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DEFECTS ON WOVEN AND KNITTED FARICS AND ITS CORRECTIONS (Causes and remedies) A SEMINAR PRESENTATION BY JACOB SOLOMON

SUNDAY F/ND/09/3240584 SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF POLYMER AND TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY, YABA COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY YABA LAGOS
IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT OF NATIONAL DIPLOMA DEGREE

SUPERVISED BY ...... MR D.N.ICHETANOYE AUGUST 2011

TABLE OF CONTENT
 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  DEDICATION 1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2.0 SPINNING 2.1 causes and correction 2.2 solution and remedies 3.0 WEAVING 3.1 causes and correction 3.2 solution and remedies 4.0 PRETREATMENT 4.1 causes and correction 4.2 solution and remedies 5.0 KNITTING 5.1 causes and correction 5.2 solution and remedies 6.0 DYEING 6.1 causes and correction 6.2 solution and remedies 7.0 PRINTING 7.1 causes and correction 7.2 solution and remedies 8.0 WASHING 8.1 causes and correction 8.2 solution and remedies 9.0 STEAMING 9.1 causes and correction 9.2 solution and remedies 10.0 FINISHING 10.1 causes and correction 10.2 solution and remedies 11.0 CALENDERING 11.2 causes and correction 11.2 solution and remedies  IMAGES  CONCLUSION  REFERENCE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Textile materials are valued for their good quality appearance,handling,finess,smooth surface and well aligned threads after weaving or knitting,all these are considered before further processing such as wet processes i.e dyeing and printing are carried out the transformed into garment. As such, every textile mill will therefore endeavor to meet the consumers choice of products and also produce a product that will meet the standard set by the regulatory authority in terms of quality assurance, performance before such product is introduced into the market with that in mind, a defect or fault in textile material are considered as sub-standard and will command a very low price and patronage in the market place which will lead to loss of resources to the manufacturer. To void these stringent measures are taken by textile manufacturers during production processes to minimize avoidable loss due to cost of production. Defect on fabrics can occur during different stages of productions such as 1. PREPARATORY PROCESSES 2. PRODUCTION PROCESSES 3. FINISHING PROCESSES

Faults during preparatory processing are due to y y Blending Spinning

Faults during production processing are due to y y Yarn Machine setting and parameter

Faults during dyeing and printing are due to y y y Condition [ph ,temperature] Nature of dye Type of fibre

Faults during finishing processing are due to y y Machine parameter Temperature

I shall be limiting my research to woven and knitted fabrics in this seminar

SPINNING PROCESSES FAULT


Spinning is the process of transforming individual fibre strands or filament in to continuous length of yarn, for this to be achieve the fibre bale are taken to the blow room where it is transformed into laps then the carding room to be carded [sliver]then drawing. The drawing is then spin by roving and or ring spinning, the spun yarn is the wounded on suitable package ready for warping or reeling

BULLETS
Bullets are low twisted double yarn seen weft wise in fabrics. Those are generally zero Twisted parallel yarns.

CAUSES:
y y y y y y Proper functioning of bunch motion is not there. Incorrect yarn path through spindle. Loose tensioners. Capsule and spring working. In-sufficient length of yarn as bunch. Knot is not applied after removing the Bunch yarn.

TWIST VARIATION
Twist less or more than normal twist, Loose/Soft twist-due to lower spindle speed

CAUSES:
y y y y y y Speed not proper of each spindle Bearings. Break shoe conditions. Pressure of tension roller. Bolster. Yarn lapping over spindle

COUNT VARIATION
Difference in count compared to require count. Fabric gives bad appearance and characterized by variation in density. The variations of Lower and higher side for long and medium type y Regular check on wrapping from Gill box to Ring frames. y Correct piecening of silver or that portion should be removed from the delivered Sliver. y During run out of material extra care is required to take. y Auto-leveler setting is to be checked for fault and material of below Std. Uster Value to be taken back for processing. y Top cots rollers condition at Gill boxes, Rovings and Ring frame.

y y

Tensions at Roving and Ring frames vary. Barrels at Roving should move freely. Top arm pressure, spacer, condenser and drafting zone condition of spinning frame.

