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1. Duties of welding inspector 2. 4 welding process MMA (SMAW) TIG (GTAW) SA (SAW) MIG (GMAW) 3.

4 welding defects Hydrogen Cracking Lamellar Tearing Intergranular Corrosion Solidification Cracking 4. Preheating and post weld heat treatment 5. Gas cutting Surface diagram 6. Comparison of NDT methods 7. Hydrogen content in each welding process 8. Inspection Pipe Plate Macro 9. Multi choice What is a Weld? A union between materials caused by heat and or by pressure. A joint : A configuration of members

I. Duties of welding inspector The welding inspector is by a combination of specialist training, Experience and qualification, an individual whose duties are to assure his employer, client or examining body, that a particular welding operation has been carried out in exact accordance with the specified and approved code(s), standards and procedures. Duties prior to welding 1. Obtain all relevant documentation or ensure access to it. a. Relevant Specifications b. Relevant Procedures c. Copies of welders certificates (where applicable) d. Copies of drawings (where applicable) 2. Ensure welders qualification 3. Correct Material 4. Correct Consumables 5. Correct Equipment 6. Correct preheat where ever applicable. 7. Assess / Measure fit up. a. Root face b. Bevel angle c. Root gap d. Alignment e. Seam offset where applicable f. Joint cleanliness 8. Ensure no undue stress is applied to the joint Duties during welding The presence of welding inspectors during welding will almost certainly reduce the number of weld defects and metallurgical problems which could otherwise occur, which will in turn, reduce the over all number of failures in service. The welding inspector should 1. Check Amperage, Voltage, polarity etc. 2. Ensure correct welding technique Weld direction, run sequence. 3. Check welding time time lapses and / or run out lengths (r.o.l.s) 4. Ensure adequate cleaning between passes. 5. Correct interpass temperatures Minimum and /or minimum 6. Check root internally (pipes) where access permits. 7. Check back gouged welds amount gouged, shape of gouge, cleanliness of gouge, where applicable. Duties after welding 1. Ensure weld is post cleaned. 2. Visual inspection of weld for defects. Eg. Undercut, overlap, surface porosity, incompletely filled groove etc.. 3. Visual check for arc strikes. 4. Check weld contour and weld width. 5. Ensure joint is covered with heat resistant material to retard cooling rate, where applicable. 6. Inspect / Monitor post-heat treatment, where applicable. 7. Report on weld. 8. Check NDT reports tie with NDT (where applicable) The welding inspector should essentially be an individual who combines a strength of character with personal values and complete professional integrity. 2

II. 4 Welding Process 1. MMA (SMAW) Manual Metal Arc welding / Shielded Metal Arc welding Manual metal arc welding (MMA) also popularly known as Shielded Metal Arc welding (SMAW) is the most versatile of the welding process. It is suitable for almost all thickness and types of ferrous and non-ferrous metals. The welding can be carried out in all positions relatively economically with reasonable ease of use. The weld quality is dependent mainly upon the skill of the welder. Electrodes for MMA welding usually consist of a solid metallic core rod that is coated with a layer of flux, which contains powdered ingredients and a Silicate binder. The current passes through the core rod to the arc that melts the end of the rod and the surrounding flux to produce a protective core. The arc is created by striking the tip pf electrode with the parent metal. The melting flux will form a protective case protecting the arc from surrounding air, and absorb oxide scale and other impurities. It produces a slag layer, which will protect the weld metal during solidification. MMA is either carried out using either AC or DC. In case of DC, - ve or + ve polarity may be used. Power is obtained from either transformers, transformerrectifier, generators or invertors. The welding current, measured in ampheres, controls electrode burn-off rate and depth of penetration. Consumable electrodes are : Rutile, Cellulose, Basic etc.. CELLULOSE:- Contain high proportion of cellulose, it will make deep penetrating arc & rapid burn off rate will allows high welding speed .easy to use any position RUTILE :- Contain high proportion of titanium oxide, this will promotes easy arc ignition, smooth arc operation, low spatter and this is general purpose electrode. This can use AC/DC power source. Suitable for filler weld BASIC:- Contain high proportion of calcium carbonate and calcium fluoride this will make fast freezing slag. use to all positions, low in H 2. Equipment : Power Source, Welding Cable, Electrode Holder ADVANTAGE OF M.M.A DIS ADVANTAGE OF M.M.A 1. Economical equipment 1. Low production 2. Wide range thickness can be 2. Cleaning required (due to slag) welded 3. Skill welder required 3. It can use any position 4. Low maintenance 5. No shielding gas required. DEFECT ASSOCIATED WITH THIS PROCESS:MAINLY:1. Under Cut 2. Porosity 3. Slag inclusion 4. excessive spatter OTHERS:1. Over lap 2. Lack of fusion 3. Lack of penetration 4. Excess penetration 3

