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FINAL YEAR PROJECT PRESENTATION(CS499)

Project title: Microcontroller based TAXI billing system

Name of Candidate: Maira, Albert M. Supervisor: Dr. M.M. Kissaka Registration number:2006-04-05608 Submission Date:23rd JULY 2010

Presentation overview
Introduction Problem statements Objectives Methodologies Literature review System modelling System operation Conclusion Recommendations Project costs Project activity schedule

Introduction
Microcontroller based TAXI billing system is a system designed to computerise taxicab billing services. Taxicabs are a common means of transportation in our modern day towns and cities. Need of automation in present day society, necessitated mechanisation of taxicab billing ( i.e. taximeters were born).

Introduction Cont.
Current situation found in Tanzanian towns; Taxicab billing involves negotiation of price by word of mouth. Only after the cost has been bargained, negotiated and agreed between taxicab driver and a customer can a journey begin. This present situation has several inconveniences to taxicab users.

Problem statements
The present situation has the following shortcomings Lack of clear billing structure. Wastage of time during price bargain. Difficulties to newcomers into town in price bargain. Difficulties to non Swahili speakers in price negotiation.

Objectives
The main objective is to computerise and thus automate taxicab billing by specifically designing a microcontroller circuit that; Measures travelled distance and hired time of a journey. Calculates cost incurred by a customer by using predetermined billing rates that are based on both distance and time. Displays hired time, distance travelled and cost incurred on an alphanumeric LCD screen.

Methodology
Since the design is an embedded electronics application both hardware and software design principles were used. Literature review Functional requirements elicitation from users. System requirements identification. System design modelling. System design implementation. Prototype testing and design refinement.

Literature review
There are three types of taximeters Mechanical taximeters Microprocessor taximeters Micro-controller taximeters

Literature review cont.


Mechanical taximeters were the early means of mechanizing taximeters by using mechanical computing gears. They have advantages of not being easily affected by temperature variations, electrical and electromagnetic interferences. However, they are not an ideal choice in this design; due to presence of present day ubiquitous cheap, efficient and readily available electronic technology solutions.

Literature review cont.


Microprocessor taximeters are the taximeters that utilize general purpose microprocessor. They have advantages of having; very high performance and easy to interface them with other peripherals. However they are not an ideal choice in this design because they have high cost and power requirements and thus will be uneconomical to implement them in taximeters.

Literature review cont.


Micro-controller taximeters are taximeters that use dedicated services of a microcontroller to provide data processing. They have advantages of being economical, good performance and high flexibility in provisioning of billing options. This is an ideal choice in this design due to the above advantages.

System design modelling


The system has the following main blocks Keypad: used to capture user settings. Wheel revolution sensor: a pulsar that generates an interrupt to the microcontroller whenever it senses a wheel revolution. LCD screen: an alphanumeric display device to provide visual user interface. Micro-controller: this is a processing engine that performs all computations and control decisions.

System design modelling cont.


The system flowchart in this design uses three asynchronous program threads Main program thread: this is a billing loop that continuously updates the display and checks keypad status. Wheel revolution sensor ISR: an interrupt service routine to handle wheel revolution sensor interrupt and determine distance covered for billing purposes. TIMER1 overflow ISR: interrupt service routine to keep track of hiring time for billing purposes.

System design modelling cont.


In this design hiring time is accomplished through an internal 16bit counter that is set to cause an interrupt on overflow after every 2 seconds. This time interrupt generated will be used to monitor hiring time (which is to be measured in minutes and hours). Cost (in T.Shs) due to hiring time is calculated by multiplying measured hiring time and set predetermined time billing rate(in T.Shs per minute).

System design modelling cont.


In this design distance travelled is deduced from an external wheel revolution sensor interrupt that is set to occur on each single wheel revolution. And since the wheel dimensions (circumference) are known the distance travelled is obtained by multiplying the counted number of revolutions with the wheel dimensions to determine distance covered. Cost (in T.Shs) due to distance is then calculated by multiplying measured distance (in meters) with the set predetermined distance billing rate (in T.Shs per meters).

System operation
A typical system operates through three routine steps 1. User prompted for choice (simulation, implementation) 2. Billing is done continuously when start key is pressed (simulation, implementation) 3. Cost is displayed and billing stopped when stop key is pressed (simulation, implementation)

Conclusions
The project design objectives have been duly met however numerous challenges were encountered; Parts availability Parts affordability Absence of PIC microcontroller microcode programmer at the department.

