Anda di halaman 1dari 92

ELEC4410

Control System Design

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science The University of Newcastle

Engineering and Computer Science The University of Newcastle The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 1/36

Outline

Outline Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model.

Outline Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 2/36

Outline

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model.Outline Saturation and Slew Rate Limitations. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open

Outline Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Saturation and Slew Rate Limitations. The University of

Saturation and Slew Rate Limitations.Outline Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 2/36

Outline

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model.Outline Saturation and Slew Rate Limitations. Anti-windup Schemes. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

Outline Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Saturation and Slew Rate Limitations. Anti-windup Schemes.

Saturation and Slew Rate Limitations.Outline Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes. The University of Newcastle Lecture

Anti-windup Schemes.Loop Unstable Model. Saturation and Slew Rate Limitations. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 2/36

Outline

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model.Outline Saturation and Slew Rate Limitations. Anti-windup Schemes. Reference: Control System Design, Goodwin, Graebe

Saturation and Slew Rate Limitations.Outline Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes. Reference: Control System Design,

Anti-windup Schemes.Loop Unstable Model. Saturation and Slew Rate Limitations. Reference: Control System Design, Goodwin, Graebe &

Reference: Control System Design, Goodwin, Graebe & Salgado.

Control System Design, Goodwin, Graebe & Salgado. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 2/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Recall for affine parameterisation for the stable case: C

Recall for affine parameterisation for the stable case:

C(s) =

Q(s)

1 Q(s)G o (s)

D i (s) D o (s) + + R(s) U(s) Y(s) + + + Q(s)
D i (s)
D o (s)
+
+
R(s)
U(s)
Y(s)
+
+
+
Q(s)
Plant
-
+
-
G
o (s)
+ R(s) U(s) Y(s) + + + Q(s) Plant - + - G o (s) The

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 3/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model If the plant contains unstable poles then its output
Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model If the plant contains unstable poles then its output

If the plant contains unstable poles then its output could increase exponentially.

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 4/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

If the plant contains unstable poles then its output could increase exponentially.Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Likewise the nominal model, G o ( s )

Likewise the nominal model, G o ( s ) , will also contain unstable poles, hence its output can G o (s), will also contain unstable poles, hence its output can also increase exponentially.

poles, hence its output can also increase exponentially. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 4/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

If the plant contains unstable poles then its output could increase exponentially.Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Likewise the nominal model, G o ( s )

Likewise the nominal model, G o ( s ) , will also contain unstable poles, hence its output can G o (s), will also contain unstable poles, hence its output can also increase exponentially.

This could result in the difference between the plant and nominal model outputs being zero and hence no control action being taken.poles, hence its output can also increase exponentially. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

outputs being zero and hence no control action being taken. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6:

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 4/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

If the plant contains unstable poles then its output could increase exponentially.Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Likewise the nominal model, G o ( s )

Likewise the nominal model, G o ( s ) , will also contain unstable poles, hence its output can G o (s), will also contain unstable poles, hence its output can also increase exponentially.

This could result in the difference between the plant and nominal model outputs being zero and hence no control action being taken.poles, hence its output can also increase exponentially. R(s) U(s) Y(s) + Q(s) Plant - +

outputs being zero and hence no control action being taken. R(s) U(s) Y(s) + Q(s) Plant
R(s) U(s) Y(s) + Q(s) Plant - + - G o (s)
R(s)
U(s)
Y(s)
+
Q(s)
Plant
-
+
-
G
o (s)

The University of Newcastle

'0'

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 4/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Now in the unstable case, C ( s )

Now in the unstable case,

C(s) =

Q(s)

1 Q(s)G o (s) ,

is still okay! But, we have to make some further points regarding stability of the sensitivity functions.

points regarding stability of the sensitivity functions. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 5/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Now in the unstable case,Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model C ( s ) = Q ( s )

C(s) =

Q(s)

1 Q(s)G o (s) ,

is still okay! But, we have to make some further points regarding stability of the sensitivity functions.

Essentially we need to add more interpolation constraints.points regarding stability of the sensitivity functions. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

Essentially we need to add more interpolation constraints. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 5/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Now in the unstable case,Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model C ( s ) = Q ( s )

C(s) =

Q(s)

1 Q(s)G o (s) ,

is still okay! But, we have to make some further points regarding stability of the sensitivity functions.

