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PROJECT ON

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
REGARDING

TATA TUBES DIVISION


JAMSHEDPUR

Submitted to: Mr. Shivkant Vishwakarma Sales(O&E) Manager

Date of submission-13/07/2011

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
After the successful accomplishment of a project , it is the first and foremost duty of researcher to acknowledge the motivating guiding and supporting factors which led him/her to prepare analyze and finish the project report. In this context, I would like to express my special acknowledgement and deep regards to Mr. IBRAR KHAN Sales co-ordinate. I express my profound sense of gratitude to Mr. Gautam Ghosh who granted me to do my project work in Tubes Division of Tata Steel. I am greatly indebted to Mr. S.K.Vishwakarma, Sr.Manager(SalesOE) under whose guidance and supervision I completed my project. I also thank the employees, officers and the supervisors of the company who without any hesitation gave me the details which I required during the project. They have given their valuable time to complete my project on time. I also thank the safety department for their kind co-operation. I also thank the placement coordinator of my college and my faculty incharge for allowing me to do the project in such a renowned company. Last but not the least, Sincere thanks and heartiest gratification goes to my parents and friends whose best wishes accompanied me and inspired us during my project.

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

INTRODUCTION ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE PRODUCT OF TUBE DIVISION OVERVIEW OF TUBE DIVISION PRECISION TUBES MANUFACTURING PROCESS CR & ERW PLANT METHODOLOGY a. Research Objectives b. Research design c. Scaling Techniques d. Sampling e. Questionaries & Data Collection DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS SWOT ANALYSIS LIMITATION OF STUDY FINDINGS SUGGESTION/RECOMMENDATIONS BIBLOGRAPHY

9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

INTRODUCTION

A new dimension in steel tube technology opened up in India in the early 50s with the establishment of the India Tube Company (ITC), on the 17th. December 1954. It was the outcome of a joint venture between Tata Steel and Stewarts & Lloyds of UK. In 1985, the Indian Tube Company merged with Tata Steel to form the Tata Steel-Tubes Division. The Tubes Strategic Business Unit (SBU) today is a leading manufacturer of welded pipes and tubes in the country with an annual production capacity of around 4,00,000 mt , with expansion plans on the anvil. The Tubes SBU manufactures commercial, structural and precision tubes at its Jamshedpur plant. The SBU has a network of sales offices across the country with the marketing headquarters in Kolkata to provide better customer service. State of the art technology The Tubes SBU has embraced the culture of business excellence reflected through a leading presence across several lines of business. A high degree of customization has been achieved through a comprehensive plant modernization program, involving up-gradation of the plant, technology and process control. Lines of business The three main lines of business are Commercial Tubes for the conveyance segments, sold under the brand name of Tata Pipes Structural Tubes for the construction segment, sold under the brand name of Tata Structura Precision Tubes for the Auto, Boiler and General Engineering segments

Business unit of tata tubes

ORGANIZATIONAL PROFILE OF TUBES DIVISION


A new dimension in steel tube technology opened up in India in the early 50s with the establishment of the Indian Tube Company Limited(ITC), on the 17th of December 1954. It was the outcome of a joint venture between Tata Steel and Stewarts and Lloyds of UK. In 1985, the Indian Tube Company merged with Tata Steel to form the Tata Steel Tubes Division. The Tube Strategic Business Unit (SBU), today, is a leading manufacturer of welded pipes and tubes in the country with an annual production capacity of around, 4, 00,000 tonnes, with expansion plans on the avail. The Tubes Division manufactures commercial, structural and precision tubes at its Jamshedpur Tubes Division plant. The SBU has a network of sales offices across the country with the marketing headquarters in Kolkata to provide better customer service. Being the first in India to manufacture tubes they adopted the best technology from Germany, U.S.A., U.K and Italy. They are the largest tube manufacture in India with an annual capacity of 2, 50,000 tubes. They are the only manufacture to house two different process under one roof. The works situated at Jamshedpur has the following plants:

Products, Services & Solutions at Jamshedpur at the following Plants:


