Anda di halaman 1dari 21

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33.

PERIPARTURIENT DISORDERS IN GOATS A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF 324 CASES G.N. Purohit*1, A.K. Gupta1, M. Gaur1, Arvind Sharma1 and D. Bihani2 Department of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and Obstetrics College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner (Raj.) 334 001 ABSTRACT A retrospective study of goats kept by hobby breeders and presented to the referral obstetric clinic (n=324) between July, 1997 to July 2004 was done. Prepartureint, parturient and post parturient problems accounted for 19.5%, 38.6% and 41.9% of total cases presented. Abortion was the major preparturient complication (68.2%) followed by hydrometra (psuedopregnancy, 14.3%), hydroallantois (4.8%) and pregnancy toxaemia (12.7%). Dystocia formed the major parturient complication (84%) followed by prolonged gestation (8.8%) and delivery of mummified fetuses (7.2%). Retained after birth was the major post parturient complication (51.5%) for which the goats were presented followed by post parturient metritis (38.3%), vaginal prolapse (4.4%), uterine prolapse (2.9%) and uterine rupture (2.9%) coupled with prolapse of abdominal organs from the vagina. The detail of the causes diagnosed, therapies given and the prognosis are mentioned. Key words: Goat, dystocia, preparturient, post parturient, metritis.

Corresponding author email : gnpvog@yahoo.co.in


Department of Veterinary Medicine

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. The incidence of reproductive disorders relating to parturition is sparsely described for the female goat (doe) (Wosu and Anene, 1990; Majeed, 1994; Jackson, 1995). Although, periparturient conditions like pregnancy toxaemia (Marteniuk and Herdt, 1988, Smith and Sherman, 1994) abortion (Wosu and Anene, 1990; Moeller, 2001) hydroallantois (Morin et al., 1994) prepartum vaginal prolapse (Smith and Sherman, 1994) and hydrometra (Hesselink and Taverne, 1994) are known to occur in the doe, their relative incidence and the commonly used therapies are poorly described. Moreover, the prevalence of different parturition related disorders may be different at various geographical locations due to difference in breeds and management systems. Dystocia is considered to be the major reproductive disorder for which the does are presented to the referral centres (Wosu and Anene, 1990), however, the relative frequency of the various forms of dystocia and their therapies are more described for the ewe (Hughes Ellis, 1958; Blackmore, 1960; George, 1975; Whitelaw and Watchorn, 1975; George, 1976; Gommers e al., 1985; Thomas, 1990; Sobiraj, 1994; Majeed and Taha,1995, Kloss et al., 2002) and less for the doe (Rahim and Arthur, 1982, Majeed, 1994). Moreover, since sheep are generally kept at organised farms in large numbers and goats are usually kept by hobby breeders the incidence of reproductive problems remains difficult to estimate. It is estimated that 95% of the does require no assistance in delivery (Engum and Lyngest, 1970). The incidence of postpartum conditions like retained placenta, post partum metritis, uterine prolapse and their therapies are described for the ewe (Majeed and Taha, 1995), but referred only in caesarean births in the doe (Brounts et al., 2004) or partially described (Majeed, 1994). The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative frequency of preparturient, parturient and postpartum reproductive disorders in the local does referred to the referral clinic and the effective therapies employed. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. Retrospective study was done on does (n=324) presented to the referral obstetric centre between July 1997 to July 2004. Does of various ages, breeds and parities were brought by different hobby breeders of various localities. Medical records were reviewed and information was obtained on history, physical examination findings, duration of illness, duration and nature of therapies instituted, number and viability of kids delivered and recovery. When available, fetal parts/fetuses were sent for evaluating the cause of abortion. Blood samples were collected from does that aborted and serum separated to evaluate serum calcium, phosphorous and trace minerals by standard methods (Oser, 1976). Dystocia cases were diagnosed after careful assessment of the stage of labor and vaginal examination. The dystocia was resolved either by i) manual correction and traction, ii) partial fetotomy correction and traction, iii) pharmacological treatment when fetal membranes were not yet ruptured or iv) caesarean section when delivery per vaginum was judged to be impossible or when other methods of delivery of fetus had failed. Pharmacological treatment used in cases of uterine inertia and partial cervical dilation comprised of administration of oxytocin (Syntocinon, Novartis, India) 20-30 IU intravenous in 500 ml of 5% Dextrose over a period of 1 hour along with 30-60 ml of 25% calcium borogluconate, (Wockhardt, India). Medical therapy used for CL regression/pregnancy termination in cases of early diagnosed hydrometra, hydroallantois, pregnancy toxaemia or prolonged gestation comprised of administration of 7.5 to 10.0 mg of a prostaglandin (Lutalyse, Upjohn) and dexamethasone 10-20 mg IM. If this treatment failed an elective caesarean was performed. Caesarean section was performed by left oblique venterolateral incision just above the arcus cruralis under local infiltration anaesthesia. Four to six mg of xylazine (Xylaxin, Indian Immunologicals, India) was given to does that were excitable, furious or nervous. Sutures were removed on day 7 post operative. Does that were anorectic for 2-3 days post operative were considered to be at post operative risk and treated accordingly. Therapies for postpartum disorders including retained placenta, post parturient metritis, uterine/vaginal prolapse were standard methods described previously (Smith and Sherman, 1994). RESULTS

