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LESSON PLAN

School : SMA N 5 x meeting Time 10 x 45 I. Standards of competence Analyzing the organ system at a particular organism as well as disorders / diseases that may occur and its implications in science, environment, technology, and society II. Basic competence Linking structure, function, process and disorders / diseases that can occur in the digestive system in humans and animals Curikulum : KTSP Sybject : Biologi Teacher : Heru Susilo Class/Smt : XI/1 Year : 2011/2012

III. Indicator After participating in learning activities the student should be able to: 1. Understanding the type and content of nutritious foods 2. Menganilisis variation and composition of food 3. Develop a balanced diet 4. Defining the understanding of digestion 5. Mention organs - digestive organs 6. Describe the structure of organs based on image 7. Explain the function of each - each digestive organ 8. Explain the process of digesting food (carbohydrates, proteins and fats) in humans 9. Explains how to test the content of nutrients in the form of proteins, fats and carbohydrates 10. Test substances in daily diet 11. Identifying the structure of the digestive organs of ruminants 12. Explain the functions of the digestive organs in ruminants 13. Explaining the process of digestion in ruminants 14. Distinguishing between the digestive system in humans and certain animals 15. Identify abnormalities that occur in the digestive system in everyday life

IV. Methods, Models, and Learning Approach Metods Lectures, group discussions, assignments Model Kooperatif learning Learning approach CTL (Contextual Teaching Learning)

V. Teaching materials 1.Nutrients and their functions for humans Humans acquire nutritional substances (nutrients) from food consumed, food is a source of energy to perform all the activities. Food consumed by humans contain carbohydrates, fats, proteins and vitamins. Carbohydrates as the human body's main energy source stored in the form of glycogen found in muscle and liver. Before being absorbed by the tissue, carbohydrates must be broken down into glucose telebih first. Carbohydrates are widely available in rice, maize, wheat bread etc. Fat is the solvent of vitamin A, D, E, K. Fat in the body can serve as a backup energy source when the body needs it. Fat stored in adipose tissue. Fats are often found in animals and plants. Fats derived from plants is called vegetable fat, while fat derived from animals is called animal fats. Based on the level kejenuhannya, differentiated into fat-saturated fats and unsaturated fats. Saturated fats can be synthesized in the body whereas unsaturated fat can not be produced in the body such as fatty acids arachidonic, linoleic, linolenic. Proteins are the substances in the body builder. The main function of proteins that are as builder substances, forming new cells, and replacement of damaged cells. Proteins are composed of various amino acids. Amino acids are divided into essential amino acids are amino acids that can not be disintetis in the body and non-essential amino acids that can disintetis in the body. proteins found in plants and animals such as grains, beans, wheat, fish, meat, eggs, milk and cheese. Eggs are protein-rich side dish with a relatively cheap price. 2.Structure and function of organs penceraan

Digestive organs in humans consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, colon, and colon. a. Mouth the mouth is equipped with multiple organ that is 1) Tongue: help flipping flip the food, helping to push food when ingested 2) Teeth: function to cut food into small sections and menghaluskannya so easy to swallow 3) salivary glands (salivary glands) produce saliva containing water, mucus and enzymes ptyalin b. Pharyngeal the pharynx there is a valve (epiglottis) that prevents the food into the respiratory tract and to put food into the esophagus c. Gullet (esophagus) is the channel that connects the mouth to the stomach d. Side The process of digestion in the stomach occur mechanical (stirred by a stomach muscle contraction) and chemical (because there is HCL gastric acid to kill bacteria that are not acid resistant, the enzyme pepsin to break down proteins into peptone and renin to agglomerate the only terdpat milk proteins in infants) e. Small intestine small intestine consist of three parts: 1) twelve-finger intestine (duodenum) Length 25 cm is the estuary of bile produced by liver and pancreatic lymph thus play a role in chemical digestion. 2) empty intestine (jejunum) Length 7 m Ingestion of 12 fingers and then diterukan intestine into the middle intestine or colon is empty, this is where the digestive process occurs last. 3) Intestinal absorption (ileum) Length 1 m, the final digestion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats are absorbed f. Large intestine (colon) Absorption of water and food spoilage by bacteria Escherichia coli and the formation of