Market segment Conveyance Tubes Sub-segment Plumbing Irrigation Process Product Key services & solutions Black pipes, Availability galvanized pipes through replenishment Plumbing solutions Customized deliveries ERWAs- welded VMI Tubes, Normalized Customized Tubes ,Cold Drawn products and Tube, Hydrodeliveries formed Tubes, Full Kit Boiler delivery Web based orders Early Vendors involvement Rectangular, square and circular Hollow Sections Turnkey Solutions Customized products and deliveries Knowledge Dissemination Application support Delivery mechanism Direct and retail distribution network

Precision Tubes

Auto Boiler General Engineering

Direct and service centre network, Web portal

Structural Tubes

Architectural Industrial General Engineering Infrastructural

Direct and business development partners, Web portal

Technologies, Equipment and Facilities


Over the last 5 years the SBU has transformed itself into one of the most modem tube making facilities in country in the country with latest technology, equipment in the line with the SBUs safety and climate change policy. Business is governed by various regulation/standards as enumerated in . The SBU I certificated to TS 16949 for the precision Tubes business and ISO 9001, 14001 and 18001 for the entire business. Currently there is no government regulation with respect to climate change. Tubes SBU is operating under the specific guidelines laid down by the corporate. Tubes Division, quality control forms an integral part of production going straight back to the steel making stage. They have the most advanced and comprehensive quality control system to produce tubes for various national and international standard. They pioneered the export of steel tubes to West Asia, South East Asia, U.S.A., and Australia and have won government awards for export performance.

PRODUCTS OF TUBE DIVISIONS


MS Black Pipe Galvanized pipe RHS/SHS/circular section Auto (erw) tube Auto(cew) Boiler tube

Auto (erw & cew) tube ->

Boiler tube - >

A revamped Tubes SBU Operations at Jamshedpur

AN OVERVIEW OF TUBES DIVISION


Important Milestones:
1953- Formation of the erstwhile India Tube Company Ltd by TATA STEEL and STEWARTS and LOYDS Of U.K. 1955- Commissioning of the F.M.MILL (FRETZ MOON). 1957- CR (cold rolling) and ERW (electrical resistance wield) plant started. 1959- Seamless plant goes on stream. 1966- F.M.II added. 1967- Second pilger leg added to increase seamless plant capacity. 1975- ERW modernization- Alpha Shear and Induction Wield added. 1977- Seamless rehabilitation project. 1981- British Steel decides to disinvest outside, U.K, Shares offered to TISCO. 1983- Arrangement by TISCO and India Tube Company for conversion of Strips into tubes. 1985- Amalgamation of TATA STEEL and I.T.C. to from TATA STEEL TUBE DIVISION. 1990- High Frequency Induction Wield (HFIW) Mill started. 1994- 2 PTM (Precision Tube Mill) added to ERW. 1998- Seamless plant obsolete in January. 2004- Completed 50 years of Tube making in India. 2006 - Increased share of Business with key OEMs. 2009 - Long term relationship established with OEMs. Service level improvement. 2011 - Rollout of CVM initiative, CST for key OEs, QCDDM reviews & Tie-up & rate contract with vendors of Bharti Infratel, Launch of Structura Studios in Kolkata/Hyderabad/Guwahati.

PRECISION TUBES
The Precision Tubes plant has added a new 4inch Mill from OTO Mills to its existing 2inch and 3 inch mills, thereby extending the Precision Tubes range to 114.3 Outer Diameter and 6mm thickness with a combined capacity of 90,000 tonnes per annum. Key features of the 4 inch new Precision Tubes Mill The new mill is powered by world class technology from OTO Mills, LOI Thermo process, Boltzmann and MAIR Research ERW range from 31.75mm to 114.30mm OD with thickness range of 1.50mm to 6.00mm Cold Drawn Tubes from 15mm to 105mm OD with thickness range of 1.0mm to 5.50mm Advanced coolant filtration and Solid State Welder for consistency in weld and controlled internal bead Fully integrated Cold Draw line with high speed cold draw bench, multi roll straightener, NDT, multi head tube cutting and packaging system Bright annealing furnace fully automatic roller hearth furnace with provision for Normalizing, Annealing and Tempering Matching surface treatment facility with tube transporter, auto dip and temperature control Shock Absorber and Telescopic Front Fork customized tube cutting line to suit customers length specification Enhanced surface quality of dawn tube through use of reactive oil with bright annealed tubes Strength of Tata Precision Tubes Weld quality In house steel raw material with typical high fatigue strength properties Capability to supply high strength tubes with high ductility Capability to offer ERW / CEW tubes with low tolerances on OD and thickness Bright normalized surface requirements on request TS 16949 certified and recognized as Self Certified Boiler Tube and Pipe Manufacturer under Indian Boiler Regulations In house R&D integrated with resources across Tata Steel group Strength of Tata Steel in the Hydroforming Business In-house Tube and steel making facilities. Availability of customized steel grades.