5. Crater Cracks

2. TIG (GTAW) In TIG welding process, the arc from a non-consumable tungsten electrode, shielded by an inert gas, usually pure argon, is used to provide hear for melting the work piece and the filler metal. Tungsten is used as electrode because its melting point is very high and under proper welding conditions, it will not melt. A shielding gas eg. Argon is fed through the welding gun to the weld area which provides a gas shield to prevent contamination by the atmospheric gases. No fluxes are used with the process. The filler metal, is fed from a cut length of rod by hand or mechanically in the form of continous wire. Unlike MMA, MIG/MAG and SAW, the amount of filler added is independent of the energy input from the arc. The precise control of current during TIG arc welding and the independent addition of filler metal make TIG welding the most popular choice for precision all position welding, such as critical pipe welds. Electrodes : Plain (unactivated) tungsten - low quality Activated Tungsten - Reduced tungsten inclusion on weld Shielding gases:- Argon, helium and mixtures of argon and helium. Power Source:- Constant current welding power source is required regardless of polarity. Equipment : Power source, H.F Unit, D.C. Suppressor, Contactor Unit, Cable and hose, Torch, Electrode, Filler wire ADVANTAGE OF TIG DIS ADVANTAGE OF TIG 1. Best quality weld 1. High skill welder required 2. No slag 2. Lower deposition rate. 3. Better controlled 3.More costly for welding 4. Range of material can be Section welded 4. Slow process. 5. All positional 6. Free from spatter DEFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH TIG:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Tungsten inclusion. Porosity Lack of fusion. Lack of penetration Excess penetration.

thick

7. SA (SAW) Submerged Arc Welding Submerged arc welding uses a continuously fed bare wire consumable electrode, 1.6 to 6.4 mm dia., to produce a weld pool which is protected from atmospheric contamination by a separately supplied shielding flux in fused or agglomerated form. It is possible to feed more than one consumable wire electrode into the weld pool at the same time to increase production rates up by a factor to five times compared to using a single wire. Care has to be taken to avoid each arc causing interferences with its neighbour arcs. SAW welding is normally fully mechanized, but may be used in a fully automatic mode. The arc and molten weld metal are completely submerged beneath the layer of shielding flux and are not visible to the eye. The flux also provides additives to the weld, removes impurities from the weld and provides a thermal blanket (slag) protecting the weld as it cools down. The remaining infused flux is recovered for re-use after the removal of impurities and sieving. An advantage of SAW is that, very high welding currents can be used to produce the rapid deposition of heavy weld beads without spatter. Carbon steel alloy steel and stainless steels are the main materials welded using this process. Fluxes for SAW are divided into 2 types. FUSED FLUX:- Mixing with various minerals and melt it is a furnace then it was cooled and ground down to the required size (high temp, crystal is very hard, Granulated) AGGLOMERATED FLUX:- Made at lower temp. mixing the minerals with the binding agent and dried then crush it to the required size (Powdered). Good weld quality -deep penetration High deposition rates. Equipment : Power source, Weld head assembly (TORCH), Flux, Flux delivery system, Flux recovery system, Electrode wire ADVANTAGE OF SAW DISADVANTAGE OF SAW High productivity 1. Position of weld is limited Clean process. 2. Expensive equipment Deep penetration 3. Less portable Weld distortion is much less 4. Required accurate fit up on the joint 5. Welding 5. Flux landing (Agglomerated) carried out with out and impact Strength 6. Weld metal good corrosion resistance and impact strength. 6

7. 8.

High quality Less skill

TYPICAL DEFECTS ASSOCIATED 1. Slag inclusion 2. Lack of penetration 3. Under cut 4. Crack (centre line ,H2) 5. Lack of fusion 6. Porosity 7. Burn through. MIG/MAG Metal Inert Gas / Metal Active Gas (GMAW) The requirements of MIG/MAG differ from MMA and TIG as a different type of power source characteristics is required and a continuous wire (from a spool) sis supplied at the welding tourch head automatically. The shielding gas is supplied externally from a cylinder. A separate wire feed unit, or internal wire drive mechanism is also required to drive the wire electrode. MIG/MAG welding uses a continuous solid wire electrode that is fed into the arc, which is protected by a shielding gas, which might be inert or active, depending on the wire being used. No flux is present and all the alloying elements in the weld metal must be provided via the wire. For steel welds, the wire contains silicon and manganese to combine with oxygen that enters the weld metal from the gas shield, and other alloying elements such as nickel, chromium and molybdenum. MIG/MAG welds are made with the electrode running at positive polarity. In addition to producing deep penetration, this has the added benefit that the flow of electrons from the surface of aluminium and magnesium alloys causes the natural oxide layer to be blasted off the surface, allowing clean high quality welds to be made with out the addition of fluxing agents. The important types of metal transfer are a. Spray or free flight High welding current transfer Thick Materials High deposition and deep penetration b. Dip transfer Semi short circuiting arc Low amperage and low arc voltage Consumable wire touches weld pool Relatively cool arc Thinner section in all positional welding possible c. Globular Transfer Intermediate range between spray and dip transfer Only limited success in mechanized and automatic setups. d. Pulsed Transfer Modified form of spray transfers, which effectively uses both, dip and spray transfer modes in one operation. Pulses of high-powered spray transfer current are super imposed over a constant low semi-short 7