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33.

From the does (n=324) brought for parturition related problems to the referral centre, the proportion of does submitted for preparturient, parturient and post parturient reproductive problems was 19.44% (63/324) 38.58% (125/324) and 41.97% (136/324), respectively. The respective problems, their diagnosis and therapies are described under various headings. Preparturient disorders The major periparturient problem for which the does were brought to the referral centre was abortion (68.2%) followed by hydrometra (14.3%), pregnancy toxaemia (12.7%) and hydroallantois (4.8%). From the total does (n=43) brought for abortion related problems only 41.8% (18/43) does were brought to the centre before abortion with a history of reddish discharge per vaginum or symptoms of straining. The remaining 58.2% (25/43) does were brought 24-48 hours after abortion with a history of pus discharge or for reference. Majority (35/43) of does that were presented had aborted between 3-4 months of gestation, and the remaining (8/43) aborted between 4 to 5 months of gestation. The cause of abortion could be ascertained in only 4% (2/43) of the does as mineral deficiency. Moreover, fetal smears or fetuses were available only in 5 abortions, laboratory diagnosis of which was inconclusive. A total of nine cases of hydrometra (psuedopregnancy) were seen in the present study. Two cases of hydrometra (2/9) were diagnosed during routine sonographic diagnosis for pregnancy. Anechoic fluid without any fetal part or cotyledon was diagnostic of hydrometra. Seven (7/9) does were brought to the centre for evaluation of non-delivery of fetuses after vaginal discharge of plenty of watery fluid without fetal or placental expulsion. These does were not given any therapy and the owners advised to observe for subsequent estrus and to milk their does if sufficient milk was present at that time. Does diagnosed to have hydrometra by sonography were given a prostaglandin (Lutalyse, Upjohn) and does returned to estrus with discharge of fluid.

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. Hydroallantois was easily diagnosed in all does (n=3) due to gross excessive sudden enlargement of abdomen. These does were having difficulty in breathing. Sufficient fluid therapy was given to them to combat shock that was likely because of delivery of fetuses by caesarean or induction of parturition. Two does were surgically operated to deliver single male small fetuses. However, one doe died due to shock during the operation, although careful slow aspiration of the fetal fluid was done before hysterotomy. One doe was opted for induction of parturition with prostaglandins and dexamethasone. This doe voided excessive fluid 24 hours later. The fetus was removed manually, however, the doe died. Does with pregnancy toxaemia (n=8) were originally presented with a history of inability to rise, loss of appetite, rapid respiration and muscle spasms. Sonographic presence of twin fetuses and ketone bodies in the urine were used as indicators for the diagnosis of the condition to be pregnancy toxaemia. All does were beyond 120 days of gestation. Pregnancy was terminated in all but one doe, the owner of which refused for such a therapy. Three does (3/8) died inspite of supportive therapy with 5% dextrose and pregnancy termination therapy using 7.5 mg prostaglandin (Lutalyse, Upjohn) IM and 20 mg dexamethasone IM for 2 to 3 days. Fetuses were delivered in the does that survived (n=5) within 48 hours in 80% (4/5) does and in 72 hours in 20% (1/5) does.