vitamin K. g. Anus Fases digestion results will be issued through the anus. 3. Digestive Process The food we eat, eat into the mouth first, then becomes smooth due to be chewed by the teeth and aided by the salivary glands. After the fine then we can swallow quickly through the lower pharynx and esophagus with peristaltic movement. Ingested food accumulated in the stomach and mixes with the stomach so that it becomes watery sap like porridge, then pureed foods gradually into the small intestine, small intestine in food will be digested chemically by the bile produced by the liver and enzymes from the pancreas gland in 12 fingers intestine (duodenum), then proceed to the middle intestine (jejenum) and the food will be absorbed in the intestinal absorption (ileum). From the small intestine and then into the large intestine, large intestines and the remains of food that can not be digested longer be thick because water is reabsorbed by the colon wall. Leftovers from the large intestine will be forwarded to the axis of the intestine and ultimately boils down to the anus and will be issued. Food that enters the digestive system is broken down into simple molecules in two ways, namely mechanical and chemical means. Mechanical means involving muscle movement and peristalsis while the chemical means by digestive enzymes 4. Digestive system in ruminants Ruminant digestive organs in animals consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and rectum. Stomach in ruminant animals consists of four parts: the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum. The digestion process occurs as follows: The grass chewed and mixed with saliva and then swallowed into the esophagus and into the rumen. Occur in the rumen digestion of proteins and polysaccharides and fermentation of cellulose by enzyme sellulase. After that the food into the reticulum. Food will be formed into clumps - a clot (bolus). Mouth of the bolus will be issued again and chewed and then swallowed into the reticulum and the omasum and the latter will enter into the abomasum. In the abomasum is the true digestion occurs by the digestive enzymes. 5. Variety of disorders or diseases associated with the digestive system a) Diarrhea b) Constipation

c) appendicitis d) Colic e) ulcer f) parotitis g) Xerostomia VI. Methods Appliying Using ITC Games Assigments VII. Aspects Assesesed Assigments Ask -Reply Observation Individual Presentation Remedial Groups Presentation Home work Discussion Observation Ask -Reply Discussion Individual Presentation Groups Presentation Demonstration -

VIII. Steps of Learning First meeting ( 2 x 45 minutes ) Teachers activities Initial activities ( 10 minutes ) y The teacher opened the meeting by greeting y Teachers focus students on the material y y y Teachers create groups each consisting of five people Core activities (75 minutes) Exploration : y The teacher asked each group to discuss the type - the type of substances contained in Exploration : y Students discuss the type - the type y Students answer greeting Students are ready and focus to follow the teaching and learning activities Students are grouped according to the group Students activities

foodstuffs y The teacher presents tebel types of food that is often encountered daily y Teacher presents tables, charts, caloric needs in men and women with different ages y Teacher tells students to count the number of calories in food and calorie needs each day y y

of substances contained in foodstuffs Students have discussions with the group discusses the composition of a balanced diet and energy requirements. Students classify foods based on the content of substance y Students practice preparing balanced meals based on the content of substance y Students to observe and interpret the data in table y Students practice making the conclusion of the reading chart y Students practice counting the number of calories in food and energy needs every day Elaboration : y One of the groups present the results of discussions in class y Students do the questions and answers to criticize the presentation of the results of discussions Confirmation : y Students observe the teacher's explanations and record important information from teachers Students with teachers draw conclusions from the results of

Elaboration : y The teacher asks one of the groups present the results of discussion (presentation) in front of the class The teacher guides the students to do the debriefing of the results presentation Confirmation : y Teacher meyampaikan principal matters of learning that has been done y Teachers and students draw conclusions

Final activity ( 5 minutes ) y Teachers provide feedback to students

Teacher tells students to create a reflective journal

discussions

Second meeting ( 2 x 45 minutes ) Teachers activities Initial activities ( 10 minutes) y The teacher opened the meeting by greeting y Teachers give guidance to the students to perform experiments testing the content of nutrients y The teacher provides a worksheet on each each group Core activities (75 minutes) Exploration : y Teachers observe student performance in testing the content of nutrients and the effect of temperature on the action of the enzyme y Exploration : y Students test food substances and the effects of temperature on the action of the enzyme Students do a discussion group to discuss the experimental results of the test food that they had done in Final activities ( 5 minutes ) y Teacher tells students to clean and tidy equipment y Teachers told students to make the results of lab reports y cleaning and tidying equipment students groups y y Students answer greeting Students pay attention to the direction of teacher Students activities