circuiting background mode. Allows high deposition rates and all positional welding. Poor fusion of root runs is eliminated. No spatter, good profile and high quality. ADVANTAGES OF MIG DISADVANTAGES OF MIG 1. 1. Complex equipment Can be productive process 2. More costly 2. 3. Weld material cooling rate is higher Usually automatic 4. Not suitable in out side welding 3. operation. due to Wind Wide range of material can be 5. Centre line cracks (in Spray welded. transfer type) 4. High quality welding. 5. Low heat input to material 6. All position of welding can be done 7. Thick and thin both material can be welded. 8. Less operator skill. 9. Minimum post weld cleaning DEFECT ASSOCIATED WITH MIG/MAG PROCESS 1. Lack of fusion (DIP transfer.) 2. Undercut. 3. Porosity. 4. Lack of penetration 5. Spatter. 6. Crack. 7. Excessive penetration. 4 welding defects

Cracks

Weld process cracks


Solidification Cracks H2 induced cracks (HIC) Lamellar tearing Preheat cracks

Service induced cracks


Brittle fracture Ductile fracture Fagigue fracture 8 Creep Failure Stress corrosion cracking H2 cracking induced by corrosion

Weld process Cracks Solidification Cracking Cracking that takes place during the weld solidification process is termed either hot cracking or solidification cracking. It occurs in all steels, which have a high sulphur content (sulphur causes low ductility at elevated temperatures). Inorder for a crack to develop, the solidifying metal must be subjected to a high tensile stress. This may be present as a result of weld metal contraction combined with high restraint. Solidification cracks usually occur longitudinally down the center of a weld because of the segregation of impurities and have a blunt profile compared to crack types. A crater crack is a type of solidification crack and is often star shaped, hence the alternative definition Star crack. If a high longitudinal stress was present, this may cause transverse cracks to develop (On large submerged arc welds). Liquidation Cracking Solidification cracks in welds may be due to the presence of materials with the metal which have a lower defined melting point than that of the accumulate at the grain boundaries and can cause problems in the HAZ near the fusion boundary where melting of the parent metal do not occur, but where the temperature is high enough to cause melting of grain boundary. It this melting occurs in the presence of a high tense (contracting) stress, then the boundaries will be pulled apart and a liquidation crack occurs. Within the steel itself, sulphur is the major liquation material. It the welding involves a very high heat input, the sulphur is the HAZ, is taken into solution by the surrounding steel and precipitates out during cooling as sulphides, causing embrittes grain boundaries which significantly weakens the steel. It such occurrence has happened, the steel is said to be burned. Copper pickup may also cause this particular form of liquation cracking.

Hydrogen Cracking The presence of hydrogen causes general embrittlement in steel and during welding may lead directly to cracking of weld zone. The following are the forms of hydrogen related problems. Hydrogen induced cold cracking (H.I.C.C) Fissures / Micro fissures Chevron cracks Fish eyes The hydrogen-induced cold cracks forms when hydrogen enters a weld via the welding arc. The source of hydrogen may be from moisture in the atmosphere, contamination on the weld preparation, or moisture in the electrode flux. With M.M.A and S.A.W process, the selection of fluxtype will also affect hydrogen content. When the weld area is hot, the steel is in an expanded condition. As the weld cools down, most of the hydrogen diffuses outwards into the parent material and atmosphere, but some of the hydrogen atoms become trapped within the weld zone. Below 200oC the elements of hydrogen prefers to be in its molecular form, the infividual atoms of hydrogen are attracted towards each as the weld cools and they congregate in any convenient space as microscopic gas bubbles. Because of this internal pressure, the adjacent grain structure may react in one of two ways. 1. It may deform slightly to reduce the pressure. This will occur if the surrounding metal is ductile. Eg. Pearlite 2. It may separate completely to reduce the pressure. Ie., crack. This will occur if the surrounding metal is brittle. Eg. Martensite. Weld fractures associated wiuth hydrogen are more likely to occur in the heat affected zone as this area tends to have increased brittleness. It must also be observed that it usually takes an external stress to initiate and propagate a crack. Lower temperatures will decrease the fracture toughness of the steel and at the same time increase H2 Pressure. For hydrogen cracking, following criteria must exist. A grain structure susceptible to cracking normally means brittle but not necessarily martensite grain structures, which are brittle, are very susceptible to cracking. Stress with a temperature < 200oC. In order to reduce H2 cracking Ensure joint preparations are clean Preheat the joint preparations Use a low hydrogen welding process, or if using MMA, use hydrogen controlled electrodes Use multipass welding technique. Control interpass temperature. Use H2 post heat treatment.