Essentially we need to add more interpolation constraints.points regarding stability of the sensitivity functions. To ensure T o ( s ) , S

To ensure T o ( s ) , S o ( s ) , S i o T o (s), S o (s), S io (s) and S uo (s) are stable, we still need Q(s) stable and proper. In addition, we add further interpolation constraints:

In addition, we add further interpolation constraints: The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 5/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Now in the unstable case,Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model C ( s ) = Q ( s )

C(s) =

Q(s)

1 Q(s)G o (s) ,

is still okay! But, we have to make some further points regarding stability of the sensitivity functions.

Essentially we need to add more interpolation constraints.points regarding stability of the sensitivity functions. To ensure T o ( s ) , S

To ensure T o ( s ) , S o ( s ) , S i o T o (s), S o (s), S io (s) and S uo (s) are stable, we still need Q(s) stable and proper. In addition, we add further interpolation constraints:

In addition, we add further interpolation constraints: Q ( s ) G o ( s )
In addition, we add further interpolation constraints: Q ( s ) G o ( s )

Q(s)G o (s) stable. [Unstable poles of G o (s) Zeros of Q(s)]

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 5/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Now in the unstable case,Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model C ( s ) = Q ( s )

C(s) =

Q(s)

1 Q(s)G o (s) ,

is still okay! But, we have to make some further points regarding stability of the sensitivity functions.

Essentially we need to add more interpolation constraints.points regarding stability of the sensitivity functions. To ensure T o ( s ) , S

To ensure T o ( s ) , S o ( s ) , S i o T o (s), S o (s), S io (s) and S uo (s) are stable, we still need Q(s) stable and proper. In addition, we add further interpolation constraints:

Q( s ) G o ( s ) stable. [Unstable poles of G o ( (s)G o (s) stable. [Unstable poles of G o (s) Zeros of Q(s)]

(1 − Q ( s ) G o ( s )) G o ( s ) Q(s)G o (s))G o (s) stable.

[Unstable poles of G o (s) Zeros of 1 Q(s)G o (s)]

o ( s ) → Zeros of 1 − Q ( s ) G o (

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 5/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Recall from last lecture, that unstable pole-zero cancellations should
Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Recall from last lecture, that unstable pole-zero cancellations should

Recall from last lecture, that unstable pole-zero cancellations should be performed analytically.

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 6/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Recall from last lecture, that unstable pole-zero cancellations should be performed analytically.Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model To begin, we express the nominal model in its

To begin, we express the nominal model in its fractional formpole-zero cancellations should be performed analytically. G o ( s ) = B o ( s

begin, we express the nominal model in its fractional form G o ( s ) =

G o (s) = B o (s) A o (s)

and assume all the poles of A o (s) are unstable.

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 6/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Recall from last lecture, that unstable pole-zero cancellations should be performed analytically.Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model To begin, we express the nominal model in its

To begin, we express the nominal model in its fractional formpole-zero cancellations should be performed analytically. G o ( s ) = B o ( s

G o (s) = B o (s) A o (s)

and assume all the poles of A o (s) are unstable.

Next we choose) and assume all the poles of A o ( s ) are unstable. ˜ Q

˜

Q(s) =

˜

P(s)

˜

E(s)

˜

where E(s) is stable. In particular the zeros of E(s) lie in a desirable region of the complex plane.

of E ( s ) lie in a desirable region of the complex plane. The University

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 6/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model As we need unstable poles of G o (
Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model As we need unstable poles of G o (

As we need unstable poles of G o (s) to be zeros in Q(s), we can write

¯

Q(s) = A o (s)

˜

P(s)

E(s)

;

˜

¯

P(s) = A o (s) P(s)

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 7/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

As we need unstable poles of G o ( s ) to be zeros in Q ( s ) , we G o (s) to be zeros in Q(s), we can write

¯

Q(s) = A o (s)

˜

P(s)

E(s)

;

˜

¯

P(s) = A o (s) P(s)

Then Q ( s ) is stable and has zeros to cancel unstable poles of G Q(s) is stable and has zeros to cancel unstable poles of G o (s).

and has zeros to cancel unstable poles of G o ( s ) . The University

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 7/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model What about S i o ( s ) =
Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model What about S i o ( s ) =

What about S io (s) = (1 Q(s)G o (s))G o (s)?