Recommendations
The following are my recommendations for future works of the proposed design The wheel revolution sensor can be implemented by using optoelectronic sensor. External EEPROM (flash memory) can be integrated in the design to provide statistical billing records for accounting.

Bill of materials of the design

Project costs

Project activity schedule

The End.

Thank you for your kind attention you are welcome for questions/inquiries and/or remarks.

Block diagram
Display

Microcontroller Keypad

Revolution sensor

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System flow chart

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Billing options simulation


PROTECTION RESISTOR
VDD 280

LCD1
LM016L

VSS VDD VEE

RS RW E 4 5 6 4 BY 3

SENSOR OSCILLATOR
1MHz

100n

1 2 3

15p 13 14 2 3 4 5 6 7

MICROCONTROLLER
OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT RB0/INT RB1 RB2 RB3/PGM RB4 RB5 RB6/PGC RB7/PGD 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 15 16 17 18 23 24 25 26 19 20 21 22 27 28 29 30

C2
15p

R1
39k

8 9 10

R2
2k

RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RE0/AN5/RD RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RE1/AN6/WR RC2/CCP1 RE2/AN7/CS RC3/SCK/SCL RC4/SDI/SDA MCLR/Vpp/THV RC5/SDO RC6/TX/CK RC7/RX/DT RD0/PSP0 RD1/PSP1 RD2/PSP2 RD3/PSP3 RD4/PSP4 RD5/PSP5 RD6/PSP6 RD7/PSP7 PIC16F877A

C3
0.85n

KEYPAD
1 2 A

1 4 7

2 5 8 0

3 6 9 #

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

C1

C4

Return

Billing options implementation

Return

Billing simulation
PROTECTION RESISTOR
VDD 280

LCD1
LM016L

VSS VDD VEE

RS RW E 4 5 6 4 BY 3

SENSOR OSCILLATOR
1MHz

100n

15p 13 14 2 3 4 5 6 7

MICROCONTROLLER
OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT RB0/INT RB1 RB2 RB3/PGM RB4 RB5 RB6/PGC RB7/PGD 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 15 16 17 18 23 24 25 26 19 20 21 22 27 28 29 30

C2
15p

R1
39k

8 9 10

R2
2k

RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RE0/AN5/RD RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RE1/AN6/WR RC2/CCP1 RE2/AN7/CS RC3/SCK/SCL RC4/SDI/SDA MCLR/Vpp/THV RC5/SDO RC6/TX/CK RC7/RX/DT RD0/PSP0 RD1/PSP1 RD2/PSP2 RD3/PSP3 RD4/PSP4 RD5/PSP5 RD6/PSP6 RD7/PSP7 PIC16F877A

C3
0.85n

KEYPAD
1 2 A

1 4 7

2 5 8 0

3 6 9 #

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

1 2 3

D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

C1

C4

Return

Billing implementation

Return

Cost display simulation


PROTECTION RESISTOR
VDD 280

LCD1
LM016L

VSS VDD VEE

RS RW E 4 5 6 4 BY 3

SENSOR OSCILLATOR
1MHz

100n

1 2 3

15p 13 14 2 3 4 5 6 7

MICROCONTROLLER
OSC1/CLKIN OSC2/CLKOUT RB0/INT RB1 RB2 RB3/PGM RB4 RB5 RB6/PGC RB7/PGD 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 15 16 17 18 23 24 25 26 19 20 21 22 27 28 29 30

C2
15p

R1
39k

8 9 10

R2
2k

RA0/AN0 RA1/AN1 RA2/AN2/VREF-/CVREF RA3/AN3/VREF+ RA4/T0CKI/C1OUT RA5/AN4/SS/C2OUT RC0/T1OSO/T1CKI RE0/AN5/RD RC1/T1OSI/CCP2 RE1/AN6/WR RC2/CCP1 RE2/AN7/CS RC3/SCK/SCL RC4/SDI/SDA MCLR/Vpp/THV RC5/SDO RC6/TX/CK RC7/RX/DT RD0/PSP0 RD1/PSP1 RD2/PSP2 RD3/PSP3 RD4/PSP4 RD5/PSP5 RD6/PSP6 RD7/PSP7 PIC16F877A

C3
0.85n

KEYPAD
1 2 A

1 4 7

2 5 8 0

3 6 9 #

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7

C1

C4

Return

Cost display implementation

Return