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Hydrogen Scales H2 Content >15 >=10<=15 >=5<10 <5

IIW High Medium Low Very low Scale A Scale B Scale C Scale D

BS5135

Lamellar Tearing Lamellar tearing has a characteristic step like appearance. It may occur in the parent plate or H.A.Z of steels with poor through thickness ductility where the fusion boundary of the weld is parallel with the plate/pipe surface ie; lamellar tearing only occurs in the rolled direction of the parent material. It is usually associated with restrained joints that are subjected to through thickness stresses on corners, Tee or fillet welds joining thick plate which have a high sulphur content, although other non-metallic inclusions may also play a part. The presence of H2 increases steels susceptibility to lamellar tearing quite significantly. The through thickness ductability of the parent material may be assessed by using the short tensile steel - BS 5135 Preheating Cracking Preheat cracking also known as Stress Relaxation cracking Mainly occurs in the HAZ of welds. Particularly in low alloy steels during post weld heat treatment or service of elevated temperatures. Most alloy steels are subject to an increase of embitterment of the coarse grained region of HAZ when heated above 600oC, the problem is worse with thicker steels containing Cr, Cu, Nb, TI etc.. Typical steels susceptible would be 2 Cr No U types (Creep resisting steels) During post weld stress relief and at high operating temperatures, the residual stresses will be relieved by creep deformation, which involves grain boundary sliding and grain deformation. It due to high creep strength, there actions cannot occur, the grain boundaries may open up into cracks. Pre-heat cracks most frequently occur in areas of high stress concentration and existing defects. They are not unknown in the weld area where the cracks may originate from sharp profiles eg: incomplete root penetration or at the toes of badly shaped filler welds. Precaution against pre-heat cracking includes, toe-grinding, elimination of partial penetration welds, rejection of poor weld profiles, the selection of steels resistant to liquidation cracks, the use of lowest strength weld metal acceptable and controlled post weld heat treatment. Service induced failures Weld decay is austenitic stainless steel weld decay, also known as knife-line attack, occurs in instabilised austenitic stainless steels. Within 600-850oC range in the HAZ. At this temperature range, carbon is absorbed by the metal cools down. This causes a local reduction in chromium content, which has the affect of lowering the resistance to corrosive attack allowing rusting to occur. Weld decay is prevented in stabilized stainless steels by the addition of niobium or titanium. But

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the most common method now used to prevent weld decay is to decarburnize the molten steed to below 0.03% C Intergranular Corrosion The microstructure of metals and alloys is made up of grains, separated by grain boundaries. Intergranular corrosion is localized attack along the grain boundaries, or immediately adjacent to grain boundaries, while the bulk of the grains remain largely unaffected. This form of corrosion is usually associated with chemical segregation effects (impurities have a tendency to be enriched at grain boundaries) or specific phases precipitated on the grain boundaries. Such precipitation can produce zones of reduced corrosion resistance in the immediate vicinity. A classic example is the sensitization of stainless steels. Chromium-rich grain boundary precipitates lead to a local depletion of Cr immediately adjacent to these precipitates, leaving these areas vulnerable to corrosive attack in certain electrolytes. Reheating a welded component for stress relieving is a common cause of this problem. In the absence of the reheating step, the alloy would not be prone to intergranular attack. Intergranular corrosion is also often associated with high strength aluminum alloys. Alloys that have been extruded or otherwise worked heavily, with a microstructure of elongated, flattened grains, are particularly prone to this damage. Preheating and post weld heat treatment Heat treatments are to change or control the final properties of welded joints and fabrications. Preheating Preheat is the application of heat to a joint prior to welding and is usually applied by a gas torch or induction system. It is used only when there is a significant chance that adverse metallurgical structures and / or cracks could occur. Preheat temperatures on steel pope and many steel structures are arrived at by taking into consideration the carbon equivalent (Ceq%) of the material. The material thickness and the arc energy or heat input. Reference may be made to standard specifications. Advantages : 1. Preheating slows down the cooling rate of weld and h.a.z (heat affected zone) which reduces the risk of hardening and also allows absorbed hydrogen a better opportunity of diffusing out, thereby reducing the chance of cracking. Basically speaking, the application of a preheat helps to counteract the adverse effect produced by welding on the material. 2. It removes any moisture in the region of preparation. 3. It allows better fusion between weld metal and parent plate. 4. Reduces stress between pipe and weld in relation to expansion and contraction.