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 8/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

What about S i o ( s ) = (1 − Q ( s ) G o S io (s) = (1 Q(s)G o (s))G o (s)?

We require the unstable poles of G o ( s ) to be zeros in S o ( s ) . G o (s) to be zeros in S o (s).

poles of G o ( s ) to be zeros in S o ( s )

The University of Newcastle

1 Q(s)G o (s) = 1

= 1

˜

P(s)B o (s)

˜

E(s)A o (s) P(s)B ¯ o (s)

˜

E(s) E(s) P(s)B o (s)

˜

¯

=

˜

E(s)

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 8/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

What about S i o ( s ) = (1 − Q ( s ) G o S io (s) = (1 Q(s)G o (s))G o (s)?

We require the unstable poles of G o ( s ) to be zeros in S o ( s ) . G o (s) to be zeros in S o (s).

poles of G o ( s ) to be zeros in S o ( s )

1 Q(s)G o (s) = 1

= 1

˜

P(s)B o (s)

˜

E(s)A o (s) P(s)B ¯ o (s)

˜

E(s) E(s) P(s)B o (s)

˜

¯

=

˜

E(s)

We thus require A o ( s ) to be a factor of A o (s) to be a factor of

˜

¯

E(s) P(s)B o (s).

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 8/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Which we can write as ˜ ¯ ¯ E

Which we can write as

˜

¯

¯

E(s) P(s)B o (s) = L(s)A o (s)

or

¯

¯

L(s)A o (s) + P(s)B o (s) =

˜

E(s)

(1)

This is a standard pole assignment problem and choosing a desired

˜

E(s) and the orders of

problem and choosing a desired ˜ E ( s ) and the orders of The University

The University of Newcastle

¯

L(s),

¯

P(s) will result in a unique solution.

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 9/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Which we can write asAffine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model ˜ ¯ ¯ E ( s ) − P

˜

¯

¯

E(s) P(s)B o (s) = L(s)A o (s)

or

¯

¯

L(s)A o (s) + P(s)B o (s) =

˜

E(s)

(2)

This is a standard pole assignment problem and choosing a desired

is a standard pole assignment problem and choosing a desired ˜ E ( s ) and

˜

E(s) and the orders of

¯

L(s),

¯

P(s) will result in a unique solution.

Note: We set¯ L ( s ) , ¯ P ( s ) will result in a unique

˜

E(s) = E(s)F(s).

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 9/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Now we have then The University of Newcastle C
Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Now we have then The University of Newcastle C

Now we have

then

The University of Newcastle

C(s) =

=

Q(s) =

˜

P(s)

˜

E(s)

Q(s)

1 Q(s)G o (s) P(s)A o (s)

˜

˜

˜

E(s)A o (s) P(s)B o (s) P(s) ¯

=

¯

L(s)

(3)

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 10/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model The method to design a controller for the unstable
Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model The method to design a controller for the unstable

The method to design a controller for the unstable open loop case outlined above is then:

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 11/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model The method to design a controller for the unstable
Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model The method to design a controller for the unstable

The method to design a controller for the unstable open loop case outlined above is then:

˜

Step 1 Choose E(s). (closed loop poles)

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 11/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model The method to design a controller for the unstable

The method to design a controller for the unstable open loop case outlined above is then:

˜

Step 1 Choose E(s). (closed loop poles)

˜

Step 2 Given A o (s), B o (s) & E(s) solve

¯

¯

¯

¯

˜

L(s)A o (s) + P(s)B o (s) = E(s)

for a unique L(s) and P(s) that we denote as L (s) and P(s).

P ( s ) that we denote as L ( s ) and P ( s

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 11/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model The method to design a controller for the unstable

The method to design a controller for the unstable open loop case outlined above is then:

˜

Step 1 Choose E(s). (closed loop poles)

˜

Step 2 Given A o (s), B o (s) & E(s) solve

¯

¯

¯

¯

˜

L(s)A o (s) + P(s)B o (s) = E(s)

for a unique L(s) and P(s) that we denote as L (s) and P(s).