Parturient disorders The most common parturient disorder was dystocia (105/125) followed by prolonged gestation (11/125) and delivery of mummified fetuses (9/125). Dystocia Goats of different ages were referred for dystocia correction. The fetal causes formed the major cause of dystocia (68.6%) whereas maternal causes accounted for 31.4% dystocia in does under study.

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. Fetal causes The various fetal causes accounting for dystocia were fetal maldispositions (50/72), fetal oversize or fetal emphysema (16/72), monsters (2/72) and fetal dropsical conditions (4/72). Fetal maldispositions Head deviation was the most common maldisposition (22/72) followed by limb flexion (18) posterior presentation (08) dosotransverse (1) and limbs over head in anterior presentation. Head deviation Head deviation was common in does between 2-4 years of age. Majority of does with head deviation were presented within 12 hours of 2nd stage of labor. It was nearly equally common in does carrying single or twin/triplet fetuses. Majority of fetuses were dead at the time of presentation to the clinic. Deviations of the head could be corrected manually but when fetuses were emphysematous, partial subcutaneous fetotomy of either forelimb was performed to make sufficient space for head correction. A small obstetric hook indigenously prepared was required in some cases to correct the laterally deviated head. Out of total cases recorded 2 had downward deviation of head, 1 case had upward deviation and the rest had right or left lateral deviation. Only one case in which the head could not be approached required caesarean section for delivery. Lubrication in the birth canal was achieved by liquid paraffin. After delivery of the first fetus in case of twins the rest of the fetus/es were delivered manually or 5-10 IU of oxytocin was administered and fetus/es delivered with assistance later. Limb flexion Shoulder flexion (4 bilateral and 7 unilateral) and carpal flexion (5 bilateral and 2 unilateral) were common cause in does of 1-2 years. Majority of these does were also presented early within 12 hours (n=13) and carried single (55.5%) and

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. live fetuses (55.5%). All these dispositions could be corrected manually by pulling the limb slowly. Only one doe required caesarean section to relieve the dystocia. Posterior presentation

Fifty per cent of does with fetus in posterior presentation were between 1-2 years and majority was presented within 12 hours. Half of the does had single fetuses and 50% had twins. Seventy five percent of the fetuses were live and all fetuses were delivered manually. There were 3 breech presentations, 1 hock flexion and 4 normal posterior presentations. All posterior presentation fetuses were delivered manually. Other maldispositions One doe presented had a fetus in anterior presentation with the limbs crossed over head which were corrected manually and the fetus delivered manually. There was no case of dorso illial position and in fact, fetuses slightly rotated towards the ileum could be delivered manually without much difficulty. Only one doe had a fetus in dorso transverse presentation, which was delivered surgically. Fetal oversize A total of 16 oversized fetuses were observed however, only one fetus was actually oversized. Rest of the fetuses became oversized because of fetal death followed by fetal emphysema. Majority of these does were brought to the referral centre beyond 24 hours of labor and majority of does with such fetuses carried single fetuses. Delivery of such dead emphysematous fetuses in a narrowed birth canal was difficult and required partial subcutaneous fetotomy in 2 cases along with manual correction and traction. Cases in which the birth canal was too narrow or the uterus was tightly

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. wrapped around the fetus necessitated caesarean section for delivery. One emphysematous fetus that was delivered by traction had the umbilical cord tightly coiled around the flank of the fetus. Fetal monsters Fetal anasarca and amorphous globosus were the only two monsters recorded. Both the fetuses were delivered manually. Amorphous globosus monster was delivered after natural delivery of a kid. Fetal dropsical conditions Fetal dropsical conditions were recorded in 1 doe above two years and 3 does beyond 4 years. Does with hydroallantois (n=2) had a history of sudden abdominal enlargement during fourth month of gestation which was visible and does had difficulty in respiration. These does were presented on completion of gestation with a history of straining without fetal delivery. Sonographic findings were inconclusive. An emergency caesarean was performed with due care to deliver the fetuses. Fetuses with ascites or hydronephrosis were delivered by fetotomy that involved removal of one of the limb followed by puncture of the abdomen. All fetuses with dropsy were dead. Maternal causes Cervical dilation failure (ring womb, n=15) was the single largest cause of maternal dystocia in does followed by uterine inertia (n=8), uterine rupture (n=4), pelvic fracture (n=2) and other causes (n=4). Cervical dilation failure (ring womb) Most does with ring womb were young (1-2 years), carried single fetuses which were mostly live. Does that were presented early were administered medical therapy comprising of dexamethasone + prostaglandin and were examined 24 hours later. Nearly 55.5% does had sufficient relaxation at this time and fetuses could be delivered manually. Caesarean