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Preheat temperatures may be measured by use of tourch pyrometer (thermo couple) or temperature indicating crayons (Tempil Sticks). Temperature indicating crayons exist in two forms where one would melt and the other changes colours. It is used based on the specification of the work being carried out. Pre heat temperatures are measured at intervals along or around a joint to be welded. The greater the area preheated, the slower the cooling rate. The preheat temperature should be taken immediately prior to welding but not until sufficient time has elapsed after the removal of heat source, other wise only the surface temperature will be measured. Post Heat Treatment Post heat treatment in this context is a process in which a process in which metal in the solid state is subjected to one or more controlled heating cycles after welding. The post weld heat treatment of welds is normally carried out for the purpose of stress relief. It is also used to produce certain properties, such as 1. Softening after cold working 2. Hardening to produce improved strength and hardness may be very hard and brittle. 3. Tempering to improve hardened structures giving ranges of strength with toughness. Another Post weld heat treatment process, which may be used is a Hydrogen release only process. The relevant variables for a PWHT process, which must be carefully controlled, are as follows a. b. c. d. Heating rate Temperature attained Time at the attained temperature Cooling rate in certain circumstances

The general heat treatments in this category are 1. Stress relieving 2. Annealing 3. Normalising 4. Hardening / Quenching 5. Tempering 6. Hydrogen Release 1. Stress relieving Used to relax welding stresses without any significant affects on the components metallurgical structure. Stress relief is achieved by heating to 550 650oC, holding for the required time then cool down air. Local heating is carried out with gas flame or electric elements. 13

2. Annealing 2 types full Anneal Sub-Critical Anneal The steel is heated above its upper critical temperature and soaked for 1 hour for every 25mm of thickness. The furnace is then turned off and steel remains in the furnace to cool. This produces a large or course grain structure that is soft and ductile but has very low toughness. Full Anneal Produce a very soft low hardness material. It is achieved by cooling after the steel has been heated to above 910o C and made fully austenitic. By the time the steel has been very slowly cooled down to 700o C all the austenite changes to ferrite and pearlite. Sub-Critical Anneal Produces a soft, low hardness steel which is cheaper than full anneal. The temperatures must not rise above 700oC. A Sub-Critical anneal is achieved by heating to 680-700oC, holding for sufficient time for full recrystallisation 3. Normalising Normalising is used to improve mechanical properties and to modify grain structures by making them more uniform. It is achieved by heating the steel until it is fully austenitic the same temperature as that used for full anneal-soaking and then air cooling. 4. Hardening / Quenching Hardening is achieved by very fast cooling from austenite region. The steel is first heated to produce austenite. It is then allowed to soak at this temperature to produce grain uniformity and then fast cooled by quenching into oil or water (brine) to achieve the desired hardness. After quenching the steel is highly stressed, very hard and brittle with a tensile strength. Quenched steel is very prone to cracking and therefore requires tempering. 5. Tempering Tempering is used to produce a range of desired mechanical properties to meet specific requirements. It is achieved by slowly heating the hardened steel to a temperature between 200-650oC to produce the required tensile and toughness properties, the component is then air cooled. At 200oC, the quenching stress is reduced and steel will give maximum tensile and hardness with a reduced risk of cracking. 6. Hydrogen Release

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10. Gas cutting Surface diagram Thermal Cutting Oxy-fuel gas cutting does not melt the steel, but simply heats it until it reaches its ignition temperature. At this temperature the iron will react with pure oxygen to produce and exothermic chemical reaction, the product being FE3O4 or magnetic oxide of iron. A jet of pure oxygen is sent from and orifice int eh center of the nozzle that reacts ith the iron at its ignition temperature. The velocity of oxygen jet removes the magnetic iron oxide from the cut face. Good Cut Sharp top and bottom edges Vertical drag lines No adhering dross, Square face, light easily removed oxide scale Cutting Speed too fast Top edge not sharp. Rounded bottom edge, which may not be completely severed. Drag lines uneven sloping backwards-irregular cut edge.

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Cutting speed too slow Rounded and melted top edge, bottom edge rough. Dross on bottom edge difficult to remove. Lower part of cut face irregularly gouged heavy scale on cut face. Nozzle too high Excessive melting of top edge. Undercut at top of cut face.