P ( s ) that we denote as L ( s ) and P ( s

Step 3

The University of Newcastle

C(s) = P(s) L(s)

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 11/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Given a solution to equation (1), standard results in

Given a solution to equation (1), standard results in algebra state that any other solution can be expressed as

¯

L(s)

E(s) =

L(s)

E(s) Q u (s) B o (s)

E(s)

¯

P(s)

E(s)

= P(s)

E(s)

+

Q u (s) A o (s) E(s)

(4)

(5)

where Q u (s) is any stable proper transfer function having no undesirable poles.

stable proper transfer function having no undesirable poles. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 12/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Given a solution to equation (1), standard results in algebra state that any other solution can be expressed asAffine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model ¯ L ( s ) E ( s )

¯

L(s)

E(s) =

L(s)

E(s) Q u (s) B o (s)

E(s)

¯

P(s)

E(s)

= P(s)

E(s)

+

Q u (s) A o (s) E(s)

(6)

(7)

where Q u (s) is any stable proper transfer function having no undesirable poles.

stable proper transfer function having no undesirable poles. Substitute (4) and (5) into (3) and we

Substitute (4) and (5) into (3) and we getstable proper transfer function having no undesirable poles. C ( s ) = P ( s

C(s) =

P(s)

E(s)

+

Q u (s) A o (s) E(s)

L(s)

E(s) Q u (s) B o (s)

E(s)

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 12/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Now say A o ( s ) contains both

Now say A o (s) contains both desirable and undesirable poles,

A o (s) = A d (s)A u (s)

¯

then we can write E(s) = A d (s) E(s) giving the pole assignment problem of

¯

¯

¯

A d (s)A u (s) L(s) + B o (s) P(s) = A d (s) E(s)F(s)

clearly this requires

s ) = A d ( s ) E ( s ) F ( s )

The University of Newcastle

¯ ˜

P(s) = P(s)A d (s).

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 13/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Now say A o ( s ) contains both desirable and undesirable poles, A o (s) contains both desirable and undesirable poles,

A o (s) = A d (s)A u (s)

¯

then we can write E(s) = A d (s) E(s) giving the pole assignment problem of

¯

¯

¯

A d (s)A u (s) L(s) + B o (s) P(s) = A d (s) E(s)F(s)

+ B o ( s ) P ( s ) = A d ( s )

clearly this requires

¯ ˜

P(s) =

P(s)A d (s).

Therefore we have cancellations hence,this requires ¯ ˜ P ( s ) = P ( s ) A d (

¯

˜

¯

A u (s) L(s) + B o (s) P(s) = E(s)F(s)

(9)

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 13/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Now say A o ( s ) contains both desirable and undesirable poles, A o (s) contains both desirable and undesirable poles,

A o (s) = A d (s)A u (s)

¯

then we can write E(s) = A d (s) E(s) giving the pole assignment problem of

¯

¯

¯

A d (s)A u (s) L(s) + B o (s) P(s) = A d (s) E(s)F(s)

+ B o ( s ) P ( s ) = A d ( s )

clearly this requires

¯ ˜

P(s) = P(s)A d (s).

Therefore we have cancellations hence,this requires ¯ ˜ P ( s ) = P ( s ) A d (

¯

˜

¯

A u (s) L(s) + B o (s) P(s) = E(s)F(s)

(10)

For the unstable open loop case where the plant possesses some desirable poles then the same method as stated above applies except the pole assignment problem becomes equation (8).) + B o ( s ) P ( s ) = E ( s )

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 13/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model The nominal complementary sensitivity for the class of stabilising
Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model The nominal complementary sensitivity for the class of stabilising

The nominal complementary sensitivity for the class of stabilising controllers is,

T o (s) =

=

=

=

¯

B o (s) P(s)

¯

¯

A o (s) L(s) + B o (s) P(s)

B o (s) P(s) + Q u (s) A o (s)

E(s)

E(s)

A o (s)

L(s)

