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# Bubble sort is a simple sorting algorithm.

It works by repeatedly stepping through the list to be sorted, comparing two items at a time and swapping them if they are in the wrong order. The pass through the list is repeated until no swaps are needed, which indicates that the list is sorted. The algorithm gets its name from the way smaller elements "bubble" to the top of the list. Because it only uses comparisons to operate on elements, it is a comparison sort. Step-by-step example
Let us take the array of numbers "5 1 4 2 8", and sort the array from lowest number to greatest number using bubble sort algorithm. In each step, elements written in bold are being compared. First Pass: ( 1 5 4 2 8 ) Here, algorithm compares the first two elements, and swaps them. (51428) (15428) (14528) (14528) (14258) (14258) ( 1 4 2 5 8 ) Now, since these elements are already in order, algorithm does not swap them. Second Pass: (14258) (14258) (12458) (14258) (12458) (12458) (12458) (12458) Now, the array is already sorted, but our algorithm does not know if it is completed. Algorithm needs one whole pass without any swap to know it is sorted. Third Pass: (12458) (12458) (12458) (12458) (12458) (12458) (12458) (12458) Finally, the array is sorted, and the algorithm can terminate...

Selection sort is a simple sorting algorithm that improves on the performance of bubble sort. It works by first finding the smallest element using a linear scan and swapping it into the first position in the list, then finding the second smallest element by scanning the remaining elements, and so on. Selection sort is unique compared to almost any other algorithm in that its running time is not affected by the prior ordering of the list: it performs the same number of operations because of its simple structure. Selection sort requires (n - 1) swaps and hence (n) memory writes. However, Selection sort requires (n - 1) + (n - 2) + ... + 2 + 1 = n(n - 1) / 2 = (n2) comparisons. Thus it can be very attractive if writes are the most expensive operation, but otherwise selection sort will usually be outperformed by insertion sort or the more complicated algorithms. Insertion sort is a simple sorting algorithm that is relatively efficient for small lists and mostly-sorted lists, and often is used as part of more sophisticated algorithms. It works by taking elements from the list one by one and inserting them in their correct position into a new sorted list. In arrays, the new list and the remaining elements can share the array's space, but insertion is expensive, requiring shifting all following elements over by one. The insertion sort works just like its name suggests - it inserts each item into its proper place in the final list. The simplest implementation of this requires two list structures - the source list and the list into which sorted items are inserted. To save memory, most implementations use an in-place sort that works by moving the current item past the already sorted items and repeatedly swapping it with the preceding item until it is in place.

Sorting is typically done in-place. The resulting array after k iterations contains the first k entries of the input array and is sorted. In each step, the first remaining entry of the input is removed, inserted into the result at the right position, thus extending the result:

becomes:

with each element > x copied to the right as it is compared against x. A binary search algorithm (or binary chop) is a technique for finding a particular value in a sorted list. It makes progressively better guesses, and closes in on the sought value by selecting the median element in a list, comparing its value to the target value, and determining if the selected value is greater than, less than, or equal to the target value. A guess that turns out to be too high becomes the new top of the list, and a guess that is too low becomes the new bottom of the list. Pursuing this strategy iteratively, it narrows the search by a factor of two each time, and finds the target value. Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses "objects" and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. It is based on several techniques, including encapsulation, modularity, polymorphism, and inheritance. It was not commonly used in mainstream software application development until the early 1990s. Many modern programming languages now support OOP Continuous function is a function for which, intuitively, small changes in the input result in small changes in the output. Otherwise, a function is said to be discontinuous. A continuous function with a continuous inverse function is called bicontinuous. An intuitive though imprecise (and inexact) idea of continuity is given by the common statement that a continuous function is a function whose graph can be drawn without lifting the chalk from the blackboard. if M(t) denotes the amount of money in a bank account at time t, then the function jumps whenever money is deposited or withdrawn, so the function M(t) is discontinuous. the standard deviation of a probability distribution, random variable, or population or multiset of values is a measure of the spread of its values. The standard deviation is usually denoted with the letter (lower case sigma). It is defined as the square root of the variance. The standard deviation is the most common measure of statistical dispersion, measuring how widely spread the values in a data set are. If many data points are close to the mean, then the standard deviation is small; if many data points are far from the mean, then the standard deviation is large. If all the data values are equal, then the standard deviation is zero.

normal distribution, also called the Gaussian distribution, is an important family of continuous probability distributions, applicable in many fields. Each member of the family may be defined by two parameters, location and scale: the mean ("average", ) and variance (standard deviation squared) 2, respectively. The standard normal distribution is the normal distribution with a mean of zero and a variance of one. correlation, (often measured as a correlation coefficient) , indicates the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two random variables.

Isotopes are any of the different forms of an element each having different atomic mass (mass number). Isotopes of an element have nuclei with the same number of protons (the same atomic number) but different numbers of neutrons. Therefore, isotopes have different mass numbers, which give the total number of nucleonsthe number of protons plus neutrons. (Uranium-235 Uranium-238) LASER is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. A typical laser emits light in a narrow, low-divergence monochromatic (singlecoloured, if the laser is operating in the visible spectrum), beam with a well-defined wavelength. In this way, laser light is in contrast to a light source such as the incandescent light bulb, which emits light over a wide area and over a wide spectrum of wavelengths. Laser consists of a gain medium inside a highly reflective optical cavity, as well as a means to supply energy to the gain medium. The gain medium is a material (gas, liquid, solid or free electrons) with appropriate optical properties. In its simplest form, a cavity consists of two mirrors arranged such that light bounces back and forth, each time passing through the gain medium. Typically, one of the two mirrors, the output coupler, is partially transparent. The output laser beam is emitted through this mirror. Light of a specific wavelength that passes through the gain medium is amplified; the surrounding mirrors ensure that most of the light makes many passes through the gain medium, stimulating the gain material continuously. Part of the light that is between the mirrors, passes through the partially transparent mirror and escapes as a beam of light. The process of supplying the energy required for the amplification is called pumping. The energy is typically supplied as an electrical current or as light at a different wavelength. A typical pump source is a flash lamp or perhaps another laser. Most practical lasers contain additional elements that affect properties such as the wavelength of the emitted light and the shape of the beam. Zeroth law of thermodynamics If two thermodynamic systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. First law of thermodynamics for a thermodynamic cycle the sum of net heat supplied to the system and the net work done by the system is equal to zero.( energy cannot be created or destroyed)

Second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal law of increasing entropy, stating that the entropy of an isolated system which is not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium. (In an isolated system, a process can occur only if it increases the total entropy of the system.) Third law of thermodynamics As a system approaches absolute zero, all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value. It can be concluded as 'If T=0K, then S=0' where T is the temperature of a closed system and S is the entropy of the system. Newton's laws of motion First law: law of inertia "An object will stay at rest or continue at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force". Second law: the net force on a particle is proportional to the time rate of change of its linear momentum: F = d[mv] / dt. Momentum is the product of mass and velocity. When the mass is constant, this law is often stated as F = ma (the net force on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration). Third law: "Every action has an equal and opposite reaction". Calorie is a unit heat: the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a gram of water by 1 C (from 14.5 C to 15.5 C) One joule is the work done, or energy expended, by a force of one newton moving one meter along the direction of the force. This quantity is also denoted as a newton metre with the symbol Nm. Cache Memory: A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. The cache is a smaller, faster memory which stores copies of the data from the most frequently used main memory locations. As long as most memory accesses are to cached memory locations, the average latency of memory accesses will be closer to the cache latency than to the latency of main memory. What do you mean by engineering? Most simply, the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and the convenience of people. The application of scientific and mathematical principles to practical ends such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and economical structures, machines, processes, and systems. What do you mean by telecommunication The science and technology of communication at a distance by electronic transmission What is electronics? elctron+dynamics is electronics,means this is a study of the behaviour(dynamic) of electrons in semi conductors. What is electrical?