In-house Hydro forming expertise with Tata Steel Europe R & D capability including simulation tools and expertise Complete solution to OE from Conceptual design to Prototyping and final supply of component. Access to data base & experience on Hydro forming process and component design of Tata Steel Europe Hyfo & Tata Steel Europe RD&T.

A DIAGRAM OF PT MILLS

MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Tata Pipes-Idler Tubes production process begins with slitting of wide Steel Hot Rolled Coils to the width required for the

production of customer specific section dimensions. The slit coil is then fed through the mill and is shaped into a round tube by a series of forming coils. The converging strip edges of this round tube are squeezed together and welded using high frequency induction welding. After this the external excess weld bead is removed and the tube then passes through a set of shaping rolls where it is shaped to its final form, exactly sized to the required dimensions followed by cutting to the desired length and bundling in a fully automatic process.

Quality Control
The quality of our product is controlled during the manufacturing process. It starts with slitting the strip edges, continues with speed and temperature control during the HFIW process and is followed by non-destructive eddy current testing directly after welding. Off-line drift and flattening tests are conducted after this all as per ISO 9000:2002 quality management system.

CR&ERW PLANT
Cold Rolling Mill:Cold Rolling Mill was commissioned in the year 1957. The plant comprising a 4Hi and a 2Hi mill produces cold rolled strips for tube making. The hot rolled strips from Hot Rolling Mill are slit in required width in TRL and outside sources and are stored in Coil yard .The coil is then pickled in hot dilute sulphuric acid to remove the scale adhering to the surface and then washed in a water tank and lubricated in oil tank. The pickled coils are then taken to 4Hi reversing mill for cold rolling. Cold rolling is cold rolling is initially passing the strip between two sets of rolls which exert pressure on the strip for reducing its thickness and obtaining desired s Surface finish and thickness. The 4Hi mill reduces the strip thickness to 30-75% according to customers requirements. The cold rolled strips get work hardened and are unsuitable for tube making. Hence, to restore ductility, the cold rolled strips are annealed. Annealed coils are sent to 2Hi mill obtaining the final temper, size and surface finish required for the end product. After rolling in 2Hi mill the strips are slit into required width as per rolling program. These slit strips are supplied in coil forms to ERW Mills. 2 PTM(Precision Tube Mill) This mill was installed in 1993 for cold forming and welding various types of round tubes of 12.70mm to 50.80mm OD from colled rolled strips. The tubes with smaller wall thickness are produced for mechanical and automobile application.
OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS: Range of production 12.70mm-50.80mm OD

Strip thickness

0.60mm-5.50mm

Tube cut length

3000-9000mm

PROCESS: Forming mill consists of vertical and horizontal roll stands and are used for continuous forming of strips into tabular shape. The strip is formed into a round shape at the break down stand and this shape is held by the side roll and fin pass section where the top portion of both sides are pressed together into a tabular configuration. 3 ERW(Electric Resistance Welding ) MILL The ERW commissioned in the year 1957 for manufacturing precision tubes with very close dimensional tolerances and better surface finish. Initially the tubes were welded by electric resistance welding process. But since 1975, the welding process has been changed to HFIW (High Frequency Induction Welding) process for obtaining superior weld but the name of the still carries as it was.

PROCESS PARAMETERS
Range of Product 12.70mm-76.20mm O,D 0.60mm-6.00mm THICKNESS Raw Materials Specification Cold Rolled Strips ASTM-A214-HEAT Exchanger, condenser tubes IS-3074-Automobile Purposes BS-1717-Cycle Tubes BS-3059-Boiler & Super Heating Tubes BS-1775-Mechanical and General Engineering Purposes

Application

Cycle, Automobile , Air Heater, Furnitures, Boiler, General Engineering

Customers

Telco, Bajaj Auto, Hero Honda, Bhel, ABL Durgapur, Thermax, Escorts, TVS, Suzuki, WIL.