E(s) Q u (s) B o (s)

E(s)

+ B o (s) P(s) + Q u (s) A o (s)

E(s)

E(s)

B o (s)P(s) + Q u (s)B o (s)A o (s)

E(s)

E(s)

A o (s)L(s) + B o (s)P(s)

E(s)

E(s)

B o (s)P(s) + Q u (s)B o (s)A o (s)

E(s)F(s)

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 14/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model Given the controller parameterisation for unstable plants as C

Given the controller parameterisation for unstable plants as

C(s) =

P(s)

Q u (s) A o (s) E(s)

+

E(s)

L(s)

Q u (s) B o (s) E(s)

E(s)

and that u = Ce where e is the error signal we can write (note the argument s has been dropped)

signal we can write (note the argument s has been dropped) The University of Newcastle u

The University of Newcastle

u = Ce

P

A

o

E

=

+ Q u

E

L

E Q u

B

o

E

e

= E

L

P

E

e + Q u

A

o

E

e + Q u

B

o

E


u

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 15/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation: Unstable Open Loop Case

Model Affine Parameterisation: Unstable Open Loop Case Pre-stabilising Controller P(s) E(s) R(s) + + U(s)

Pre-stabilising Controller

P(s) E(s) R(s) + + U(s) Y(s) - E(s) Plant L(s) + B o (s)
P(s)
E(s)
R(s)
+
+
U(s)
Y(s)
-
E(s)
Plant
L(s)
+
B
o (s)
+
+
A
o (s)
E(s)
E(s)
Q
u (s)

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 16/36

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model

Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model The parametrisation as discussed above leads to the following
Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model The parametrisation as discussed above leads to the following

The parametrisation as discussed above leads to the following parameterised version of the nominal sensitivities:

S o (s) = A o (s)L(s) Q u (s) B o (s)A o (s)

E(s)F(s)

E(s)F(s)

T o (s) = B o (s)P(s) + Q u (s) B o (s)A o (s)

E(s)F(s)

E(s)F(s)

S io (s) = B o (s)L(s)

E(s)F(s)

S uo (s) = A o (s)P(s)

E(s)F(s)

Q u (s)

+ Q u (s)

(B o (s)) 2

E(s)F(s)

(A o (s)) 2

E(s)F(s)

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 17/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes What is Saturation? The University of Newcastle Lecture
Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes What is Saturation? The University of Newcastle Lecture

What is Saturation?

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 18/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

What is Saturation?Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes FACT: All actuators saturate! The University of Newcastle

FACT: All actuators saturate! All actuators saturate!

Schemes What is Saturation? FACT: All actuators saturate! The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 18/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

What is Saturation?Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes FACT: All actuators saturate! Objective: How do we

FACT: All actuators saturate! All actuators saturate!

Objective: How do we deal with the nonlinear affects of Saturation and Slew Rate Limitation? { How do we deal with the nonlinear affects of Saturation and Slew Rate Limitation? {u(t) and (t) are limited}

Control System with Saturation on the Plant Input

limited} Control System with Saturation on the Plant Input d o Linear Plant with Input Saturation

d o

Linear Plant with Input Saturation + y u u + C Plant
Linear Plant with Input Saturation
+
y
u
u
+
C
Plant
r +
r
+

-

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 18/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes Saturation u = sat { uˆ } =
Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes Saturation u = sat { uˆ } =

Saturation

u = sat{} =

u min

u max

if

if u min

if

< u min ,

u max ,

> u max .

d o

Linear Plant with Input Saturation + y u u + C Plant
Linear Plant with Input Saturation
+
y
u
u
+
C
Plant
r +
r
+

-

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 19/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes Ignoring the presence of saturations can cause long
Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes Ignoring the presence of saturations can cause long

Ignoring the presence of saturations can cause long undesirable transients in the closed loop.