Any thing Related to or associated with electricity. What is the difference between the terms Electrical and Electronics? Electrical relates to the development and delivery of the electrical energy to the various devices that perform specific functions in a given environment. Example: The alternator in your car that series of wires delivers electrical power / energy to various components (radio, the computer that monitors / controls operation of the engine) in todays cars. Where as "Electronics" relates more to the complex functions performed within a given device, more often now days by circuits comprised of many micro electronic sub components that make up the structure of a single micro electronic component. Example: a typical CPU chip would / could contain thousands of individual transistor circuits within a device no bigger that the size of your small finger nail with room to spare. In Electronics we deal with voltages upto 20 volts and in electrical we have voltages 110+, electronics uses DC only. AC motor An AC motor consists of two basic parts: * An outside stationary stator having coils supplied with AC current to produce a rotating magnetic field, and; * An inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field. There are two types of AC motors, depending on the type of rotor used: * The synchronous motor, which rotates exactly at the supply frequency or a submultiple of the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor is either due to current transported with slip rings or a permanent magnet. * The induction motor, which turns slightly slower than the supply frequency. The magnetic field on the rotor of this motor is created by an induced current. Three-phase AC induction motors the three-phase (or polyphase) AC induction motor is commonly used especially for higher-powered motors. The phase differences between the three phases of the polyphase electrical supply create a rotating electromagnetic field in the motor. Through electromagnetic induction, the rotating magnetic field induces a current in the conductors in the rotor, which in turn sets up a counterbalancing magnetic field that causes the rotor to turn in the direction the field is rotating. The rotor must always rotate slower than the rotating magnetic field produced by the polyphase electrical supply; otherwise, no counterbalancing field will be produced in the rotor tough, the motor continuously tries to reach the speed of the rotating magnetic field. There are two types of rotors used in induction motors: squirrel cage rotors and wound rotors. Three-phase AC synchronous motors If connections to the rotor coils of a three-phase motor are taken out on slip-rings and fed a separate field current to create a continuous magnetic field (or if the rotor consists of a permanent magnet), the result is called a synchronous motor because the rotor will rotate in synchronism with the rotating magnetic field produced by the polyphase electrical supply.

Single-phase AC induction motors Three-phase motors inherently produce a rotating magnetic field. However, when only single-phase power is available, the rotating magnetic field must be produced using other means. Several methods are commonly used: Shaded-pole motor: A common single-phase motor is the shaded-pole motor, which is used in devices requiring low starting torque, such as electric fans. In this motor, small single-turn copper "shading coils" create the moving magnetic field. Part of each pole is encircled by a copper coil or strap; the induced current in the strap opposes the change of flux through the coil (Lenz's Law), so that the maximum field intensity moves across the pole face on each cycle, thus producing a low level rotating magnetic field which is large enough to turn both the rotor and its attached load. As the rotor accelerates the torque builds up to its full level as the principal (rotationally stationary) magnetic field is rotating relative to the rotating rotor. Such motors are difficult to reverse without significant internal alterations. Split-phase induction motor: Another common single-phase AC motor is the splitphase induction motor, commonly used in major appliances such as washing machines and clothes dryers. Compared to the shaded pole motor, these motors can generally provide much greater starting torque by using a special startup winding in conjunction with a centrifugal switch. In the split-phase motor, the startup winding is designed with a higher resistance than the running winding. This creates an LR circuit which slightly shifts the phase of the current in the startup winding. When the motor is starting, the startup winding is connected to the power source via a set of spring-loaded contacts pressed upon by the not-yet-rotating centrifugal switch. The starting winding is wound with fewer turns of smaller wire than the main winding, so it has a lower inductance (L) and higher resistance (R). The lower L/R ratio creates a small phase shift, not more than about 30 degrees, between the flux due to the main winding and the flux of the starting winding. The starting direction of rotation may be reversed simply by exchanging the connections of the startup winding relative to the running winding.. The phase of the magnetic field in this startup winding is shifted from the phase of the mains power, allowing the creation of a moving magnetic field which starts the motor. Once the motor reaches near design operating speed, the centrifugal switch activates, opening the contacts and disconnecting the startup winding from the power source. The motor then operates solely on the running winding. The starting winding must be disconnected since it would increase the losses in the motor. Capacitor start motor: In a capacitor start motor, a starting capacitor is inserted in series with the startup winding, creating an LC circuit which is capable of a much greater phase shift (and so, a much greater starting torque). The capacitor naturally adds expense to such motors. Permanent split-capacitor motor: Another variation is the Permanent Split-Capacitor (PSC) motor (also known as a capacitor start and run motor). This motor operates similarly to the capacitor-start motor described above, but there is no centrifugal starting switch and the second winding is permanently connected to the power source. PSC motors are frequently used in air handlers, fans, and blowers and other cases where a variable speed is desired. By changing taps on the running winding but keeping the load constant, the motor can be made to run at different speeds. Also provided all 6 winding connections are available separately, a 3 phase motor can be converted to a capacitor start and run motor by commoning two of the windings and connecting the third via a capacitor to act as a start winding.

DC Motor When a current passes through the coil wound around a soft iron core, the side of the positive pole is acted upon by an upwards force, while the other side is acted upon by a downward force. According to Fleming's left hand rule, the forces cause a turning effect on the coil, making it rotate. To make the motor rotate in a constant direction, "direct current" commutators make the current reverse in direction every half a cycle thus causing the motor to rotate in the same direction. If the shaft of a DC motor is turned by an external force, the motor will act like a generator and produce an Electromotive force (EMF). During normal operation, the spinning of the motor produces a voltage, known as the counter-EMF (CEMF) or back EMF, because it opposes the applied voltage on the motor. This is the same EMF that is produced when the motor is used as a generator (for example when an electrical load (resistance) is placed across the terminals of the motor and the motor shaft is driven with an external torque). Therefore, the total voltage drop across a motor consists of the CEMF voltage drop, and the parasitic voltage drop resulting from the internal resistance of the armature's windings The counter-emf aids the armature resistance to limit the current through the armature. When power is first applied to a motor, the armature does not rotate. At that instant the counter-emf is zero and the only factor limiting the armature current, is the armature resistance. Usually the armature resistance of a motor is less than one ohm; therefore the current through the armature would be very large when the power is applied. This current can make an excessive voltage drop affecting other equipment in the circuit and even trip overload protective devices. Therefore the need arises for an additional resistance in series with the armature to limit the current until the motor rotation can build up the counter-emf. As the motor rotation builds up, the resistance is gradually cut out. Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL):At any point in an electrical circuit where charge density is not changing in time, the sum of currents flowing towards that point is equal to the sum of currents flowing away from that point. Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL):The directed sum of the electrical potential differences around a closed circuit must be zero. Ohm's law states that in an electrical circuit, the current passing through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference (i.e. voltage drop or voltage) across the two points, and the constant of proportionality is known as resistance. Why is ac transmission preferred over dc transmission? Direct current (DC) is not in use in any power grid globally. This is because DC is too expensive to deliver over long distances. DC drops in power over distance, hence not suitable for power grids. Alternating current (AC) on the other hand is very efficient for long distances and does not drop in power like the way DC does. Also, you can step up or step down the voltage with AC current which you can't really do so with DC and its naturally produced by generators DC is used for small appliances and where safety is required. No one really gets electricuted on DC current.