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. was performed when sufficient dilation was not evident after 24 hours of medical therapy. Caesarean was opted immediately in all does that were presented beyond 12 hours of second stage of labor. Uterine inertia Uterine inertia was common in does of 2-4 years age and most does (6/8) carried twin fetuses. Medical therapy of such does comprised of IV administration of 20-40 mg IU of Oxytocin with 500 ml of 5% Dextrose over a period of 1 1 hours. Fetuses could be delivered manually in all does carrying live fetuses after such a therapy. Caesarean section had to be performed in does carrying dead fetuses as they did not respond to medical therapy. Uterine rupture Does with uterine rupture were presented beyond 24 hours of second stage labour and carried dead twin fetuses. Does were presented with a history of straining followed by stoppage of labor signs without delivery of fetuses and sometimes with profuse vaginal bleeding. One doe had an oversized fetus impacted badly in the birth canal and one doe was given 20 IU of oxytocin by the treating veterinarian. Caesarean was performed in all the does. The rupture was suspected in two does and detected accidentally in other two does. Pelvic fracture History of pelvic fracture and narrowing of birth canal could be detected on digital examination and caesarean was performed to deliver live fetuses. Other conditions Other conditions included uterine torsion (n=1), ventral hernia (n=1) and cervical closure (n=2).Only one case of right side uterine torsion (180) was recorded. Torsion was pre-cervical and the doe was presented with no clinical sign. Torsion was detected on caesarean section, although, it was suspected to be a case of ring womb. Ventral hernia was

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. grossly visible externally. The doe failed to have sufficient labour and was operated to deliver two dead fetuses. The hernial ring was repaired simultaneously. Two does were presented for dystocia with history of delivery of fetal sacs without fetal delivery. These does were presented after sufficient delay since labor onset (< 48 hours). The cervices of both the does were closed and fetuses were not present in the birth canal. Both the does were operated to deliver dead single fetuses. Other parturient disorders Parturition was induced in does with a prolonged gestation (n=11) by injecting prostaglandin and dexamethasone. The does delivered fetuses within 26.21.1 hours. The birth had to be assisted in 36.3% (4/11) of the births because of oversized fetuses. Fetal mummies (n=9) were delivered either during normal delivery along with a normal fetus (n=4) or by induction of parturition. In 5/9 does, there was a history of udder development followed by disappearance of the udder and sometimes shrinkage of the abdomen. Sonographic examination of the does revealed the presence of mummified fetus and such does were treated (by prostaglandin injection IM) to deliver the mummified fetuses. Post parturient disorders Retained placenta was the most common post parturient disorder for which the does were presented (70/136) followed by metritis (52/136), vaginal prolapse (6/136), uterine prolapse (4/136) and uterine rupture (4/136).

Retained placenta Retained placenta was significantly higher (P<0.01) in does aged between 1-3 years compared to ewes of more than 3 years. The proportion of does that were presented for retained placenta within 12 hours, 12-14 hours and beyond

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. 24 h ours of kidding was 28.57%, 57.15% and 14.28%, respectively. A high proportion (70.14%; 50/70) of the does with retained placenta had a history of assistance in delivery of fetuses by the owners. Out of the total does presented, only 40% (28/70) of the does presented had strands of placenta hanging out when presented. The placenta was removed manually in these does as far as possible by gently pulling out the pieces by rolling on a wooden stick. In does that did not have any placental part hanging (n=22) and were presented early (within 24 hours of kidding) 5-10 mg diethyl stilboesterol (Haristrol, Will Mark, India) and 20-40 I.U oxytocin ( Syntocinon, Novartis) was given to expel the placenta. Placenta was expelled uneventfully within 24 hours in 20 (20/22) does. Two does showed no response and developed febrile reaction. The does were then treated by intra uterine administration of antibiotics (Oxytetracycline 500 mg, Pfizer) and parental administration of antibiotics. However, one doe died 2 days later due to toxaemia and one had an uneventful recovery. Small proportions (17.2%, 12/70) of the does with retained placenta were very weak and debilitated. Metritis Post partum metritis was common in does beyond 3 years of age compared to the younger does below 3 years age. Majority of does (43.8%) (21/52) had a febrile reaction when presented, and were anorectic. Rest of the does (31/52) had only a history of pus discharge, poor appetite and normal temperature. Does with systemic involvement were treated by parentral administration of tetracycline 5 ml IM for 3-5 days, Novalgin 3 ml IM for 3-5 days along with intra uterine treatment with tetracycline. Does without any febrile reaction were treated by intra uterine administration of 500 mg ciprofloxacin (Cifran, Ranbaxy) (n=11) or 500 mg oxytetracycline (n=20). Two does died inspite of therapy. A speculum was used to locate the cervix and a glass pipette was used to infuse the drug. The hind legs of the doe were lifted. All does recovered without any complication in 3-5 days. Vaginal and uterine prolapse