WEAVING
Weaving is the process of interlacing two sets of yarn thread,the warp and the weft at an angle of 90 to each other, the warp thread is laid length-wise while the weft thread runs across the width of the machine for a cloth to be woven some mechanism most be involved with three important motion which are y SHEDDING y PICKING y BEAT UP Other motion involved the take-up and let-off then the auxiliary or stop motion Shedding: this is the separation of the warp sheet into two layers to create a tunnel for shuttle passage, this operation is controlled by the healed shafts Picking: this is the traverse of the shuttle through the open shed laying the filling yarn [weft] Beat up: as the shuttle lays it weft, a frame [like comb] called reed is drawn forward which beat the newly inserted weft to the fabric already been formed called the fell of cloth.

WEAVING PROCESSES FAULTS


BROKEN END: Broken warp end, after warp breaks loom doesn't stop immediately it runs 2 to 3 Picks or some time more than this without warp end. DOBBY MISTAKE: Defects like shaft hold, design cut, wrong colour selection that is related to dobby, called dobby mistake. DEFECTIVE SELVEDGE: Tails out, Warp selvedge, Loops, Uneven, under tuck in, over tuck in, defect in monogram, curly selvedge are classified as defective selvedge... TIGHT END: High tension on particular warp end compared to other warp end. TEMPLE MARK: Mark on fabric, which is caused due to jamming of temple rings or ring spikes are blunt. WRONG DRAWING: Wrong drawing of warp end, which is not as per heald sheet or draft. WRONG DENTING: Denting order is given on draft or on piece ticket. If we miss that order while drawing or denting the ends through reed i.e. called wrong denting. WRONG END: 'S' 'Z' - In warp and weft pattern 'S' twisted & 'Z' twisted ends are there. If we warp 'Z' twisted yarn in place of 'S' twisted yarn it is called wrong end S' 'Z'. WRONG END COLOUR: In warp & weft different shades are used and its Sequence is given on piece ticket, if we miss that sequence then fault like wrong end colour will occur. SLOUGH OFF: Bunches of weft woven on fabric called slough off, mostly cause due to soft weft packages. PATTERN MISTAKE: In some qualities warp pattern is printed on piece ticket and warping is carried out as per pattern. If warper makes mistake while creeling then fabric will be woven with wrong pattern called pattern mistake. WRONG STARTING POINT: In dobby design, lifting order is given while making dobby card. Instead of 1st pick we start to punch from 2nd pick then fabric produced will be called wrong starting point.

WAX STREAKS: Waxing is done during beaming to reduce Hairiness & warp breakage. Because of excess Waxing warp way & weft way, wax bands Observed on fabric called wax streaks. Yarn gets open as it appears on fabric called Filamentation. FLOATING END: Single end continuously floating on the fabric.

STREAKS
Thick/thin places in yarn known as streaks

CAUSES
y Defective reed can be one of its reasons, if any of reed wires distance is disturbed. It will make thin the end where from its two wires being close to each other, and make end little bit relaxed than rest of the ends. Wrong denting, i.e. if denting of 3ends/dent instead of 2 ends/dent due to drawer.

REMEDIES
y y y

Use correct count of yarn that is ordered. Use new or fault free reed. Denting should be done properly.

OIL STAINS:
Staining of oil on fabric during machine movement

CAUSES:
y y

Oil chain leak. Leakage of oil from tuck in.

REMEDIES:
y y

Stop oil leakage from chain. Dont over lubricate the tuck in / cease the oil leakage from tuck in device.

DOUBLE PICK
Faulty pick finding, improper staggering of heald shafts, play in heald shaft connections

CAUSES

y y

Double pick is due to faulty weft stop motion. Due to improper functioning of filling detector.

REMEDIES
y y

Use fault free weft stop motion. Check the functioning of filling detector whether its working correctly or not.

DOUBLE END
Having two different ends of warp yarn in the heald eye

CAUSES
y y y

Whenever an end breaks the worker fills that broken end in the reed of 2 end/dent or with drop wire already having 1 end/dent it causes double end. This fault can come due to sizing, if the end is broken in sizing and the personnel attach that wrongly with another size yarn that causes double end problem. This same problem can come due to warping also if broken end knotted wrongly to the another end.