So why is DC used? Its easy to produce at small levels using batteries, thus preferable in small devices. Also all digital circuits work on DC DIODE The directionality of current flow most diodes possess is sometimes generically called the rectifying property. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to flow in one direction (called the forward biased condition) and to block it in the opposite direction (the reverse biased condition). V-I, characteristic curve is related to the transport of carriers through the socalled depletion layer or depletion region that exists at the p-n junction between differing semiconductors. When a p-n junction is first created, conduction band (mobile) electrons from the N-doped region diffuse into the P-doped region where there is a large population of holes (places for electrons in which no electron is present) with which the electrons recombine. When a mobile electron recombines with a hole, both hole and electron vanish, leaving behind an immobile positively charged donor on the N-side and negatively charged acceptor on the P-side. The region around the p-n junction becomes depleted of charge carriers and thus behaves as an insulator. However, the depletion width cannot grow without limit. For each electronhole pair that recombines, a positively-charged dopant ion is left behind in the Ndoped region, and a negatively charged dopant ion is left behind in the P-doped region. As recombination proceeds and more ions are created, an increasing electric field develops through the depletion zone which acts to slow and then finally stop recombination. At this point, there is a built-in potential across the depletion zone. If an external voltage is placed across the diode with the same polarity as the built-in potential, the depletion zone continues to act as an insulator preventing a significant electric current. This is the reverse bias phenomenon. However, if the polarity of the external voltage opposes the built-in potential, recombination can once again proceed resulting in substantial electric current through the p-n junction. For silicon diodes, the built-in potential is approximately 0.6 V. Thus, if an external current is passed through the diode, about 0.6 V will be developed across the diode such that the Pdoped region is positive with respect to the N-doped region and the diode is said to be turned on as it has a forward bias.

IV characteristics of a P-N junction diode (not to scale). A diodes IV characteristic can be approximated by four regions of operation (see the figure at right). At very large reverse bias, beyond the peak inverse voltage or PIV, a process called reverse breakdown occurs which causes a large increase in current that usually damages the device permanently. The avalanche diode is deliberately designed for use in the avalanche region. In the Zener diode, the concept of PIV is not applicable. A Zener diode contains a heavily doped p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material, such that the reverse voltage is clamped to a known value (called the Zener voltage), and avalanche does not occur. Both devices, however, do have a limit to the maximum current and power in the clamped reverse voltage region. The second region, at reverse biases more positive than the PIV, only a very small reverse saturation current flows. In the reverse bias region for a normal P-N rectifier diode, the current through the device is very low (in the A range). The third region is forward but small bias, where only a small forward current is conducted. As the potential difference is increased above an arbitrarily defined cut-in voltage or on-voltage, the diode current becomes appreciable (the level of current considered appreciable and the value of cut-in voltage depends on the application), and the diode presents a very low resistance. The currentvoltage curve is exponential. In a normal silicon diode at rated currents, the arbitrary 'cut-in' voltage is defined as 0.6 to 0.7 volts. The value is different for other diode types Schottky diodes can be as low as 0.2 V and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can be 1.4 V or more and blue LEDs can be up to 4.0 V. At higher currents the forward voltage drop of the diode increases. A drop of 1v to 1.5v is typical at full rated current for power diodes. Over-voltage protection: Diodes are frequently used to conduct damaging high voltages away from sensitive electronic devices. They are usually reverse-biased (non-conducting) under normal circumstances. When the voltage rises above the normal range, the diodes become forward-biased (conducting). For example, diodes are used in motor controller and relay circuits to de-energize coils rapidly without the

damaging voltage spikes that would otherwise occur. (Any diode used in such an application is called a flyback diode). Many integrated circuits also incorporate diodes on the connection pins to prevent external voltages from damaging their sensitive transistors. Specialized diodes are used to protect from over-voltages at higher power. Transistor: Transistor. This is an abbreviated combination of the words "transconductance" or "transfer", and "varistor". A transistor is a semiconductor device, commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals. Modern transistors are divided into two main categories: bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Application of current in BJTs and voltage in FETs between the input and common terminals increases the conductivity between the common and output terminals, thereby controlling current flow between them. The transistor characteristics depend on their type. Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) was the first type of transistor to be massproduced. Bipolar transistors are so named because they conduct by using both majority and minority carriers. The three terminals of the BJT are named emitter, base and collector. Two p-n junctions exist inside a BJT: the base/emitter junction and base/collector junction. "The [BJT] is useful in amplifiers because the currents at the emitter and collector are controllable by the relatively small base current." In an NPN transistor operating in the active region, the emitter-base junction is forward biased, and electrons are injected into the base region. Because the base is narrow, most of these electrons will diffuse into the reverse-biased base-collector junction and be swept into the collector; perhaps one-hundredth of the electrons will recombine in the base, which is the dominant mechanism in the base current. By controlling the number of electrons that can leave the base, the number of electrons entering the collector can be controlled Unlike the FET, the BJT is a lowinput-impedance device. Also, as the base emitter voltage (Vbe) is increased the baseemitter current and hence the collector emitter current (Ice) increase exponentially according to the Shockley diode model and the Ebers-Moll model. Because of this exponential relationship, the BJT has a higher transconductance than the FET. Bipolar transistors can be made to conduct by exposure to light, since absorption of photons in the base region generates a photocurrent that acts as a base current; the collector current is approximately beta times the photocurrent. Devices designed for this purpose have a transparent window in the package and are called phototransistors. Silicon-controlled rectifier (Thyristor)(or semiconductor-controlled rectifier) is a 4layer solid state device that controls current flow.

An SCR (left) can be thought of as two BJT transistors working together (right).

An SCR can be seen as a conventional rectifier controlled by a logic gate signal. It is a 4-layered, 3-terminal device. A p-type layer acts as an anode and an n-type layer as a cathode; the p-type layer closer to the n-type(cathode) acts as a gate. In the normal "off" state, the device restricts current flow to the leakage current. When the gate to cathode voltage exceeds a certain threshold, the device turns "on" and conducts current. The device will remain in the "on" state even after gate current is removed so long as current through the device remains above the holding current. Once current falls below the holding current for an appropriate period of time, the device will switch off. If the applied voltage increases rapidly enough, capacitive coupling may induce enough charge into the gate to trigger the device into the "on" state; this is referred to as "dv/dt triggering." This is usually prevented by limiting the rate of voltage rise across the device. "dv/dt triggering" may not switch the SCR into full conduction rapidly and the partially-triggered SCR may dissipate more power than is usual, possibly harming the device. SCRs can also be triggered by increasing the forward voltage beyond their rated breakdown voltage (also called as breakover voltage), but again, this does not rapidly switch the entire device into conduction and so may be harmful so this mode of operation is also usually avoided.