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 20/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Ignoring the presence of saturations can cause long undesirable transients in the closed loop.Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The transients are due to the controller states

The transients are due to the controller states having ‘wound up’ to large values.can cause long undesirable transients in the closed loop. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

the controller states having ‘wound up’ to large values. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 20/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Ignoring the presence of saturations can cause long undesirable transients in the closed loop.Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The transients are due to the controller states

The transients are due to the controller states having ‘wound up’ to large values.can cause long undesirable transients in the closed loop. In a PID controller, there is only

In a PID controller, there is only one state that is subject to wind-up - the integrator state!the controller states having ‘wound up’ to large values. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

one state that is subject to wind-up - the integrator state! The University of Newcastle Lecture

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 20/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Ignoring the presence of saturations can cause long undesirable transients in the closed loop.Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The transients are due to the controller states

The transients are due to the controller states having ‘wound up’ to large values.can cause long undesirable transients in the closed loop. In a PID controller, there is only

In a PID controller, there is only one state that is subject to wind-up - the integrator state!the controller states having ‘wound up’ to large values. Therefore in a PID controller, an anti-windup

Therefore in a PID controller, an anti-windup scheme involves limiting the integrator state in the some way.one state that is subject to wind-up - the integrator state! The University of Newcastle Lecture

involves limiting the integrator state in the some way. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 20/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Anti-windup scheme for a PI controller

u 1 (1/K i )s + 1
u
1
(1/K i )s + 1

e

Anti-windup scheme for a PI controller u 1 (1/K i )s + 1 e K p

K

p

K p
K p
+
+

+

When the controller is in the linear region of the saturation

e

= K p (1 + K i ).

s

Thus the state of the controller is updated only with the actual plant input .

is updated only with the actual plant input uˆ . The University of Newcastle Lecture 6:

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 21/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The key properties of an anti-windup scheme are:
Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The key properties of an anti-windup scheme are:

The key properties of an anti-windup scheme are:

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 22/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The key properties of an anti-windup scheme are:
Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The key properties of an anti-windup scheme are:

The key properties of an anti-windup scheme are:

Schemes The key properties of an anti-windup scheme are: The state of the controller should be

The state of the controller should be driven by the actual (i.e. constrained) plant input.

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 22/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The key properties of an anti-windup scheme are:

The key properties of an anti-windup scheme are:

The state of the controller should be driven by the actual (i.e. constrained) plant input.Schemes The key properties of an anti-windup scheme are: The states of the controller should have

The states of the controller should have a stable realisation when driven by the actual plant input.be driven by the actual (i.e. constrained) plant input. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

a stable realisation when driven by the actual plant input. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6:

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 22/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The Problem of Windup in IMC We consider

The Problem of Windup in IMC

and Anti- windup Schemes The Problem of Windup in IMC We consider here open loop stable

We consider here open loop stable plants.

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 23/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

The Problem of Windup in IMC

We consider here open loop stable plants.and Anti- windup Schemes The Problem of Windup in IMC The block diagram shows an IMC

The block diagram shows an IMC structure where saturation is included on the input to the plant. The initial states of the system are depicted as x ( t 0 ) and xˆ ( t 0 ) . We also assume x(t 0 ) and (t 0 ). We also assume G o (s) = G(s).

Internal Model Control with Saturation on Plant Input

s ) . Internal Model Control with Saturation on Plant Input d o x(t 0 )

d o

x(t 0 ) + r e u u y + + Q(s) G(s) - x(t
x(t 0 )
+
r
e
u
u
y
+
+
Q(s)
G(s)
-
x(t 0 )
+
-
G
o (s)

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 23/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes When uˆ is in the linear region of

When is in the linear region of the saturation,

y = Q(s)G o (s)r + (1 Q(s)G o (s))d o + IC(x )

where IC is a transfer function relating the initial conditions to the output.

function relating the initial conditions to the output. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 24/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

When uˆ is in the linear region of the saturation, is in the linear region of the saturation,

y = Q(s)G o (s)r + (1 Q(s)G o (s))d o + IC(x )

where IC is a transfer function relating the initial conditions to the output.