Irregular cutting speed Wavery cut edge uneven drag lines

Preheating flame too high Rounded top edge, irregular cut edge, melted metal falling into kerf. Excessive amount of dross adhering strongly to bottom edge.

Preheating flame too low. Bad gouging of lower part cut face cutting speed slow.

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Comparison of NDT methods 1. Penetrant testing 2. Magnetic particle testing 3. Ultrasonic testing 4. Radiographic testing Method Penetrant Testing Application Welds / Castings. Only for surface testing only All materials can be tested. Colour contrast and Florescent Welds / Castings Ferrous metals only Wet & Dry inks. Yolks Permanent magnets and straight current AC/DC Advantages Low operator skill level All non porous material surfaces may be tested Low cost process Simple equipment Low operator skill level Surface / Subsurface flaws Relatively low cost Simple equipment Can more easily find lack of sidewall fusion defects A wide variety of materials can be tested No safety requirements Portable with instant results Permanent record of results A wide variety of materials can be tested. Disadvantages Highly clean the material Surface flaws only Extremely messy No permanent record Fe magnetic metals only De-magnetize after use Can cause arc strikes using straight current technique No permanent record High operator skill level Difficult to interpret Requires calibration No permanent record High operator skill Difficult to interpret

Magnetic Particle testing

Ultra Sonic testing

Welds / Castings One side access Unfavoured for large grained structured alloys. Ie.. Austenitic S/S Radiographic Welds/Castings. Testing Access from both sides is required. All materials. Gamma and X-ray sources of radiation used.

Can assess penetration in small diameter, or Cannot generally identify lack of line pipe. sidewall fusion

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Gamma ray is very portable

High safety requirements.

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Hydrogen content in each welding process The hydrogen content in a specific weld depends on a variety of factors such as the degree of contamination on the weld preparation the arc length used, the amount of water vapour in the immediate environment and cooling rate of the weld. However, it is still possible to approximate H2 contents of weld made under typical weld controlled conditions. The amount of hydrogen remaining in a weld assuming no hydrogen release post-heat treatment has been used will depend largly on the welding process used. Below chart shows welding processes with hydrogen levels, achieved per 100 gm of weld metal deposited. Tig Mig/Mag Electroslag MMA SAW < 1 ml. is possible < 2 ml. is possible > 3 ml. likely < 5 ml. possible for high temperature baked basic electrodes, but could be as much as 70 ml. for certain cellulose electrodes. > 5 ml. but could be as much as 50 ml. Depends on flux and heat treatment of flux.

Flux cored mag > 10 ml. is likely.

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11. Inspection Pipe Plate Macro 12. Multi choice

Thursday& sat. 27th howra exp 6323 800+ 6323, 6324 tvm exp

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Other Theory goodies Cracks are classed as planar imperfections as they generally have only 2 visible, or measurable dimensions ie., length and depth. Gas pores : Internal gas field cavities smaller that 1.6 mm dia, created during solidification by the expulsion of gases from solidifying weld pool. Porosity: Gas pores < 1.6mm dia grouped together, classified by their number, size and grouping (fine or coarse cluster porosity) (MIG or TIG) Blow hole : gas filled cavity = or > 1.6 mm dia. Arc blow: Undercut: depression at the toe of a weld in a previous deposited weld, or base metal, caused by welding. Shrinkage grooves may occur in the root area and are caused by contractional forces pulling on the hot plastic base metal in the root area. Root concavity (Suck back) : when hot pass may pull back the root bead through contractional strains. HAZ: Heat Affected Zone Macro examination test : Used to check the internal level of quality in the weld.

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DUTIES OF WELDING INSPECTOR BEFORE WELDING : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Check the drawing and specification and review all applicable document. Check the material chemical composition with mill certificate and conform it meet the scope of requirement Check the welding procedure are approval and conform the scope of work Check the welder and welding operator are approved to the scope of work Check the welding consumables : (ie) type of electrode ,filler wire, shielding and backing gases and special dry requirement of the electrode according with specification requirement. Check the component edge preparation, fit-up and alignment and made according to the drawing requirement (ie) tacking, root gap , groove angle etc. Check the cleanliness of material surface condition Check the welding equipments and its parameter control units and meter and calibrated and validated according to the scope of requirement . Check whether any preheat required according with the procedure requirement . Safety requirements and weather conditions should be checked.

DURING WELDING. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Check correct welding process are carrying out according to the procedure Check the welding parameters (ie) current ,volt, travel speed are compliance With the scope of the WPS. Check preheat and inter pass temperature are maintained with scope of WPS Check root and inter pass cleaning are properly done or not Check the correct welding consumables (ie) electrode , shielding gases, filler wire etc. are used according to the scope requirements. Check the welder identify card and conform.