SCRs are used in power switching, phase control, chopper, battery chargers, and inverter circuits. Industrially they are applied to produce variable DC voltages for motors (from a few to several thousand HP) from AC line voltage. Two SCRs in "inverse parallel" are often used in place of a TRIAC for switching inductive loads on AC circuits. Because each SCR only conducts for half of the power cycle and is reverse-biased for the other half-cycle, turn-off of the SCRs is assured. By comparison, the TRIAC is capable of conducting current in both directions and assuring that it switches off during the brief zero-crossing of current flow can be difficult. Doping refers to the process of intentionally introducing impurities into an extremely pure (also referred to as intrinsic) semiconductor in order to change its electrical properties. The impurities are dependent upon the type of semiconductor. Lightly and moderately doped semiconductors are referred to as extrinsic. A semiconductor which is doped to such high levels that it acts more like a conductor than a semiconductor is called degenerate. Where many more are added (of the order of 1 in 10,000) then the

doping is referred to as heavy, or high. This is often shown as n+ for n-type dopant or p+ for p-type doping. By doping pure silicon with group V elements such as phosphorus, extra valence electrons are added which become unbonded from individual atoms and allow the compound to be electrically conductive, n-type semiconductor. Doping with group III elements, such as boron, which are missing the fourth valence electron creates "broken bonds", or holes, in the silicon lattice that are free to move. This is electrically conductive, p-type semiconductor. In this context then, a group V element is said to behave as an electron donor, and a group III element as an acceptor. What is power electronics? Power electronics is the technology associated with the efficient conversion, control and conditioning of electric power by static means from its available input form into the desired electrical output form.( modify voltage, current or frequency) What is modulation? modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, in order to use that signal to convey a message. Normally a high-frequency sinusoid waveform is used as carrier signal. The three key parameters of a sine wave are its amplitude ("volume"), its phase ("timing") and its frequency ("pitch"), all of which can be modified in accordance with a low frequency information signal to obtain the modulated signal. A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device that performs the inverse operation of modulation is known as a demodulator (sometimes detector or demod). A device that can do both operations is a modem (short for "MOdulate-DEModulate")). Analog and digital modulation facilitate frequency division multiplex (FDM), where several low pass information signals are transferred simultaneously over the same shared physical medium, using separate bandpass channels. What is a Cyclotron? A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator. Cyclotrons accelerate charged particles using a high-frequency, alternating voltage (potential difference). A perpendicular magnetic field causes the particles to spiral almost in a circle so that they re-encounter the accelerating voltage many times. In the cyclotron, a high-frequency alternating voltage applied across the "D" electrodes (also called "dees") alternately attracts and repels charged particles. The particles, injected near the center of the magnetic field, accelerate only when passing through the gap between the electrodes. The perpendicular magnetic field (passing vertically through the "D" electrodes), combined with the increasing energy of the particles forces the particles to travel in a spiral path. With no change in energy the charged particles in a magnetic field will follow a circular path. In the Cyclotron, energy is applied to the particles as they cross the gap between the dees and so they are accelerated (at the typical sub-relativistic speeds used) and will increase in mass as they approach the speed of light. Either of these effects (increased velocity or increased mass) will increase the radius of the circle and so the path will be a spiral.

control system is a device or set of devices to manage, command, direct or regulate the behaviour of other devices or systems. Microprocessor: A device that integrates the functions of the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer onto one semiconductor chip or integrated circuit (IC). In essence, the microprocessor contains the core elements of a computer system, its computation and control engine. Only a power supply, memory, peripheral interface ICs, and peripherals (typically input/output and storage devices) need be added to build a complete computer system. A microprocessor consists of multiple internal function units. A basic design has an arithmetic logic unit, a control unit, a memory interface, an interrupt or exception controller, and an internal cache. Microcontroller (also MCU or C) is a computer-on-a-chip. It is a type of microprocessor emphasizing high integration, low power consumption, selfsufficiency and cost-effectiveness, in contrast to a general-purpose microprocessor (the kind used in a PC). In addition to the usual arithmetic and logic elements of a general purpose microprocessor, the microcontroller typically integrates additional elements such as read-write memory for data storage, read-only memory, such as flash for code storage, EEPROM for permanent data storage, peripheral devices, and input/output interfaces. Digital electronics are electronics systems that use digital signals. Digital electronics are representations of Boolean algebra and are used in computers, mobile phones, and other consumer products. Digital electronics or any digital circuit are usually made from large assemblies of logic gates, simple electronic representations of Boolean logic functions. Advantages:

* Digital systems interface well with computers and are easy to control with software. New features can often be added to a digital system without changing hardware. * Information storage can be easier in digital systems than in analog ones. The noise-immunity of digital systems permit data to be stored and retrieved without degradation. In an analog system, noise from aging and wear degrade the information stored. In a digital system, as long as the total noise is below a certain level, the information can be recovered perfectly. * Robustness: Digital electronics are robust because if the noise is less than the noise margin then the system performs as if there were no noise at all. Therefore, digital signals can be regenerated to achieve lossless data transmission, within certain limits. Analog signal transmission and processing, by contrast, always introduces noise. Disadvantages: * In some cases, digital circuits use more energy than analog circuits to accomplish the same tasks, thus producing more heat as well. In portable or battery-powered systems this can limit use of digital systems. * Digital circuits are sometimes more expensive, especially in small quantities. * The sensed world is analog, and signals from this world are analog quantities. Most useful digital systems must translate from continuous analog signals to discrete digital signals. This causes quantization errors. * Fragility-Digital systems can be fragile, in that if a single piece of digital data is lost or misinterpreted, the meaning of large blocks of related data can completely change. Digital fragility can be reduced by designing a digital system for robustness. For example, a parity bit or other error management method can be inserted into the signal path. Multiplexing: Transmitting multiple signals over a single communications line or computer channel. The two common multiplexing techniques are FDM, which separates signals by modulating the data onto different carrier frequencies, and TDM, which separates signals by interleaving bits one after the other. Logic gate performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. Because the output is also a logic-level value, an output of one logic gate can connect to the input of one or more other logic gates. The logic normally performed is Boolean logic and is most commonly found in digital circuits. Logic gates are primarily implemented electronically using diodes or transistors. Fanout is a measure of the ability of a logic gate output, implemented electronically, to drive a number of inputs of other logic gates of the same type. In most designs, logic gates are connected together to form more complex circuits, and it is common for one logic gate output to be connected to several logic gate inputs. The technology used to implement logic gates usually allows gate inputs to be wired directly together with no additional interfacing circuitry required. AND Gate: A HIGH output (1) results only if both the inputs to the AND gate are HIGH (1). If neither or only one input to the AND gate is HIGH, a LOW output results. Equation:- C = A . B

AND Symbol

AND Gate Constructed Using Only NAND Gates OR Gate: A HIGH output (1) results if one or both the inputs to the gate are HIGH (1). If neither input is HIGH, a LOW output (0) results.

'Military' OR Symbol

OR Gate Constructed Using Only NAND Gates NOT Gate: A HIGH output (1) results if the inputs is LOW (0). If the input is HIGH (1), a LOW output (0) results.