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. Vaginal (n=6) and uterine prolapse (n=4) were seen in does aged above 3 years. Excepting two vaginal prolapses, which occurred during estrus, all prolapses occurred following handling of difficult birth by the breeders. Prolapses were replaced gently after thorough washing and application of soothing cream. Progesterone 500 mg (Proluton Depot, German Remedies) was given IM. There was no reoccurrence of prolapse. Uterine rupture Does with uterine rupture were presented with a history of intestinal prolapse per vaginum following dystocia handling by breeders. Animals were in poor general condition. An emergency laparotomy was performed by incision at the left flank and the uterine rupture was located. The intestinal loops were pulled back and the uterine rupture sutured. The laparotomy wound was closed routinely. There was an uneventful recovery. DISCUSSION Parturient and post parturient problems were common in goats compared to preparturient problems during the present study. Wosu and Anene, (1990) had previously diagnosed dystocia (49.5%) to be the major reproductive disease in goats. The most common preparturient disorder recorded was abortion, the diagnosis of the cause of which was difficult similar to previous reports (Wosu and Anene, 1990; Kirkbride, 1993; Moeller, 2001). Goats are considered to have a high incidence of abortion (Mobini, 1997; East, 1983). Psuedopregnancy, hydroallantois and pregnancy toxaemia were found in a small number of goats as recorded in previous reports on goats (Taverne et al., 1988; Hesselink and Taverne, 1994; Morin et al., 1994; Jones and Fectau, 1995; Van Suan, 2000). Prognosis in cases of pregnancy toxaemia and hydroallantois was poor. Laparotomy with slow withdrawal of fluid from uterus as suggested (Morin et al., 1994) could not always save the life of the doe suffering from from hydroallantois. Likewise, pregnancy termination in does (suffering from pregnancy toxaemia) could save only 5 of the 8 does treated. It is known that numerous metabolic abnormalities develop in affected sheep and goat subsequent to hypoglycemia and hyperkeratonaemia which affect the prognosis (Tontis and

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. Zwahlen, 1987; Marteniuk and Herdt, 1988). The exact etiopathology of psuedopregnancy and hydroallantois although studied extensively (Bowen, 1978; Haibel, 1990; Jones and Fectau, 1995; Kornalijnslijper et al., 1997) remains poorly understood. Dystocia was the single largest parturient disorder for which the does were referred to the referral centre similar to previous studies (Wosu and Anene, 1990; Majeed, 1994). An overall age related incidence of dystocia was not seen in this study as seen in previous studies (Majeed and Taha, 1989 Majeed et al., 1993). However, majority of goats were presented within 12 hours of second stage of labor, with more number of single fetuses which could be resolved easily by manual correction except, in cases of emphysematous/oversized fetuses or ring womb where more number of caesareans was performed even though the does were presented within 12 hours. Studies by Sobiraj (1994) recorded a higher number of caesareans being performed to resolve the dystocia but a higher proportion of ewes with ring womb were delivered by manual (43.5%) and caesarean (73.7%) in their studies. Fetal causes were significantly higher as a cause of dystocia (68.5%) compared to the maternal causes (31.5%) during the present study. Fetal maldisposition was the predominant fetal cause followed by emphysema/oversize (22.2%) and other causes (8.3%). Ring womb was the major maternal cause accounting for 45.5% of cases followed by uterine inertia (24.2%) and other causes (30.3%). Previous findings of Rahim and Arthur (1982) showed an incidence of 24% maternal and 76% fetal causes of dystocia in goats, whereas, Majeed and Taha (1989) reported 52.9% fetal and 47.1% maternal causes of dystocia. It is clear form the present and previous studies that fetal causes of dystocia (predominantly fetal maldisposition) are much more common compared to the maternal causes of dystocia (predominantly ring womb) in female goats. The choice of the method of resolving dystocia was dependent on the time since dystocia onset, fetal viability, cause of dystocia and condition of the patient. Manual correction was successful more easily with fetal causes and in does presented early with viable fetuses, 60% of the dystocia cases were corrected manually, fetotomy was done in 9.5% of the total cases (all with fetal dystocia) and caesarean was done in 30.5% of cases. Partial fetotomy was possible in a

