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ENDOCRINE SYSTEM -enable animal to adjust to changes in environment Endocrinology = study of endocrine system = branch of physiology dealing w/ coordination

of various body tissues by chemical mediator (hormone) produced by endocrine glands Hormone = substance/chemical mediator =do not initiate rxn but excites /inhibits ongoing cell rxn =effective in very minute quantities (biocatalytic amt) = unlike enzymes, hormone is destroyed in the rxn =am of secretion depends on the need of animal Classification: simple protein; glycoprotein; steroid Characteristics: a. regulate rxns b. effective in biocatalytic amt c. not secreted in uniform rates d. inactivated rapidly at the site where it exerts its effect or in other glands e. transported through blood stream * Not all hormones have specific target organ (i.e. growth hormone) * Hormone receptors bind specific hormone & in/directly triggers metabolic effect.

Hormone (LH)/ ICSH (male) Intermediate Lobe Posterio r Pituitar y Gland Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH) Oxytocin Vassopressin/ Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)

formation of corpus luteum ( produces progesterone) Male: stimulation of cells of Leydig or interstitial cell ( testosterone) -color change for camouflage & adaptation -skin color stimulates milk-ejection in lactating mother -stimulates uterine contraction -conservation of H20 by reduced urine production

Thyroid Gland - located at the neck area below larynx


2 lobes connected by bridge of isthmus maintains level of metabolism for normal fxn secretes T3 & T4

Thyroxine (T4 ) - increases basal metabolic rate (BMR) Triiodothyronine (T3 ) stimulates O2 consumption helps regulate lipid & CHO metabolism necessary for normal growth & maturation

Hypophysis or Pituitary Gland - located at the base of brain in concavity of Sella


turcica to protect against outside pressure has 3 lobes: - anterior pituitary gland (Adenohypophysis ) - intermediate lobe (Pars intermedia ) - posterior pituitary lobe ( Neurohypophysis )
Hormone growth hormone (GH)/ Somatotropic hormone (STH) Adrenocortico -tropic Hormone (ACTH) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Prolactin/ Luteotropic hormone (LTH) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Function -promotes growth of long bone b4 epiphyseal or diaphyseal fuse -Disorders: Gigantism- over secretion Dwarfism- deficient secretion Acromegaly- over secretion after adulthood; horizontal growth -stimulates adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids -stimulates thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormone (T4 & T3) w/c increase metabolism Condition: cold climatehigh metabolism = increased heat production -stimulates milk production

Lobe Anterior Pituitar y Lobe

Iodine = integral component of T3 & T4 = T3 has 3 iodine& T4 has 4 iodine molecules secretion of T3 & T4 are controlled by TSH by negative feedback mechanism Thyroid gland isnt essential but absence leads to cold, mental& physical slowing, mental retardation & cretinism. Disorders: Over secretion (hyperthyr oidism) - leads to body wasting, nervousness, tachycardia, tremor, excess heat producn -Thyrotoxicosis: Graves disease (exophthalmic goiter) -- caused by thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin -- TSH is depressed due to high [ T3 , T 4 ] -- exophthalmia: due to swelling of extraocular muscle w/in orbit thus pushing the eyeball forward Simple goiter :: lack of T4 due to Iodine deficiency in diet :: low level of T4 stimulates TSH producn ::hypertrophy (increase in size) hyperplasia (increase in # of cells) -compensation for increased TSH causing goiter

Under secretion (Hypothyr oidism) Cure: Iodized salt

(Gonad otropin)


Female: maturation of ovarian follicle :stimulates production of graafian follicle Male: maintains integrity of seminiferous tubules for spermatogenesis Female: stimulates ovulation &

both exocrine & endocrine gland FUNCTIONS AS WHEN exocrine gland - acinar cells secrete pancreatic juice containing digestive enzyme

Pancreas - located at duodenal lope of small intestine

endocrine gland

- Islets of Langerhans secretes a. glucagon ( cells) = increases blood sugar level b. insulin ( cells) = lowers blood sugar level)

zona fasticulate - glucocorticoid zona reticularis - glucocorticoid

Parathyroid Gland
- found in mediastenum - 4 parathyroid glands embedded in thyroid gland Type of Cells a. Chief cells have clear cytoplasm - secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) b. Oxyphil Cells have oxyphil granules in cytoplasm - w/ large no. of mitochondria Parathyroid hormone = mobilizes Ca from bone & increases urinary phosphate excretion, thus increasing blood Ca level Disorders: Hyper- demineralization of bone & formation of thyroidis Ca- containing kidney stone m - children rickets - adults osteomalacia Hypo-osteoclerosis due to increase amt of thyroidis calcified bone m -symptoms include hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypercaliurea, hypophosphaturia * In rickets & osteomalacia amt of mineral accretion in bone per unit of bone matrix deficient. * Osteoporosis = decrease in bone mass w/ preservation of normal ratio of mineral to matrix * Rickets, osteomalacia & osteoporosis = occur too in severe Vit D deficiency * When blood Ca level is low, blood P level is high (constant ratio) * Vitamin D = metabolized in kidney tubule to increase efficiency of Ca & P absorption in intestinal wall making them available for bone formation Calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin) - lowers Ca level in blood by preventing bone resorptionthrough activation of osteoblast cells w/c stimulate bone formation - increases Ca excretion in urine - -secreted by thyroid gland upon stimulation by a secretion from parathyroid gland in response to high Ca level **Calcitonin deposited Ca to bone while parathyroid hormone utilizes Ca from bone Type of Cells associated w/ Bone formation &Resorption 1. osteoblast bone formation (hypersecretion of calcitonin) 2. osteoclast bone resorption (hyposecretion of calcitonin) 3. osteocyte bone resorption

Insulin = anabolic (increase storage); transports glucose from blood to cells thereby increasing cells glucose utilization Glucagon = catabolic; mobilize nutrients from storage to blood stream Somatostatin = regulates islet cells secretion Disorders: Insulin excess deficien t excess deficien t excess hypoglycemia convulsion & coma diabetes mellitus diabetes mellitus hypoglycemia hyperglycemia & diabetes

Glucagon Somatost atin

glycolysis- mitochondria emaciation thinning of muscle due to use of reserve energy like protein & fats hypo/hyperglycemia relative to blood glucose level

Adrenal Gland - Two endorsing organs:

a. Adrenal medulla (inner) -secretes epinephrine & norepinephrine (prepares for emergency) -sympathetic ganglion (postganglionic neurons became secretory cells) b. Adrenal cortex (outer) -secretes (steroid) aldosterone & glucocorticoids

Glucocorticoid ::: (cortisol, cortisone,

corticosterone) stimulates glycogenolysis & glyconeogenesis, & thus Hyperglycemic. ::: secretion controlled primarily by ACTH (dependent on glucocorticoid level) by negative feedback ::: producn of ACTH is also stimulated by stressful stimuli Aldosterone = secretion controlled by circulating factors like: (a) blood pressure; (b) extra cellular fluid volume (ECF).

Low blood pressure/ ECF stimulates

adrenal cortex to produce aldosterone to reabsorb Na+ (K+ elimination) & H2O from kidney tubules, thus increasing blood pressure/ ECF.

Three (3) zones of Cortex zona glumerulosa -aldosterone