Third meeting ( 2 x 45minutes ) Teachers activities Initial activities ( 10 minutes ) y The teacher opened the meeting by greeting y Teachers give apperception to focus the concentration of students: "Why rice entering through the mouth will be issued in different forms through the anus?" y The teacher told the students in groups each consisting of five people Core activities (75 minutes) Exploration : y The teacher presents a picture (torso) and play videos on the digestive system of humans and ruminants y The teacher told the students discuss in groups to discuss the structure and function of organs and the digestive process in humans and ruminants y y Exploration : y y Students observe the torso and video Students record the organs - digestive organs based on a picture or video show Students discuss in groups to discuss the structure and function of organs and the digestive process Students do a discussion group to discuss which organs are used as a digestive mechanically and chemically. Elaboration : y The teacher asks one of the groups presented the results of discussions in class, other students are welcome to respond to the opinions of other friends Confirmation : y Teacher briefly review the structure, y Elaboration : y One of the groups present the results of discussions in class Other group members responding opinion friend Confirmation : y Students are grouped according to the group y y Students answer greeting Students are ready and focus to follow the teaching and learning activities Students activities

function and digestion y Teachers with students draw conclusions

Students observe the teacher's explanations and record important information from teachers Students with teachers draw conclusions from the results of discussions Students create a reflective journal home

Final activities ( 5 minutes ) y Teacher tells students to create a reflective journal y The teacher gives the task to the students to identify the disease associated with the digestive system

Forth meeting ( 2 x 45 minutes) Teacher activities Initial meeting ( 10 menit ) y The teacher opened the meeting by greeting y Teachers focus students on the material y y y Teachers create groups each consisting of four people Core activities (75 minutes) Exploration : y The teacher guides the students conduct a group discussion comparing the digestive organs of animals and humans y Teacher tells students to identify various abnormalities associated with the digestive system Elaboration y Exploration : y Students do a group discussion comparing the digestive organs of animals and humans Students (groups) identified various abnormalities associated with the digestive system Students answer greeting Students are ready and focus to follow the teaching and learning activities y Students are grouped according to the group Students activities

y The teacher asks one of the students present the results of group discussions in class discussions.

Elaboration : y One of the groups present the results of group discussions in class discussions. y Other students are welcome to respond to his opinion. Confirmation : y Students concluded the differences of human and animal digestive organs of ruminants.

Confirmation: y Teachers help students to conclude differences of human and animal digestive organs of ruminants. Final activities ( 5 minutes ) y Teachers give reflection to students Buku Biologi kelas XI Books Biology class XI Student worksheets XI Presentation tools Handbook of research design

IX. Tools / Materials / Resources y y y y y

X. Assesment 1. Written competency test 2. Rubric observation sheet

Observation sheet Test Substance in Food Ingredients

Name: No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Aspects of the observed Choice of materials suitable experimental purposes Using a mortar mortar to smooth the material Sing the test tube to test the material Choosing the proper reagents for testing food Attention to security while warming up Cleaning equipment before and after use Attention to safety

Class: Yes No

Skors Penilaian Kinerja: Scores: Yes = 1 Critera : 0 1-2 3-4 5-6 : Very Poor : Poor : Self : Good No= 0

Comprehension Exercise and Evaluation Answer the wuestins below wih the right answer!

1. The factors that determine whether a person's food substances? Explain! 2. Make a concept map process of carbohydrate metabolism in the human body! 3. Why different structure of the human digestive organs with farm animals? 4. How can I avoid damage to materials while cooking food? 5. Explain there a cultural influence on the type of food in a society?

RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN (RPP)

SISTEM PENCERNAAN
Disusun untuk memenuhi tugas mata kuliah Mikroteaching

Disusun Oleh :

Heru Susilo 4401408098

JURUSAN BIOLOGI FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM UNIVERSITAS NEGERI SEMARANG 2011