'Military' NOT symbol NAND operation: is a logical operation on two logical values, that produces a value of false if and only if both of its operands are true. In other words, it produces a value of true if and only if at least one of its operands is false. It is one of the two sole sufficient operators or functionally complete binary operators which can be used to express all of the boolean functions of propositional logic. This property makes the NAND gate crucial to modern digital electronics, including its use in NAND flash memory and computer processor design. One way of expressing p NAND q is as . NOR Gate: A HIGH output (1) results if both the inputs to the gate are LOW (0). If one or both input is HIGH (1), a LOW output (0) results. NOR is the result of the negation of the OR operator, thus forming a complete operation the combination of which can be combined to generate any other logical function. By contrast, the OR operator is monotonic as it can only change LOW to HIGH but not vice versa. XOR Gate: A HIGH output (1) results if one, and only one, of the inputs to the gate is HIGH (1). If both inputs are LOW (0) or both are HIGH (1), a LOW output (0) results. This function is addition modulo 2. As a result, XOR gates are used to implement binary addition in computers. A half adder consists of an XOR gate and an AND gate.

## 'Military' XOR Symbol

XOR gate constructed using only NAND gates The XOR operation is a binary operation and is therefore defined only for two inputs. It is nevertheless common in electronic design to talk of "XORing" three or more signals. The most common interpretation of this usage is that the first two signals are fed into an XOR gate, then the output of that gate is fed into a second XOR gate together with the third signal, and so on for any remaining signals. The result is a circuit that outputs a 1 when the number of 1s at its inputs is odd, and a 0 when the number of incoming 1s is even. This makes it practically useful as a parity generator. Adder: an adder or summer is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. A half adder has two inputs, generally labelled A and B, and two outputs, the sum S and carry C. S is the two-bit XOR of A and B, and C is the AND of A and B. Essentially the output of a half adder is the sum of two one-bit numbers, with C being the most significant of these two outputs.

Half adder circuit diagram The full adder takes into account a carry input such that multiple adders can be used to add larger numbers. To remove ambiguity between the input and output carry lines, the carry in is labelled Ci or Cin while the carry out is labelled Co or Cout.

Full adder circuit diagram A full adder can be constructed from two half adders by connecting A and B to the input of one half adder, connecting the sum from that to an input to the second adder, connecting Ci to the other input and OR the two carry outputs When multiple full adders are used with the carry ins and carry outs chained together then this is called a ripple carry adder because the correct value of the carry bit ripples from one bit to the next. It is possible to create a logical circuit using several

full adders to add multiple-bit numbers. Each full adder inputs a Cin, which is the Cout of the previous adder. This kind of adder is a ripple carry adder, since each carry bit "ripples" to the next full adder.

FLIP FLOP :is a kind of bistable multivibrator, an electronic circuit which has two stable states and thereby is capable of serving as one bit of memory. Today, the term flip-flop has come to generally denote non-transparent (clocked or edge-triggered) devices, while the simpler transparent ones are often referred to as latches. A flip-flop is controlled by (usually) one or two control signals and/or a gate or clock signal. The output often includes the complement as well as the normal output. A latch is transparent (not clocked) so that the input goes to output immediately whereas a FF is non transparent (clocked). Clocked devices are specially designed for synchronous (time-discrete) systems and therefore one such device ignores its inputs except at the transition of a dedicated clock signal (known as clocking, pulsing, or strobing). This causes the flipflop to either change or retain its output signal based upon the values of the input signals at the transition. Some flip-flops change output on the rising edge of the clock, others on the falling edge. the SR ("set-reset"), D ("delay"), T ("toggle"), and JK types are the common ones SR: Normally, in storage mode, the S and R inputs are both low, and feedback maintains the Q and Q outputs in a constant state, with Q the complement of Q. If S (Set) is pulsed high while R is held low, then the Q output is forced high, and stays high when S returns low; similarly, if R (Reset) is pulsed high while S is held low, then the Q output is forced low, and stays low when R returns low SR latch operation SR Action 00 Keep state 01 Q=0 10 Q=1 1 1 Restricted combination A gated SR latch circuit diagram constructed from NAND gates. The R = S = 1 combination is called a restricted combination because, as both NOR gates then output zeros, it breaks the logical equation Q = not Q. With E high (enable true), the signals can pass through the input gates to the encapsulated latch; all signal combinations except for (0,0) = hold then immediately reproduce on the (Q,Q) output, i.e. the latch is transparent.With E low (enable false) the latch is closed and remains in the state it was left the last time E was high..

JK: The JK flip-flop augments the behavior of the SR flip-flop by interpreting the S = R = 1 condition as a "flip" or toggle command To synthesize a D flip-flop, simply set K equal to the complement of J. The JK flip-flop is therefore a universal flip-flop, because it can be configured to work as an SR flip-flop, a D flip-flop or a T flip-flop. JK Flip-Flop truth table J K Qnext Comment 0 0 Qprev No change 01 0 Reset 10 1 Set 1 1 Qprev Toggle

T flip-flops: If the T input is high, the T flip-flop changes state ("toggles") whenever the clock input is strobed. If the T input is low, the flip-flop holds the previous value T Q Qnext Comment 0 0 0 hold state(no clk) 0 1 1 hold state(no clk) 1 0 1 toggle 1 1 0 toggle D: The Q output always takes on the state of the D input at the moment of a rising clock edge, and never at any other time. It is called the D flip-flop for this reason, since the output takes the value of the D input or Data input, and Delays it by one clock count. The D flip-flop can be interpreted as a primitive memory cell, zero-order hold, or delay line. Clock D Q Qprev Rising edge 0 0 X Rising edge 1 1 X Non-Rising X constant ('X' denotes a Don't care condition, meaning the signal is irrelevant) Race condition or race hazard is a flaw in a system or process whereby the output and/or result of the process is unexpectedly and critically dependent on the sequence or timing of other events. The term originates with the idea of two signals racing each other to influence the output first. Avoided using master slave flip flops or using edge triggered circuits. Master Slave Flip Flop: consists of two JK flip flop connected in series. The clocks to the two are mutually inverted and the feedback of output that comes back to the input comes from the output of the second FF to the input of first What is the principle of a microwave oven? A microwave oven works by passing non-ionizing microwave radiation, usually at a frequency of 2.45 GHz, through the food. Microwave radiation is between common radio and infrared frequencies. Water, fat, and other substances in the food absorb energy from the microwaves in a process called dielectric heating. Many molecules (such as those of water) are electric dipoles, meaning that they have a positive charge

at one end and a negative charge at the other, and therefore rotate as they try to align themselves with the alternating electric field of the microwaves. This molecular movement creates heat as the rotating molecules hit other molecules and put them into motion. Microwave heating is most efficient on liquid water, and much less so on fats and sugars (which have less molecular dipole moment), and frozen water (where the molecules are not free to rotate). The frequencies used in microwave ovens were chosen based on two constraints. The first is that that they should be in one of the ISM bands set aside for non-communication purposes. Three additional ISM bands exist in the microwave frequencies, but are not used for microwave cooking. Two of them are centered on 5.8 GHz and 24.125 GHz, but are not used for microwave cooking because of the very high cost of power generation at these frequencies. The third, centered on 433.92 MHz, is a narrow band that would require expensive equipment to generate sufficient power without creating interference outside the band, and is only available in some countries. For household purposes, 2.45 GHz has the advantage over 915 MHz in that 915 MHz is not an ISM band in all countries while 2.45 GHz is available worldwide. Most microwave ovens allow the user to choose between several power levels. In most ovens, however, there is no change in the intensity of the microwave radiation; instead, the magnetron is turned on and off in cycles of several seconds at a time. Solenoid refers to a loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a magnetic field when an electrical current is passed through it. Solenoids are important because they can create controlled magnetic fields and can be used as electromagnets.