Once the initial transient has decayed we see that the output is what we would expect, i.e. only a function of the reference and disturbance.function relating the initial conditions to the output. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

i.e. only a function of the reference and disturbance. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 24/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i
Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i

During saturation (i.e. < u min or > u max )

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 25/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i
Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i

During saturation (i.e. < u min or > u max ) the loop is nonlinear

n or uˆ > u m a x ) the loop is nonlinear The University of

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 25/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i
Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i

During saturation (i.e. < u min or > u max )

the loop is nonlinearuˆ < u m i n or uˆ > u m a x ) G o

G o is driven by uˆ o is driven by

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 25/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i
Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i

During saturation (i.e. < u min or > u max ) the loop is nonlinear

n or uˆ > u m a x ) the loop is nonlinear G o is
G o is driven by uˆ G is driven by u
G o is driven by uˆ G is driven by u

G o is driven by uˆ G is driven by u

G o is driven by uˆ G is driven by u

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 25/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i

During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i n or uˆ > u m a x ) the < u min or > u max ) the loop is nonlinear

n or uˆ > u m a x ) the loop is nonlinear G o is
G o is driven by uˆ G is driven by u
G o is driven by uˆ G is driven by u

G o is driven by uˆ G is driven by u

G o is driven by uˆ G is driven by u

Now, if saturation ends at time t 0 , t 0 ,

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 25/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i

During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i n or uˆ > u m a x ) the < u min or > u max ) the loop is nonlinear

n or uˆ > u m a x ) the loop is nonlinear G o is
G o is driven by uˆ G is driven by u
G o is driven by uˆ G is driven by u

G o is driven by uˆ G is driven by u

G o is driven by uˆ G is driven by u

Now, if saturation ends at time t 0 , the loop is once again linear t 0 , the loop is once again linear

ends at time t 0 , the loop is once again linear The University of Newcastle

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 25/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i

During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i n or uˆ > u m a x ) < u min or > u max )

the loop is nonlinear

the loop is nonlinear

G o is driven by uˆ

G o is driven by

G is driven by u

G

is driven by u

Now, if saturation ends at time t 0 , t 0 ,

the loop is once again linear

the loop is once again linear

G and G o are both driven by uˆ

G

and G o are both driven by

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 25/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i

During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i n or uˆ > u m a x ) < u min or > u max )

the loop is nonlinear

the loop is nonlinear

G o is driven by uˆ

G o is driven by

G is driven by u

G

is driven by u

Now, if saturation ends at time t 0 , t 0 ,

the loop is once again linear

the loop is once again linear

G and G o are both driven by uˆ

G

and G o are both driven by

But x ( t 0 ) x ˆ ( t 0 ) since we had

But x(t 0 ) xˆ (t 0 ) since we had uˆ u

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 25/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i n or uˆ > u m a x ) < u min or > u max )

the loop is nonlinear

the loop is nonlinear

G o is driven by uˆ

G o is driven by

G is driven by u

G

is driven by u

Now, if saturation ends at time t 0 , t 0 ,

the loop is once again linear

the loop is once again linear

G and G o are both driven by uˆ

G

and G o are both driven by

But x ( t 0 ) x ˆ ( t 0 ) since we had

But x(t 0 ) xˆ (t 0 ) since we had uˆ u

Hence we will again see a transient in the output.) x ˆ ( t 0 ) since we had u ˆ u The University of

ˆ u Hence we will again see a transient in the output. The University of Newcastle

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 25/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

During saturation (i.e. uˆ < u m i n or uˆ > u m a x ) < u min or > u max )

the loop is nonlinear

the loop is nonlinear

G o is driven by uˆ

G o is driven by

G is driven by u

G

is driven by u

Now, if saturation ends at time t 0 , t 0 ,

the loop is once again linear

the loop is once again linear

G and G o are both driven by uˆ

G

and G o are both driven by

But x ( t 0 ) x ˆ ( t 0 ) since we had

But x(t 0 ) xˆ (t 0 ) since we had uˆ u

Hence we will again see a transient in the output.) x ˆ ( t 0 ) since we had u ˆ u This transient is

This transient is due to the mismatched states in the plant and the controller, i.e. x ( t 0 ) xˆ ( t 0 ) , and is called windup. x(t 0 ) (t 0 ), and is called windup.

x ( t 0 ) xˆ ( t 0 ) , and is called windup. The

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 25/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes Anti-windup for IMC Strategies aimed at reducing the

Anti-windup for IMC

Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes Anti-windup for IMC Strategies aimed at reducing the effects of windup

Strategies aimed at reducing the effects of windup are, of course, called anti-windup.