PROCESS: Strips from CR mill are the feed stock of manufacturing of ERW tubes. The strips are leveled and the ends are cut square to enable the welding of the coils and to end to form an endless length of strips for maintaining continuity of the mill. The strip edges are then trimmed to prepare edges suitable for welding. The mill consists of a series of rolls which form the strip progressively into a tabular form by centre forming with abutting edges. These abutting edges are then heated to the required welding temperature by means of high frequency induction coil. A squeeze roll assembly operated under controlled pressure effects welding, thus making the tubes. The build up of the material along the weld line as a result of welding , both on the outside and inside of the tubes is then removed in the form of O.D. & I.D. bead. The continuous is then cooled to ambient temperature by coolant sprays, passes through a series of sizing rolls and in line NDT unit, straightened and automatically cut off to the required length without stopping the mill. A change occurs in the metallurgical structure during the HFIW process of tubes making. Whenever called for to remove the metallurgical differences between the weld zone and the rest of the tubes, the tubes are subjected to normalizing. Normalizing restores the grain structure, thereby ensuring stress relieving of the tubes. Normalizing is also essential for achieving the desired level of mechanical properties such as hardness,yield strength and tensile strength. The process of normalizing is carried out in a roller hearth furnace at temperature ranging between 850 - 920 depending upon the requirement of the specification and end use. The tubes are than straightened, cut to length, hydraucally tested upto 3000 psi,inspected oiled packed and finally dispatched to warehouses or customers.

Key features of the 4 inch new Precision Tubes Mill

The new mill is powered by world class technology from OTO Mills, LOI Thermoprocess, Bultmann and MAIR Research

ERW range from 31.75mm to 114.30mm OD with thickness range of 1.50mm to 6.00mm Cold Drawn Tubes from 15mm to 105mm OD with thickness range of 1.0mm to 5.50mm

Advanced coolant filtration and Solid State Welder for consistency in weld and controlled internal bead Fully integrated Cold Draw line with high speed cold draw bench, multi roll straightener, NDT, multi head tube cutting and packaging system Bright annealing furnace fully automatic roller hearth furnace with provision for Normalising, Annealing and Tempering Matching surface treatment facility with tube transporter, auto dip and temperature control Shock Absorber and Telescopic Front Fork customized tube cutting line to suit customers length specification Enhanced surface quality of dawn tube through use of reactive oil with bright annealed tubes

Strength of Tata Precision Tubes


Weld quality In house steel raw material with typical high fatigue strength properties Capability to supply high strength tubes with high ductility Capability to offer ERW / CEW tubes with low tolerances on OD and thickness Bright normalized surface requirements on request TS 16949 certified and recognized as Self Certified Boiler Tube and Pipe Manufacturer under Indian Boiler Regulations In house R&D integrated with resources across Tata Steel group

METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE. RESEARCH DESIGN. SCALING TECHNIQUE. SAMPLING. QUESTIONNAIRE & DATA COLLECTION.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The objectives of the research were as follows :1. To analyze various factors affecting customer behavior regarding STP Tubes. The research was conducted to know the important factors a customer takes into account while purchasing a STP Tube.

2. To access the market share of TATA Tubes (STP). The research was conducted to find out the market share of TATA Tubes (STP) and also the market share of other major brands.

3. Customer views on TATA Tubes vice-versa the other important brands in the market on some important performance variables. The objective behind the research was to know customers perceptions about TATA Tubes regarding quality, service, easy access and other related aspects. The research was conducted to know customers rating of different performance variables and how it can be improved.

RESEARCH DESIGN
1.

Types of Informations Required. a. What are the different brands of STP Tubes available in the market. b. What are the different size (N.B) in which Tata Tubes (STP) are available.
c.

How many retailers are there in Jamshedpur who stock STP Tubes. What is the variable a customer takes into account while purchasing a STP Tube.

d.

e. What are the various factors on which the performance of Tata Tube can be rated. 2. Sources of Informations
a.

Secondary Source The information regarding the various size in which the Tata Tube are available was retrieved from the STP BROCHURE. The brochure contained the information size in which the Tata Tube is available in light, medium & heavy category, the different specification of the Tube and the mill in which they are produced. The various factors on which the customer can rate the performance of Tata Tube were available from the customer feedback report of 2009-2010. The data related to the sale & promotion of Tata Tube was obtained from the report of accounts department. Primary Source-

i.

ii.

iii.
b.

i.