Magnetic field created by a solenoid What is the difference between conductors and insulators? Current is the rate of flow of charges. More free electron means more current in conductor. Conductor means element that allows electrons to follow through them easily. Insulator means element that does not allow electrons to flow at all. Conductor like copper atom; has free electrons that flow easily within the conductor. On the other hand insulators like rubber; does not have any free elctrons. That's why insulators are poor conductor of electricity. Dielectrics are also insulators but they have a dipole structure, because of which they do not conduct electricity but when placed in an electric field, the molecules orient themselves accordingly so as to allow conduction of electric field. Interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware indicating the need for attention or a synchronous event in software indicating the need for a change in execution. A hardware interrupt causes the processor to save its state of execution via a context switch, and begin execution of an interrupt handler. Software interrupts are usually implemented as instructions in the instruction set, which cause a context switch to an interrupt handler similar to a hardware interrupt. Interrupts are a commonly used technique for computer multitasking, especially in real-time computing

flash drives for general storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital products. It is a specific type of EEPROM that is erased and programmed in large blocks; in early flash the entire chip had to be erased at once. Flash memory costs far less than byte-programmable EEPROM and therefore has become the dominant technology wherever a significant amount of non-volatile, solid-state storage is needed. Flash memory is non-volatile, which means that it does not need power to maintain the information stored in the chip. In addition, flash memory offers fast read access times and better kinetic shock resistance than hard disks. Another feature of flash memory is that when packaged in a "memory card", it is enormously durable, being able to withstand intense pressure, extremes of temperature, and immersion in water. What is the difference between ic and pcb? An integrated circuit (IC) is an electronic circuit miniaturized to fit on a small piece of semiconductor material such as silicon. This piece of silicon is encased inside a hermetically sealed plastic, metal, or ceramic package that prevents it being damaged from dust, moisture, and contact with other objects. The package also serves to allow easier connections to a printed circuit board (PCB). The chip inside the IC package is so small that connecting it directly to a PCB would be difficult. The purpose of a PCB is to connect ICs and discreet components together to form larger operational curcuits. PCBs may also allow parts to be mounted to them such as card sockets. They are sometimes used as heat sinks for components that generate heat. This is done by making a large copper area then mating the component to the PCB so that it touches the copper area and transfers heat to it. Before PCBs, components were connected together with wires, in a scheme called "point-to-point" wiring. It was messy and unreliable when compared to PCBs. Multivibrator is an electronic circuit used to implement a variety of simple two-state systems such as oscillators, timers and flip-flops. The most common form is the astable or oscillating type, which generates a square wave - the high level of harmonics in its output is what gives the multivibrator its common name.There are three types of multivibrator circuit: * astable, in which the circuit is not stable in either state - it continuously oscillates from one state to the other. * monostable, in which one of the states is stable, but the other is not - the circuit will flip into the unstable state for a determined period, but will eventually return to the stable state. Such a circuit is useful for creating a timing period of fixed duration in response to some external event. This circuit is also known as a one shot. A common application is in eliminating switch bounce. * bistable, in which the circuit will remain in either state indefinitely. The circuit can be flipped from one state to the other by an external event or trigger. Such a circuit is important as the fundamental building block of a register or memory device. This circuit is also known as a flip-flop. Nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple atomic particles join together to form a heavier nucleus. It is accompanied by the release or absorption of energy. Nuclear fusion occurs naturally in stars. It takes considerable energy to force nuclei to fuse, even those of the lightest element, hydrogen. This is because all nuclei have a positive charge (due to their protons), and as like charges repel, nuclei strongly resist being put too close together. Accelerated to high speeds (that is, heated to thermonuclear

temperatures), however, they can overcome this electromagnetic repulsion and get close enough for the attractive nuclear force to be stronger, achieving fusion. The fusion of lighter nuclei, creating a heavier nucleus and a free neutron, will generally release more energy than it took to force them together-an exothermic process that can produce self-sustaining reactions. Nuclear fission is the splitting of the nucleus of an atom into parts (lighter nuclei) often producing free neutrons and other smaller nuclei, which may eventually produce photons (in the form of gamma rays). Fission of heavy elements is an exothermic reaction which can release large amounts of energy both as electromagnetic radiation and as kinetic energy of the fragments (heating the bulk material where fission takes place). Fission is a form of elemental transmutation because the resulting fragments are not the same element as the original atom. The products of nuclear fission are radioactive and remain so for significant amounts of time, giving rise to a nuclear waste problem. Active versus passive devices An active device is any type of circuit component with the ability to electrically control electron flow (electricity controlling electricity). In order for a circuit to be properly called electronic, it must contain at least one active device. Components incapable of controlling current by means of another electrical signal are called passive devices. Resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers, and even diodes are all considered passive devices. Active devices include, but are not limited to, vacuum tubes, transistors, silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs), and TRIACs. All active devices control the flow of electrons through them. Some active devices allow a voltage to control this current while other active devices allow another current to do the job. Devices utilizing a static voltage as the controlling signal are called voltage-controlled devices. Devices working on the principle of one current controlling another current are known as current-controlled devices. Vacuum tubes are voltage-controlled devices while transistors are made as either voltagecontrolled or current controlled types. The first type of transistor successfully demonstrated was a current-controlled device. Operational amplifier(741)

An operational amplifier, often called an op-amp , is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with differential inputs and, usually, a single output. Typically the output of the op-amp is controlled either by negative feedback, which largely determines the magnitude of its output voltage gain, or by positive feedback, which facilitates regenerative gain and oscillation. High input impedance at the input terminals and low output impedance are important typical characteristics. The

amplifier's differential inputs consist of an inverting input and a non-inverting input, and ideally the op-amp amplifies only the difference in voltage between the two. This is called the "differential input voltage". In its most common use, the op-amp's output voltage is controlled by feeding a fraction of the output signal back to the inverting input. This is known as negative feedback. If that fraction is zero, i.e., there is no negative feedback, the amplifier is said to be running "open loop" and its output is the differential input voltage multiplied by the total gain of the amplifier. Because the magnitude of the open-loop gain is typically very large and not well controlled by the manufacturing process, op-amps are not usually used without negative feedback. Unless the differential input voltage is extremely small, open-loop operation results in op-amp saturation. For any input voltages the ideal op-amp has * infinite open-loop gain, * infinite bandwidth, * infinite input impedances (resulting in zero input currents), * zero offset voltage, * infinite slew rate, * zero output impedance, and * zero noise. Imperfections * Saturation output voltage is limited to a minimum and maximum value close to the power supply voltages. * Slewing the amplifier's output voltage reaches its maximum rate of change. Measured as the slew rate, it is usually specified in volts per microsecond. Slewing is usually caused by internal capacitances in the amplifier, especially those used to implement its frequency compensation. * Non-linear transfer function The output voltage may not be accurately proportional to the difference between the input voltages. It is commonly called distortion when the input signal is a waveform. This effect will be very small in a practical circuit if substantial negative feedback is used. DC imperfections * Finite gain the effect is most pronounced when the overall design attempts to achieve gain close to the inherent gain of the op-amp. * Finite input resistance this puts an upper bound on the resistances in the feedback circuit. * Nonzero output resistance * Input bias current a small amount of current (typically ~10 nA for bipolar opamps, or picoamperes for CMOS designs) flows into the inputs. This current is mismatched slightly between the inverting and non-inverting inputs * Input offset voltage the voltage required across the op-amp's input terminals to drive the output voltage to zero. In the perfect amplifier, there would be no input offset voltage. AC imperfections * Finite bandwidth * Input capacitance most important for high frequency operation because it further reduces the open loop bandwidth of the amplifier. Linear circuit applications Differential amplifier:

The circuit shown is used for finding the difference of two voltages each multiplied by some constant (determined by the resistors). Inverting amplifier

## Inverts and amplifies a voltage (multiplies by a negative constant)

Zin = Rin (because V is a virtual ground) Non-inverting amplifier

## Amplifies a voltage (multiplies by a constant greater than 1)

Summing amplifier

## Sums several (weighted) voltages

When

, and Rf independent

When

Output is inverted Input impedance Zn = Rn, for each input (V is a virtual ground) Integrator

## Integrates the (inverted) signal over time

(where Vin and Vout are functions of time, Vinitial is the output voltage of the integrator at time t = 0.) Note that this can also be viewed as a type of electronic filter. Differentiator

(where Vin and Vout are functions of time) Note that this can also be viewed as a type of electronic filter. Comparator

Compares two voltages and outputs one of two states depending on which is greater

Skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to distribute itself within a conductor so that the current density near the surface of the conductor is greater than that at its core. That is, the electric current tends to flow at the "skin" of the conductor. The skin effect causes the effective resistance of the conductor to increase with the frequency of the current. current density J in an infinitely thick plane conductor decreases exponentially with depth from the surface, as follows: where d is a constant called the skin depth.

Faraday's law of induction: The induced electromotive force in a closed loop of wire is directly proportional to the time rate of change of magnetic flux through the loop. (A changing magnetic field can create an electric field) Moving a permanent magnet near a conductor (such as a metal wire) produces a voltage in that conductor. The resulting voltage is proportional to the speed of movement: moving the magnet twice as fast produces twice the voltage. For a tightly-wound coil of wire, composed of N loops with the same area, Faraday's law states that:

where is the electromotive force (emf) B is the magnetic flux The direction of the electromotive force (the negative sign in the above formula) was first given by Lenz's law. Lenz's law states that the induced current in a loop is in the direction that creates a magnetic field that opposes the change in magnetic flux through the area enclosed by the loop. That is, the induced current tends to keep the original magnetic flux through the field from changing. Convert AC to DC: Half Wave Rectifier:

Full-wave rectification Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC(direct current), and is more efficient. However, in a circuit with a non-center tapped transformer, four diodes are required instead of the one needed for half-wave rectification. Four rectifiers arranged this way are called a diode bridge or bridge rectifier:

A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output by reversing the negative (or positive) portions of the alternating current waveform. The positive (or negative) portions thus combine with the reversed negative (or positive) portions to produce an entirely positive (or negative) voltage/current waveform.

For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped, then two diodes back-toback (i.e. anodes-to-anode or cathode-to-cathode) form a full-wave rectifier (in this case, the voltage is half of that for the non-tapped bridge circuit above, and the diagram voltages are not to scale).

Rectifier output smoothing: While half- and full-wave rectification suffice to deliver a form of DC output, neither produces constant-voltage DC. In order to produce steady DC from a rectified AC supply, a smoothing circuit, sometimes called a filter, is required. In its simplest form this can be what is known as a Filter capacitor placed at the DC output of the rectifier. There will still remain an amount of AC ripple voltage where the voltage is not completely smoothed. To further reduce this ripple, a capacitor-input filter can be used. This complements the reservoir capacitor with a choke and a second filter capacitor, so that a steadier DC output can be obtained across the terminals of the filter capacitor. The choke presents a high impedance to the ripple current Superconductivity is a phenomenon occurring in certain materials at extremely low temperatures, characterized by exactly zero electrical resistance and the exclusion of the interior magnetic field. The electrical resistivity of a metallic conductor decreases gradually as the temperature is lowered. However, in ordinary conductors such as copper and silver, impurities and other defects impose a lower limit. Even near absolute zero a real sample of copper shows a non-zero resistance. The resistance of a superconductor, on the other hand, drops abruptly to zero when the material is cooled below its "critical temperature". An electric current flowing in a loop of superconducting wire can persist indefinitely with no power source. Transponder: An automatic device that receives, amplifies, and retransmits a signal on a different frequency (see also broadcast translator). Shift register is a group of flip flops set up in a linear fashion which have their inputs and outputs connected together in such a way that the data are shifted down the line when the circuit is activated. Shift registers can have a combination of serial and parallel inputs and outputs, including serial-in, parallel-out (SIPO) and parallel-in, serial-out (PISO) types. There are also types that have both serial and parallel input and types with serial and parallel output. There are also bi-directional shift registers which allow you to vary the direction of the shift register. The serial input and outputs of a register can also be connected together to create a circular shift register.

4-Bit SIPO Shift Register Counter is a device which stores (and sometimes displays) the number of times a particular event or process has occurred, often in relationship to a clock signal. Asynchronous (ripple) counters Synchronous counters Johnson counters Decade counters Up-Down counters Ring counters Asynchronous counters, also known as ripple counters, are not clocked by a common pulse and hence every flip-flop in the counter changes at different times. The flipflops in an asynchronous counter is usually clocked by the output pulse of the preceding flip-flop. The first flip-flop is clocked by an external event. A synchronous counter however, has an internal clock, and the external event is used to produce a pulse which is synchronised with this internal clock. Asynchronous (ripple) counters

Asynchronous Counter created from JK flip-flops.(J,K Set High) The simplest counter circuit is a single D-type flip flop, with its D (data) input fed from its own inverted output. This circuit can store one bit, and hence can count from zero to one before it overflows (starts over from 0). This counter will increment once for every clock cycle and takes two clock cycles to overflow, so every cycle it will alternate between a transition from 0 to 1 and a transition from 1 to 0. Notice that this creates a new clock with a 50% duty cycle at exactly half the frequency of the input clock. If this output is then used as the clock signal for a similarly arranged D flip flop (remembering to invert the output to the input), you will get another 1 bit counter that counts half as fast. Putting them together yields a two bit counter: cycle Q1 Q0 (Q1:Q0)decimal 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 2 1 0 2 3 1 1 3 4 0 0 0 You can continue to add additional flip flops, always inverting the output to its own input, and using the output from the previous flip flop as the clock signal. The result is called a ripple counter, which can count to 2n-1 where n is the number of bits (flip flop stages) in the counter. Ripple counters suffer from unstable outputs as the overflows "ripple" from stage to stage, but they do find frequent application as dividers for clock signals, where the instantaneous count is unimportant NOTE: Replace D by simple T flip flop to create simple ripple counter

Synchronous counters Where a stable count value is important across several bits, which is the case in most counter systems, synchronous counters are used. These also use flip-flops, either the D-type or the more complex J-K type, but here, each stage is clocked simultaneously by a common clock signal. Logic gates between each stage of the circuit control data flow from stage to stage so that the desired count behaviour is realised. Synchronous counters can be designed to count up or down, or both according to a direction input, and may be pre-settable via a set of parallel "jam" inputs. Most types of hardwarebased counter are of this type. A simple way of implementing the logic for each bit of an ascending counter (which is what is shown in the image to the right) is for each bit to toggle when all of the less significant bits are at a logic high state. For example, bit 1 toggles when bit 0 is logic high; bit 2 toggles when both bit 1 and bit 0 are logic high; bit 3 toggles when bit 2, bit 1 and bit 0 are all high; and so on.