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. small number of fetal dystocia chiefly with head deviation of a dead fetus, emphysematous fetus or in fetal dropsy. Resection of one or both limbs was the only fetotomy done. As already emphasized that more number of caesarean sections performed in studies by Sobiraj (1994) was possibly because, more number of cases requiring surgery was presented in their studies. These authors also performed a small number of fetotomies similar to the present study. Fetal dropsical /abnormal conditions seen in the present study have been rarely recorded previously (Tamuli et al., 1987; Kumar et al., 1989; Purohit et al., 2000). Caesarean sections were more performed with maternal causes compared to fetal causes. A small number of uterine ruptures required laparotomy with repair of uterine ruptures. Slightly different surgical approach was used in the present study for caesarean. Brounts et al., 2004 had suggested operation via left paralumbar fossa but an oblique ventero lateral incision just above arcus cruralis was used in the present study with no serious post operative complication and easier approach to the uterus. Laparotomy for repair of uterine ruptures subsequent to dystocia handling by breeders was done over the left paralumbar fossa, in order to suture caudal parts of uteri easily. Retained placenta was not seen in any of the doe operated as seen by Brounts et al., 2004, because it was either removed at the time of operation when the fetus was dead or the doe was administered 20 IU of oxytocin post operative when live fetuses were delivered. Likewise, uterine rupture post delivery followed by abdominal organ prolopses is not recorded previously. Ventral hysterocoele has also been recorded rarely (Balasubramanian et al., 1991). Uterine ruptures or torsion are difficult to detect clinically and caesarean is the only remedy possible. Plenty of blood clots are detected on surgical excision of peritoneum in cases of uterine ruptures and the uterus and its contents are reddish coloured in uterine torsion. Sparse reports are available on uterine torsion in sheep (Smith and Ross, 1985) and goats (Vyas, 1987; Chandrahasan et al., 1990; Bansod and Srivastava, 1991). Post cervical uterine torsion may be confused with ring womb (Smith and Sherman, 1994) and therefore need careful diagnosis. Uterine rupture has been

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. observed in a goat with ring womb (Sundarvadanan et al., 1996), however, it is difficult to clinically diagnose uterine rupture when they are small and occur at the apex of the uterine cornua. Prolonged or delayed parturition was considered when breeders had exact breeding dates and does failed to evidence labor signs 10 days beyond the expected date of kidding. A small number of does (3) had slight discomfort without any labor sings. Induction of parturition was rapid (26.21.1 hours) when both dexamethasone and prostaglandin were combined in this study compared to previous reports in which either was used alone (Verma et al., 2000). Fetal mummification is known to occur in sheep (Kirkbride, 1993) and goat, but is usually associated with normal delivery or rarely abortion (Dadarwal et al., 2000). Mummified fetuses with sudden udder shrinkage seen in the present study are rare. The findings of multiple mineral deficiency in goats presented to the clinics with abortions in this study indicates that vitamin and mineral deficiencies may result in death of fetuses sometimes without an abortion and culmination into mummification. Retained placenta was the major post parturient complication in goats during this study similar to previous reports (Majeed, 1994) but manual removal was possible in a small number of cases and only antibiotic therapy was sufficient. Post parturient metritis responded well to intra uterine antibiotic therapy and parentral therapy with antibiotics as suggested previously (Majeed, 1994). Parentral antibiotics were only used as an adjunct in cases with febrile or systemic reaction. Does with post partum metritis were anorectic when presented and anorexia disappeared after 2-3 days of therapy. The incidence of genital prolapse was much less common in the present study compared to a previous study in goats (Majeed, 1994) or ewes (Majeed and Taha, 1995). Dystocia, hypocalcaemia and confinement without exercise can increase the risk of this relatively uncommon problem (Engum and Lyngest, 1970; Majeed and Taha, 1991). Since, goats were regularly sent for grazing by hobby breeders in this study, this probably can account for a lower incidence.