A pilot survey was conducted in Jamshedpur to know the various variable/factor which a customer takes into account while purchasing a STP Tube.

ii. A pilot survey was also conducted to know the various retailer who stock STP Tubes. iii. An unstructured interview was taken of the officers in the sales office to know about the strategies related to incentive schemes, warehousing, promotions & targets set for the dealers.

SCALING TECHNIQUES
Scaling techniques was used to find out which variable is important/unimportant for the customer while purchasing a STP tube. For our purpose we use the Likert Scale. The respondent was asked to indicate on a 5 point numerical scale the degree to which they feel a certain variables is important while purchasing a STP Tube. The scale was 5. Extremely Important 4. Important 3. Does not make any difference. 2. Unimportant. 1. Extremely Unimportant. The weight used was 5, 4,3,2,1 respectively. The respondents were asked to rate on this scale the various factors. Another scale was developed for the dealer to rate the performance level of the Tata Tube on different aspects. The Five Point Scale was. 5. Excellent 4. Very good 3. Good. 2. Fair. 1. Poor. Again the weights used were 5, 4,3,2,1 respectively.

SAMPLING
Sampling is a the part of the population which is selected for obtaining the necessary information according to the pilot survey conducted there were 55 retailer in Jamshedpur who dealt in with STP tubes out of those 50 there were 10 retailer who did not always stocked STP tubes. Therefore the population reduced to only 45. The whole population was taken as a sample for survey as the size of the population was small. Thus the sample consisted of 45 retailers spread throughout Jamshedpur.

QUESTIONNAIRE & DATA COLLECTION


In a survey mode of data collection Questionnaire is a popular means of data collection instrument. A questionnaire uses a structured standardized format of data collection to record verbal responses to question. The advantage of using questionnaire is its versatility. Respondent can be probed on a wide diversity of issue y questioning. Since same questions are put before all respondent in the same order. It offers maximum control over interviewing and information content. The questionnaire used for our purpose contained eighteen questions probing into different aspect of PT TUBES .The questionnaire consisted of structured and direct form of questions. .

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


Q. Is your demand for precision tubes constant for the last three years?

DEMAND

YES NO

Interpretation: From the above analysis we can say 43% customers of Tata Tubes demands are constant for last three years. However, 57% customers demand are increasing for last three years.
Q. Do you estimate your next years demand for precision tubes as compared to

this year?

Estim Deamnd ate

Equal Higher Don't estim ate

Interpretation: Only 28.57% customers are said that their demand of precision tubes will be equal as this year but same number of customers dont estimate their demand. Meanwhile, 42.86% customers estimate their demand of precision tubes will be higher as compare to this year.
Q. According to you what are the various precision tube manufacturing

companies? Manufacturing companies TATA STEEL BHUSHAN STEEL TI ATLAS BUNDY Frequency 5 2 2 1 1

Manufacturing Companies

Interpretation: Most of customers know TATA STEEL & BHUSHAN STEEL as a largest manufacturing of tubes and TI too Even if, a few customer knows about ATLAS and BUNDY as a tubes manufacturer.
Q. Would you prefer Tata precision tubes over those manufactured by other

companies?

Interpretation: 85.71% customers prefer Tata precision tubes over other brand of tubes but 14.29% customers like to prefer other brand of tubes over Tata tubes. Q. why do you prefer Tata precision tubes? Point for preference High quality Easy availability Moderate price Payment term Brand assurance Frequency 5 3 5 4 4

Interpretation: Maximum people who prefer Tata tubes over other brands said that they prefer Tata tubes because of high quality ,moderate price and brand assurance. They are unhappy with the availability of Tata tubes.

Q. why do you not prefer Tata precision tubes?

Points for unlike Poor quality High price Payment term Order fulfillment time

Frequency 1 0 3 6

Interpretation: Those people who prefer other brands of tubes they reveal two reasons for their unlike of Tata tubes. The reasons are as follows: 1. Payment term is complicated. 2. Dont fulfillment the order on time. In other words, Tata takes time to deliver the order.