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 26/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Anti-windup for IMC

Strategies aimed at reducing the effects of windup are, of course, called anti-windup.Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes Anti-windup for IMC An initial idea for anti-windup - Saturate the

An initial idea for anti-windup - Saturate the model input as well! - Saturate the model input as well!

d o

x(t 0 ) + r e u u y + + Q(s) G(s) - x(t
x(t 0 )
+
r
e
u
u
y
+
+
Q(s)
G(s)
-
x(t 0 )
+
u
-
G
o (s)
e u u y + + Q(s) G(s) - x(t 0 ) + u - G

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 26/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Anti-windup for IMC

Strategies aimed at reducing the effects of windup are, of course, called anti-windup.Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes Anti-windup for IMC An initial idea for anti-windup - Saturate the

An initial idea for anti-windup - Saturate the model input as well! - Saturate the model input as well!

d o

x(t 0 ) + r e u u y + + Q(s) G(s) - x(t
x(t 0 )
+
r
e
u
u
y
+
+
Q(s)
G(s)
-
x(t 0 )
+
u
-
G
o (s)
e u u y + + Q(s) G(s) - x(t 0 ) + u - G

Now x ( t 0 ) = xˆ ( t 0 ) during and after saturation. x(t 0 ) = (t 0 ) during and after saturation.

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 26/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The problems with this are: The University of
Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The problems with this are: The University of

The problems with this are:

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 27/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The problems with this are: 1. The total

The problems with this are:

1. The total system from to y is nonlinear, so a linear compensator Q is no longer an inverse of the process.

compensator Q is no longer an inverse of the process. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6:

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 27/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes The problems with this are: 1. The total

The problems with this are:

1. The total system from to y is nonlinear, so a linear compensator Q is no longer an inverse of the process.

2. e and are completely independent of the saturation.

e and uˆ are completely independent of the saturation. The University of Newcastle Lecture 6: Affine

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 27/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

The problems with this are:Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes 1. The total system from uˆ to y

1. The total system from to y is nonlinear, so a linear compensator Q is no longer an inverse of the process.

2. e and are completely independent of the saturation.

For further insight into this problem, we digress slightly, and examine a feedback realisation of Q ( s ) . Q(s).

and examine a feedback realisation of Q ( s ) . The University of Newcastle Lecture

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 27/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes Assume, for simplicity, that G o ( s
Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes Assume, for simplicity, that G o ( s

Assume, for simplicity, that G o (s) is minimum phase. Then

G

o = G

o

i

1

i

and Q(s) = F q (s)G o (s).

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 28/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Assume, for simplicity, that G o ( s ) is minimum phase. Then G o (s) is minimum phase. Then

G

o = G

o

i

1

i

and Q(s) = F q (s)G o (s).

Lets also assume here that F q ( s ) is chosen to make Q ( s ) bi-proper F q (s) is chosen to make Q(s) bi-proper

that F q ( s ) is chosen to make Q ( s ) bi-proper Q

Q(s) = n n s n +·+ n 1 s + n 0

m n s n +·+ m 1 s + m 0

where n n 0 and m n 0.

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 28/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Assume, for simplicity, that G o ( s ) is minimum phase. Then G o (s) is minimum phase. Then

G

o = G

o

i

1

i

and Q(s) = F q (s)G o (s).

Lets also assume here that F q ( s ) is chosen to make Q ( s ) bi-proper F q (s) is chosen to make Q(s) bi-proper

that F q ( s ) is chosen to make Q ( s ) bi-proper Q

Q(s) = n n s n +·+ n 1 s + n 0

m n s n +·+ m 1 s + m 0

where n n 0 and m n 0.

The high frequency gain of Q ( s ) is Q(s) is

q =

s Q(s) = n n

lim

m

n

0.

The University of Newcastle

Lecture 6: Affine Parameterisation - Open Loop Unstable Model. Anti-windup Schemes – p. 28/36

Saturation, Slew Rate Limitations and Anti- windup Schemes

Assume, for simplicity, that G o ( s ) is minimum phase. Then G o (