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. Uterine rupture subsequent to a difficult birth followed by prolapse of abdominal organs per vaginum observed in this study was not seen in previous studies in ewes (Majeed and Taha, 1995) or goats (Majeed, 1994). Braun (1997) has suggested that examination or manipulation in the birth canal of the goat must be done with extreme care as the uterus and vagina are fragile and can rupture easily. Forceful traction by inexperienced breeders had probably resulted in uterine ruptures during dystocia handling. It was concluded that does can suffer from various parturition related disorders that can be resolved easily if does are presented for early therapy. Parturition and post parturient period appears to be critical for the doe.

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. REFERENCES Balasubramanian, S.; Ramesh Kumar, B.; Ayyappan, S. and Pattabiraman, S.R. (1991). Ventral hysterocoele in a doe. A case report. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 12(2): 206-207. Bansod, R.S. and Srivastava, A.K. (1991). Uterine torsion in a goat. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 12(1): 106-107. Blackmore, D.K. (1960). Some observations on dystocia in the ewe. Vet. Rec. 72: 631-636. Bowen, J.S. (1978). Pregnancy toxaemia, milk fever and kidding difficulties. Dairy Goat J. 56: 20. Braun, W. (1997). Periparturient infection and structural abnormalities. Section III Caprine Theriogenology. In: Current Therapy In Large Animal Theriogenology. Ed. Youngquist. R.S. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. USA. Pp. 530538. Brounts, S.H.; Hawkins, J.F.; Baird, A.N.; Glickman, L.T. (2004). Outcome and subsequent fertility of sheep and goats undergoing caesarean section because of dystocia. 110 cases (1981-2000). J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 224: 275279. Chandrahasan, C.; Subramanian, A. and Kulasekar, K. (1990). Uterine torsion in a goat. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 11(2): 172. Dadarwal, D.; Duggal, G.P.; Gupta, A.K.; Purohit, G.N. and Pareek, P.K. (2000). A rare case of abortion of mummified fetus in a goat. Vet. Practitioner 1(2): 139-140. East, N.E. (1983). Pregnancy toxaemia, abortions and periparturient diseases. Vet. Clin. North. Am. Large Anim. Pract. 5: 601.

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. Engum, J. and Lyngest, O. (1970). Gynaecology and obstetrics in the goat. Iowa State Univ. Vet. 120: 120-124. George, M.J. (1975). The incidence of dystocia in fine wool Merino ewes. Aust. Vet. J. 51(5): 262-265. George, J.M. (1976). The incidence of dystocia in Dorset Horn ewes. Aust. Vet. J. 52(11): 519-523. Gommers, F.J.; Elving, L. and Van Eldik, P. (1985). Parturition difficulties in sheep. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 91: 365-374. Haibel, G.K. (1990). Use of ultrasonography in reproductive management of sheep and goat herds. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 6: 597-613. Hesselink, J.W. and Taverne, M.A.. (1994). Ultrasonography of the uterus of the goat. Vet. Q. 16(1): 41-5. Hughes-Ellis, T. (1958). Observations on some aspects of dystocia in the ewe. Vet. Rec. 70: 952-959. Jackson, P.G.G. (1995). Dystocia in the doe. Handbook of Veterinary Obstetrics. W.B. Saunders Co. Ltd., UK. Pp 102104. Jones, S.L. and Fectau, G. (1995). Hydrops uteri in a caprine doe pregnant with goat sheep hybrid fetuses. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 206(12): 1920-22. Kirkbride, C.A. (1993). Diagnosis in 1784 ovine abortions and still births. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 593): 398-402. Kloss, S.; Wehrend, A.; Failing, K. and Bostedt. H. (2002). Investigations about kind and frequency of mechanical dystocia in ewes with special regard to the vaginal prolapse antepartum. Berl. Munch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 115(7-8): 247-251.