4-bit Synchronous Binary Up-Counter MOD-N/Divide-by-N Counters Normal binary counter counts from 0 to 2N - 1, where N is the number od bits/flipflops in the counter. In some cases, we want it to count to numbers other than 2N - 1. This can be done by allowing the counter to skip states that are normally part of the counting sequence. There are a few methods of doing this. One of the most common methods is to use the CLEAR input on the flip-flops using asynchronous clear when the o/p reaches the desired no. Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) Counters The BCD counter is just a special case of the MOD-N counter (N = 10). BCD counters are very commonly used because most human beings count in decimal. Ring Counters Ring counters are implemented using shift registers. It is essentially a circulating shift register connected so that the last flip-flop shifts its value into the first flip-flop. There

is usually only a single 1 circulating in the register, as long as clock pulses are applied.

4-bit Synchronous Ring Counter In the diagram above, assuming a starting state of Q3 = 1 and Q2 = Q1 = Q0 = 0. At the first pulse, the 1 shifts from Q3 to Q2 and the counter is in the 0100 state. The next pulse produces the 0010 state and the third, 0001. At the fourth pulse, the 1 at Q0 is transferred back to Q3, resulting in the 1000 state, which is the initial state. Subsequent pulses will cause the sequence to repeat, hence the name ring counter. The ring counter above functions as a MOD-4 counter since it has four distinct states and each flip-flop output waveform has a frequency equal to one-fourth of the clock frequency. A ring counter can be constructed for any MOD number. A MOD-N ring counter will require N flip-flops connected in the arrangement as the diagram above. Johnson/Twisted-Ring Counters The Johnson counter, also known as the twisted-ring counter, is exactly the same as the ring counter except that the inverted output of the last flip-flop is connected to the input of the first flip-flop. The Johnson counter works in the following way : Take the initial state of the counter to be 000. On the first clock pulse, the inverse of the last flip-flop will be fed into the first flip-flop, producing the state 100. On the second clock pulse, since the last flip-flop is still at level 0, another 1 will be fed into the first flip-flop, giving the state 110. On the third clock pulse, the state 111 is produced. On the fourth clock pulse, the inverse of the last flip-flop, now a 0, will be shifted to the first flip-flop, giving the state 011. On the fifth and sixth clock pulse, using the same reasoning, we will get the states 001 and 000, which is the initial state again. Hence, this Johnson counter has six distinct states : 000, 100, 110, 111, 011 and 001, and the sequence is repeated so long as there is input pulse. Thus this is a MOD-6 Johnson counter. The MOD number of a Johnson counter is twice the number of flip-flops.

multiplexer or mux (occasionally the term muldex is also found, for a combination multiplexer-demultiplexer) is a device that performs multiplexing; it selects one of many analog or digital input signals and outputs that into a single line. Demultiplexers take one data input and a number of selection inputs, and they have several outputs. They forward the data input to one of the outputs depending on the values of the selection inputs. Demultiplexers are sometimes convenient for designing general purpose logic, because if the demultiplexer's input is always true, the demultiplexer acts as a decoder. Encoder is a device used to change a signal (such as a bitstream) or data into a code. A single bit 4 to 2 encoder takes in 4 bits and outputs 2 bits. It is assumed that there are only 4 types of input signals: 0001, 0010, 0100, 1000. I3 I2 I1 I0 O1 O0

constants needed to program a particular CPU architecture. This representation is usually defined by the hardware manufacturer, and is based on abbreviations (called mnemonics) that help the programmer remember individual instructions, registers, etc. An assembly language is thus specific to a certain physical or virtual computer architecture (as opposed to most high-level languages, which are portable). A utility program called an assembler is used to translate assembly language statements into the target computer's machine code. The assembler performs a more or less isomorphic translation (a one-to-one mapping) from mnemonic statements into machine instructions and data. (This is in contrast with high-level languages, in which a single statement generally results in many machine instructions. A compiler, analogous to an assembler, is used to translate high-level language statements into machine code; or an interpreter executes statements directly.) A high-level programming language is a programming language that, in comparison to low-level programming languages, may be more abstract, easier to use, or more portable across platforms. Such languages often abstract away CPU operations such as memory access models and management of scope. "high-level language" refers to the higher level of abstraction from machine language. Rather than dealing with registers, memory addresses and call stacks, high-level languages deal with variables, arrays and complex arithmetic or boolean expressions. In addition, they have no opcodes that can directly compile the language into machine code, unlike low-level languages like assembly language. Other features such as string handling routines, object-oriented language features and file input/output may also be present. NOTE: When we programmed in 8085 we used machine language because we use to program using opcodes ie in hexadecimal codes (numbers). When we used 8086 we used an assembler in which we had mnemonics which represented certain data. And when we used C or any other such language it was a HLL. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol for the transfer of information on intranets and the World Wide Web. Its original purpose was to provide a way to publish and retrieve hypertext pages over the Internet. HTTP is a request/response standard between a client and a server. A client is the end-user, the server is the web site. The client making an HTTP request - using a web browser, spider, or other end-user tool - is referred to as the user agent. The responding server which stores or creates resources such as HTML files and images - is called the origin server. In between the user agent and origin server may be several intermediaries, such as proxies, gateways, and tunnels. HTTP is not constrained to using TCP/IP and its supporting layers, although this is its most popular application on the Internet. Indeed HTTP can be "implemented on top of any other protocol on the Internet, or on other networks. HTTP only presumes a reliable transport; any protocol that provides such guarantees can be used." File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a network protocol used to transfer data from one computer to another through a network, such as over the Internet. FTP is a commonly used protocol for exchanging files over any TCP/IP based network to manipulate files on another computer on that network regardless of which operating systems are involved (if the computers permit FTP access). There are many existing FTP client

and server programs. FTP servers can be set up anywhere between game servers, voice servers, internet hosts, and other physical servers. Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet and most commercial networks run. It has also been referred to as the TCP/IP protocol suite, which is named after two of the most important protocols in it: the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which were also the first two networking protocols defined. Today's IP networking represents a synthesis of two developments that began to evolve in the 1960s and 1970s, namely LANs (Local Area Networks) and the Internet, which, together with the invention of the World Wide Web The Internet Protocol suitelike many protocol suitescan be viewed as a set of layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, and provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers. Upper layers are logically closer to the user and deal with more abstract data, relying on lower layer protocols to translate data into forms that can eventually be physically transmitted. The TCP/IP reference model consists of four layers

Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spcial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. Its promoter, the GSM Association, estimates that 82% of the global mobile market uses the standard. GSM differs from its predecessors in that both signalling and speech channels are digital call quality, and thus is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. This has also meant that data communication was easy to build into the system. GSM also pioneered a low-cost alternative to voice calls, the Short message service (SMS, also called "text messaging"), which is now supported on other mobile standards as well. Newer versions of the standard were backward-compatible with the original GSM phones. For example, Release '97 of the standard added packet data capabilities, by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE). GSM networks operate in four different frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. In the 900 MHz band the uplink frequency band is 890915 MHz, and the downlink frequency band is 935960 MHz. This 25 MHz bandwidth is subdivided into 124 carrier frequency channels, each spaced 200 kHz apart.