 Try nding the square root of each number. (Theyre not as hard as they look!)

a 2500

b 8100

c 10 000

d 1 000 000

e 1 210 000

f 100 000 000

g 640 000

h 176 400

i 10 000 000 000

6 Find the cube root of each of these numbers. (What you discovered in Question 5

should help.)

a 8000

b 343 000

c 1 000 000

d 64 000 000

e 1 000 000 000

f 27 000

7 Find the square root of:

a 3322

c 36 49

b 554433

d 16 25 4

a 222

c 777666

e 125 64 1000

b 444555

d 8 27

f 343 729

a

92

d 3 29

34

e 3 33 56

54 26

f 4 16

10 Two prime numbers that differ by 2 are called twin primes. For example, 11

and 13 are twin primes, but 23 and 29 are not. Find the sets of twin primes between

1 and 100.

99

Chapter 3 review

Worksheet

3-10

Language of maths

composite number

estimate

highest common factor

power

square

Exploring numbers

crossword

cube

factor

index notation

prime factors

square root

cube root

factor tree

palindrome

prime number

triangular number

divisibility test

Fibonacci number

Pascals triangle

product

1 Describe in your own words how the Fibonacci numbers are formed.

2 Find the non-mathematical meaning of:

a factor

b index

3 The date 30/11/03 was a palindromic date. When will be the next palindromic date?

4 Describe what a factor tree does.

5 Find as many meanings for these words as you can.

a product

b prime

Topic overview

Write in your own words what you have learnt about number patterns and the way

numbers behave.

What was your favourite part of this topic?

What parts of this topic did you not understand? Talk to your teacher or a friend about

them.

Give examples of where some of the number patterns in this chapter occur or are used.

This diagram provides a summary of this chapter of work. Copy it into your workbook

and complete it. Use bright colours, add your own pictures, and change it, if necessary, to

be sure you understand it.

Triangular

Number patterns

Fa

cto

rs

Fibonacci

is

Div

Exploring

numbers

Sq

trees

ua

m

po

Co

im

100

Pr

sit

e

r

Facto

sts

y te

it

ibil

res

,c

ub

es,

ro

ots

Chapter revision

Topic test 3

a 1, 3, 5, 7,

b 2, 4, 6, 8,

d 1, 4, 9, 16,

e 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8,

2 In Question 1, which set of numbers are the:

a square numbers?

b triangular numbers?

3 Write the following.

a a triangular number between 10 and 20

c the next palindrome after 2002

e the rst ve composite numbers

Exercise 3-01

c 1, 3, 6, 10,

f 60, 55, 50, 45,

Exercise 3-01

c Fibonacci numbers?

Exercise 3-01

d the next prime number after 29

f the square number between 40 and 50

on the right.

1

1

1

5 Which of the numbers from 2 to 10 divide exactly into:

a 81?

b 327?

c 228?

d 170?

2

3

Exercise 3-01

1

3

1

4

1

Exercise 3-02

e 4326?

b Write all the factors of 42.

Exercise 3-03

b Find the highest common factor of 20 and 48.

c Find the highest common factor of 36 and 84.

Exercise 3-03

27

93

6

29

19

100 65

37

17

13

Exercise 3-04

39

1

96

67

31

73

57

83

a 24

b 60

c 27

e 36

f 45

g 72

2

89

51

27

Exercise 3-05

d 200

h 144

11 Find the square of each of the following.

a 4

b 9

Exercise 3-06

c 6

d 11

a 64

b 25

c 49

13 Find the cube of each of the following.

a 2

b 6

Exercise 3-06

d 144

Exercise 3-06

c 9

d 8

a 27

b 64

c 125

15 Use factor trees to nd:

a 225

b

Exercise 3-05

Exercise 3-06

d 1000

Exercise 3-06

256

1764

5832

55 lie?

Exercise 3-06

101

Mixed revision 1

Exercise 1-03

1 Use our HinduArabic numerals to write the Babylonian number on the right.

Exercise 1-04

Exercise 1-05

3 Use HinduArabic numerals to write the Chinese number shown on the right.

Exercise 1-06

a 261

b 1006

c 63 110

Exercise 1-07

Exercise 1-08

a 38

b 201

6 Complete these number grids.

a

12

+

3

d 210 632

c 3987

17

15

27

11

9

35

28

27

36

12

6

40

Exercise 1-09

Exercise 1-10

Exercise 1-11

a 390 15

b 294 21

c 259 14

a 15 3 5

b 73+25

d 7 + 5 (12 3)

e 414 18

c 26 2 14 7

f [(3 + 5) 2 (20 5)] 5

9 True or false?

a 12 20

b 100 25 5

e 12 5 4 15

f 3 3 8

d

Exercise 2-02

62

6=6

a

102

100 = 10

a an obtuse angle

Exercise 2-04

b an acute angle

c a reex angle

12 Name this angle using three letters and write the name of

its parts.

Exercise 2-01

a 66

b 85

c 12

d 89

Exercise 2-05

a

b

a 32

b 90

A

Exercise 2-05

c 105

d 153

Exercise 2-06

16 a

b

c

d

Exercise 2-11

Mark a pair of alternate angles with ().

Mark a pair of corresponding angles with (*).

Mark a pair of co-interior angles with (+).

a

b

c

Exercise 2-12

50

p

m

98

142

110

a

f

p

h

m

88

36

38

70

c

j x

m

56

l

58

64

x 75

45

37

a 1, 4, 7,

b 1, 3, 6,

c 1, 1, 2, 3, 5,

19 Which of the numbers from 2 to 10 divide exactly into:

a 68?

b 294?

20 Find the factors of:

a 18

122

Exercise 3-01

d 11, 9, 7,

Exercise 3-02

c 6152?

Exercise 3-03

b 45

c 360

21 Using factor trees, write each of the numbers in Question 20 as a product of its prime

factors. Write your answers using index notation.

Exercise 3-05

a 62

b 33

c

Exercise 3-06

25

121

125

64

MIXED REVISION 1

103

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