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. Kornalijnslijper, J.E.; Bevers, M.M.; Van Oord, H.A. and Taverne, A.M. (1997). Induction of hydrometra in goats by means of active immunization against prostaglandin F2 . Anim. Reprod. Sci. 46: 109-122. Kumar, R.; Sharma, A.K. and Prasad, M.C. (1989). Fetal hydrops in a goat. Goat Vet. Soc. J. 10(1): 52. Majeed, A.F. (1994). Obstetrical problems and their management in Iraqi goats. Small Ruminants Res. 14 (1): 73-78. Majeed, A.F. and Taha, M.B. (1989). Preliminary study on treatment of ring womb in Iraqi goats. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 18: 199. Majeed, A.F. and Taha, M.B. (1991). Ring womb in relation to serum calcium, inorganic phosphorous and magnesium in Iraqi goats. Mesopotamia. J. Agric. 23: 65068. Majeed, A.F. and Taha, M.B. (1995). Obstetrical disorders and their treatment in Iraqi Awassi ewes. Small Rumin. Res. 17: 65-69. Majeed, A.F.; Taha, M.B. and Azawi, O.I. (1993). Caesarean section in Iraqi Awassi ewes. A case study. Theriogenology. 49(2): 435-439. Marteniuk, J.V. and Herdt, T.H. (1988). Pregnancy toxaemia and ketosis of ewes and does. Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract. 4: 307. Mobini, S. (1997). Infectious causes of abortion. Section III Caprine Theriogenology. In: Current Therapy In Large Animal Theriogenology. Ed. Youngquist. R.S. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. USA. Pp. 538-548. Moeller, R.B. Jr. (2001). Causes of caprine abortion: diagnostic assessment of 211 cases (1991-1998). J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 13(3): 265-70.

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. Morin, D.E.; Hornbucklle. T.; Rowan, L.L. and Whiteley, H.E. (1994). Hydrallantois in a caprine doe. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 204: 108-11. Oser, B.L. (1976). Hawks Physiological Chemistry 14th Edn. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi. Purohit, G.N.; Gupta, K.A.; Gupta, A.K.; Garg, N.; Vyas, K.; Pareek, P.K. and Sharma, S.S. (2000). Amorphus globosus monster in a goat. A case report. Indian Vet. J. 77(10): 901. Rahim, A.T.A and Arthur, G.H. (1982). Obstetrical conditions in goats. Cornell Vet. 72: 729. Smith, M.C. and Sherman, D.M. (1994). Reproductive system. In: Goat Medicine. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. USA. Pp. 411. Sobiraj, A. (1994). Birth difficulties in sheep and goats- evaluation of patient outcome from seven lambing periods in an obstetrical clinic. Dtsch. Tierarztt Wochenschr. 101: 571-76. Sundarvadanan, V.K.; Shivaprakash, B.V. and Suresh, S.H. (1996). Ring womb and uterine rupture in a goat. Indian Vet. J. 73: 324-325. Tamuli, M.K. Rajkonwar, C.K. and Borgohain, B.N. (1987). Foetal anasarca in a kid. A cause of dystocia. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 8(1): 63. Taverne, M.A.M.; Lavoir, M.C.; Bevers, M.M.; Pieterse, M.C. and Dieleman, S.J. (1988). Peripheral plasma prolactin and progesterone levels in psuedopregnant goats during bromocryptine treatment. Theriogenology. 30: 777-783. Thomas, J.O. (1990). Survey of the causes of dystocia in the sheep. Vet. Rec. 127: 574-575.

Dairy Goat J 84(2): 24-33. Tontis, A. and Zwahlen, K. (1987). Pregnancy toxemia of small ruminants with special reference to pathomorphology. Tierarztt Prax. 15(1): 25-9. Van Suan, R.J. (2000). Pregnancy toxemia in a flock of sheep. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 217(10): 1536-9. Verma, S.K.; Chandolia, R.K.; Thakur, M.S. and Pachar, R.S. (2000). Studies on parturition, induction of parturition and caesarean section (dystocia) in goats. Proc. 7th International Conf. on goats. 15-21 May, France. Pp. 487. Vyas, U.V. (1987). Uterine torsion in a goat. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 8: 62. Whitelaw, A. and Watchorn, P. (1975). An investigation into dystocia in the south country Cheviot flock. Vet. Rec. 97: 489492. Wosu, L.O. and Anene, B.M. (1990). Incidence and seasonality of reproductive disease conditions in small ruminants in Nsukka area, Nigeria. Beitr Trop Landwirtsch Veterinarmed. 28(2): 185-9.