AFTER WELDING: 1. Make ensure the cleanliness of the welds (ie) free from slag and spatters etc. 2 Check all weld are properly identified (ie) weld no and welder no 3. Carry out visual inspection (ie) weld shape, bead, dimensional accuracy length ,size are according to the drawing and specification. 4. To release the component to NDE according scope of requirements. 22

5. Check the repair are carried out according with procedure Specification. 6. Check whether any P.W.H.T requirements with the scope if it is check the process and cycle temperature according to the procedure. 7. Check the final inspection prior to close testing . 8. Witness of pressure test , the calibration of pressure gages and chart record should be checked and signed with respect to procedure requirements. 9. Finally all documents generated during above inspection should be collected and fitted for final bead documentation.

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MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS: Arc struck between coated electrode and the work piece, both rod and work piece and melt form a weld pool. Simultaneously the heat melt flux coatings in the electrode will form gas and slag , which protect the weld pool form the surrounding atmosphere , the slag will solidify and form over layer of the weld metal ,this must be chipped off the weld run is complete. This type of operation is by manual (ie) operator adjust the electrode by hand movement to keep arc length constant. So this is constant current (Drooping arc) process. TYPE OF ELECTRODE. CELLULOSIC:- Contain high proportion of cellulose, it will make deep penetrating arc & rapid burn off rate will allows high welding speed .easy to use any position RUTIEL :- Contain high proportion of titanium oxide, this will promotes easy arc ignition, smooth arc operation, low spatter and this is general purpose electrode. This can use AC/DC power source. Suitable for filler weld BASIC:- Contain high proportion of calcium carbonate and calcium fluoride this will make fast freezing slag. use to all positions, low in H 2. CURRENT TYPE:- There is two type of current is used for welding 1. DC. 2. AC. DC. Current is easy keep running , while with AC current stop flowing its more difficult to start, compare to DC. In AC some time arc goes off for that flux coating with ionisation is required. If DC e +tive is best penetration ,DC e ive best deposition rate. Arc voltage depends upon electrode type, (ie) cellulose electrode 26 28v and rutile & basic electrode 22-24v is required. EQUIPMENT CONSIST:POWER SOURCES:- Can supply AC/DC to the electrode. The current can be altered by the control unit according to the different welding condition . the power source must supply constant current . WELDING CABILE:- This carry the current so it must be heavily insulated to protect from the electrical shock. ELECTRODE HOLDER:- This is also fully insulated to with stand maximum power source out put this will hold rigidly the electrode. ADVANTAGE OF M.M.A M.M.A 1. Low economical equipment. DIS ADVNTAGE OF 1. Low production

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2. Wide range thickness can be welded to slag) 3. It can use any position 4. Low maintains 5. No shielding gas required.

2. Cleaning required(due 3. Skill welder required.

DEFECT ASSOCIATED WITH THIS PROCESS:MAINLY:5. Under Cut 6. Porosity 7. Slag inclusion penetration 8. excessive spatter OTHERS:1. Over lap 2. Lack of fusion 3. Lack of 4. Excess penetration 5. Crater Cracks

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TUNGSTEN INERT GAS (TIG) This is constant current (drooping arc) process. MODE OF OPERATION:- In TIG welding an arc is formed between non consumable electrode (tungsten) and metal being welded. Inert gas is fed through the nozzle to shield the electrode and the molten weld pool. If filler wire is used, it is added to the weld pool separately at low current, arc is unstable. The most common way to start the arc is to use H.F. ARC STARTING METHOD:1. SHORT CIRCUIT :- By scratching the surface start the arc. 2. LIFT ARC TECHNIQUE- Touch the electrode in to the surface, while lifting the electrode arc is formed smoothly 3. H.F:- The arc is formed between the gap of electrode and base metal is this high frequency consist high voltage make ionize these area , so current can now flow produce spark. CURRENT TYPE:- DC current is generally used for most of carbon steel . DCE-IVE:- All material can weld expect Aluminium & Mg. AC :- Suitable for aluminium and light material . Arc voltage :- 8-12v for Argon 16- 18v for Helium. ELECTRODE:1. Thoriated tungsten for DC welding to improves electron emission 2. Zirconiated tungsten for AC current on non ferrous metals. Shielding gases:- Argon, helium and mixtures of argon and helium. Power Source:- Constant current welding power source is required regardless of polarity. EQUIP MENT CONSIST. 1. Power source:- Drooping characteristic supply either AC/DC 2. H.F Unit:- To initiate the arc 3. D.C. Suppressor:- To suppress inherent D.C tendency of the AC welding arc. 4. Contactor Unit :- Current adjust by foot control. 5. Cable and hose:- To carry the currents using the cable. 6. Torch :- Hold electrode, current connection, shielding gases connection. 7. Electrode:- Non consumable electrode (Tungsten) electrode diameter 1.6 to 3.2mm. 8. Filler wire :- fed in separately must match the base metals. 27

ADVANTAGES OF TIG:1. Best quality weld 2. No slag 3. Better controlled thick 4. Range of material can be welded 5. All positional 6. Free from spatter. DEFECT ASSOCIATED WITH TIG:6. Tungsten inclusion. 7. Porosity 8. Lack of fusion. 9. Lack of penetration 10. Excess penetration.