Q. How can Tata Steel(Tube Division) increase its marketshare in the precision

Tube market?
Points Competitive price Better quality Incentive schemes Better order fulfillment time Credit terms Rank 5 4 1 3 2

Interpretation: Most people said that Tata tubes can enhance its market share by competitive price and better quality. They have ranked maximum 5 for C.P. & minimum 1 for I.S. Ranks are in order of 1= poor,5= excellent .
Q. Rate the following companies on a scale of 1-5 on the parameters mentioned

below(1=poor,5=Excellent)

Interpretation: 71.43% people go with TATA for better quality and 28.57% people go with BHUSHAN STEEL for good quality . However, many people not decided the quality level of TI. Thats they dont go with TI.

Interpretation: In order to availability 71.43% people go with TATA STEEL for poor availability, 28.57% go with BHUSHAN STEEL for

satisfy in availability and 14.29% go with TI for good on availability.

SWOT ANALYSIS
SWOT ANALYSIS is done to know the strength , weakness, oppurtunities & threats of any companies. The SWOT analysis of Tata Tubes Divisions is as follows:STRENGTH: The The The The The The The The brand name of company. location of the company. determined and trained of the workforce of the company. investor of the company. quality of the product policies of the company to meet any situation. reputation of the company in the market. financial position of the company.

WEAKNESS:As being the oldest company in the steel sector it has worked upon all its weakness and formed rules & policies to overcome any weakness or problem which the company may face in future in advance, so as such as there is no weakness of the company & it is happy organization without any any weakness and problem.

OPPORTUNITY : Due to strong and well known brand name, it can diversify into the production of new steel products. Automation is possible in all the departments. THREATS: Competition from other steel producing sector. USAs decision to give subsidy to its steel industry. The closing down of various coal mines. The ever changing technologies.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


- All the dealers and industrial user of Jamshedpur were not covered because of constraints of time. - The study was restricted to certain specific areas of Jamshedpur which may not seem to present the general picture of product. - Respondents unwillingness to provide adequate information were consequent upon time constraints and personal inconveniences. - Sampling and non- sampling errors might have crept in and attempt is made to minimize them. - considering the mammoth size of the market the sample size was probably inadequate as covering each and every department, which was at geographical disparate location, was not feasible. - Since the topic was sensitive the industrial users were very reluctant to talk about it. - Since the topic was very vast and difficult it was not possible to touch each and every aspect of the topic in a short period of time.

FINDINGS
1. TATA Steel Tubes Division dominates in Jamshedpur market. 2. Total annual requirement of precision tubes in Jamshedpur is 7500 tones(approx) annually. 3. Outer diameter (OD) 101.6mm, 81mm, 50mm, m has the highest demand. 4. Out of total annual requirement of 7500 tons(approx), 500 tons(approx) is not produced by TATA tubes. 5. TATA steel Tubes Division lacks wider range of products as compare to its competitors. 6. Tata Tubes are mostly preferred in the market because of their superior quality, brand name and moderate price. 7. TATA tubes do not manufacture many such dimensions which are in great demand in Jamshedpur. 8. Less range of products and order fulfillment time is the major problem which the customers of TATA tubes are facing. 9. Ancillaries of TATA Motors do not give much importance to brand image. 10. TI and Bhushan are giving tough competition. 11. Ancillary agrees that TATA TUBES is of high quality than other steel tubes.. 12. Duplication, weight and length of pipes should be corrected. 13.There is a very strong relationship between tata tubes and tata motors.

14. Several types joint initiatives has been taken between tubes and tata motors. 15. Tata motors plays big role in sorting out issues of supplying details, debts, and debtors. 16. Tata motors based on their brands change the schedule of different sizes. 17. Tata motors gives production schedule to tata tubes.

SUGGESTIONS / RECOMMENDATIONS
As the company has not any problem, so it should to continue to function in the same way. It should revise its policy time to time for its employees, so as to give them maximum benefit & so extend in the market more firmly. The quality if the product should be further improved, so as to meet the international standards. The company should expand its market by adding new customers to its existing customers. The training system can be made more effective to improve the working skills of the employees.

Bibliography
Reference ->
BOOKS Marketing Management by Philips Kotler

Magazines Tata tubes news letter. Tube annual business plan. TBEM Application

WEBLIOGRAPHY www.tatatubes.com www.tatasteel.com www.google.com www.businessworld.com

THANK YOU
*****