DIS ADVANTAGES OF TIG 1. High skill welder required 2. Lower deposition rate. 3. More costly for welding Section. 4. Slow process.

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METAL INERT GAS

WELDING

(MIG/MAG)

DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS:- (This is flat arc process constant voltage) The arc is maintained between the end of consumable electrode and work piece. The wire (electrode) is feed at a constant speed by the wire feed unit. The shielding gas separately supplied through the nozzle to protect the wire is feed continuously by feed unit, this process referred to as a semi automatic welding. TYPE OF METAL TRANSFER:1. SPRAY TRANSFER:- Spray transfer is generally used at 20-40v and 200600 amp with spray transfer we can get deep penetration for thick plate. But it is restricted in welding position , we can weld only in PA,PB,PC position only. 2. DIP TRANSFER:- Short arc is generally used at low current, low voltage (e.g) 100amps & 20v for thin material , we can used it for Root welding in piping in call position. 3. GLOBVLAR TRANSFER:- Generally, arc between of spray and short circuiting Arc current and passes , mainly with FLUX CORED WIRES. 4. PULSED TRANSFER:- Pulsed transfer gives peculiar noise it is mixture of spray And short transfer method .current is used for this process DC +ive it goes to solid wire and - ive polarity to work piece. 5. TYPE OF SHIELDING GAS:- No flux is used but the arc and molten weld metal Arc shielding by inert gases, which is may be argon , helium, Co2 ( or) a mixture of its . arc length is controlled by voltage. ADVNTAGES TAGES OF MIG 1. 2. 3. 4. Can be productive process. Usually automatic Wide range of material can be welded. High quality welding.

5. Low heat input to material. 6. All position of welding can be done. 7. Thick and thin both material can be welded. 30

8. Less operator skill. 9. Minimum post weld cleaning. DIS ADVANTAGES OF MIG. 1. Complex equipment. 2. More costly. 3. Weld martial cooling rate higher. 4. Not suitable in out side welding operation. due to Wind 5. Centre line cracks (Spray transfer type) DEFECT ASSOCIATED WITH THIS PROCESS:8. Lack of fusion (DIP transfer.) 9. Undercut. 10. Porosity. 11. Lack of penetration 12. Spatter. 13. Crack. 14. Excessive penetration. -----------------------------------------------xxxxxxx--------------------------xxxxx------------

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SUBMERGED ARC WELDON DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCCESS:The arc is struck between the consumable wire and the work piece, both submerged under blanket of granulated mineral flux. Thus this process called sub merged arc welding . some of the flux melts and form the slag layer over the weld metal. The unfused flex is recovered and reused. As the arc covered by the layer of flux heat loss is extremely low the deposition rate also very high. TYPE OF FLUX:FUSED FLUX:- Mixing with various minerals and melt it is a furnace then it was cooled and ground down to the required size (high temp, crystal is very hard) AGGLOMERATED FLUX:- Made at lower temp. mixing the minerals with the binding agent and dried then crush it to the required size. CURRENT TYPE:AC- is used in multi wire system to reduce ARC BLOW effects. DC EP deep Penetration DC EN- Shallow penetration, better deposition. Current range is 250-1000 amps Voltage range is 27-40volts. EQUIPMENT CONSIST:1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Power source Constant current and voltage) Weld head assembly (TORCH) Flux Flux delivery system Flux recovery system Electrode wire:- SOLID, wire thickness range 1.6 to 6.0mm

SAW ADVANTAGES:-

SAW DISADVANTAGE:Position of weld limited Expensive equipment Loss portable. Required accurate fit up on the Flux landing (Agglomerated)

1. High productivity 1. 2. Clean process. 2. 3. Deep penetration 3. 4. Weld distortion is much less 4. joint 5. Welding carried out with out 5. spark, smoke, flash or spatter. 6. Weld metal good corrosion resistance and impact strength.

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7. High quality. 8. Less skill TYPICAL DEFECTS ASSCIATED:8. Slag inclusion 9. Lack of penetration 10. Under cut 11. Crack (centre line ,H2) 12. Lack of fusion 13. Porosity 14. Burn through.

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