REMEDIES
y y y

Do proper denting. Give proper attention in sizing, when attaching broken end. Do proper knotting.

SHORT END
When a warp yarn become shorten due to breakage during weaving

CAUSES
y

This fault can come due to weaver, if an end breaks then he stops machine. After stopping hell repair that end and then runs machine. He must start machine after reversing a bit so that short end doesnt come but he starts machine from the position where loom has been stopped. If any end breaks but loom continues to run and doesnt sense that broken end this fault is due to sensor.

REMEDIES
y y

Whenever repairing broken end, after repairing start the loom from precise point. Use correct sensing device.

REED MARK:
Warp way gap on the fabric, which is caused due to reed (Mostly occurs due to damaged reed). Fabric shows irregular spacing between groups of warp yarns across the width of fabric.

CAUSES
y y y y

Due to improper reed guide wire. Due to low quality reed, it leaves mark where it from it gets damaged. If any of reed wire is broken it will leave mark along the length of fabric. Improper reed setting. Joining of reed pieces, if we are having reed of 110 but we have a order of fabric width 100 then we cut the reed to 100 and process that. But after some time if again we get a order of 110 then most of the weavers join reed pieces that they had cut before. This will cause a fault. Due to late shedding

REMEDIES
y y y

Use proper, precise and good quality reed. Dont use joint reed. avoid high warp tension

NEEDLE MARK OF TUCK IN AT SELVEDGE


Caused by an extra piece of filling being jerked part way into the fabric by the shuttle. The defect will appear at the selvedge.

CAUSE
y

This fault comes due to needle of tuck in box, which may be in the form of break/oil spot/ rust present on it, will cause needle mark along the length of fabric.

REMEDIES
y

Use precise, fine needle free of oil.

TEMPLE MARK:
Surface disturbance along the selvedge of fabric.

CAUSES
y y y y y

This fault due to tightness of temple. Due to jamming of temple rings. Due to improper ring size used for particular quality. Defective temples, wrong temples for fabrics. Incorrect setting of temple rollers

REMEDIES
y y y

Give required tension at temple. Use fine and well lubricated rings. Use proper size ring in accordance with fabric quality.

TEMPLE CUT
When temple looms is too tight or too much tension is on the warp thread

CAUSES
y y y

Due to tightness of temple, it can cut the fabric. If rings of temple jam these will engage with any pick and cause deterioration in the fabric. Its remedy to use fine ring in accordance with fabric quality and with fine temple.

REMEDIES
y y y

Give required tension at temple. Use fine and well lubricated rings. Use proper size ring in accordance with fabric quality.

MISS PICK
Caused by the filling Insertion mechanism on a shuttleless loom not holding the filling yarn, causing the filling to be woven without tension

CAUSES
y y y y

Weft cone runs short. Operator fault, in placing weft cone at proper time. Take up roller gear breakage Worker negligence, weft end to end knotting if not proper, weft detector if not works, pick finding mechanism if not work proper

REMEDIES
y y y

Change short cone with new one. Operator must change weft cone when needed. Use new take up roller.

SHUTTLE MARKS:
Widthwise marks due to abrasion of warp yarns by the shuttle sheds not adjusted properly.

CAUSES
y

Shuttle not timed properly i.e. is too early or too late shedding.

REMEDIES
y

Shuttle timing must be proper.

KNITTING
Knitting is the process of creating fabric by transforming continuous strand of yarn into series interlocking loops, with the loop further more forming stitch with the previous and adjacent loops above and below. Types of knitted fabrics y y Warp knitted fabrics Weft knitted fabrics Classification of knitting machine Warp weft

Flat Single bed flat purl v-bed

circular

tracheal

tricot

Single jersey purl rib interlocking The horizontally laying loops are known as the course while the vertical interlocking loops are called the wale, knitting element are things directly involved in the operation and knitting of fabrics which include yarn, needles, sinker, cams and tricks all on the machine

KINTTED FABRIC DEFCTS DROP STITCHES (HOLES)


Drop Stitches are randomly appearing small or big holes of the, same or different size, which appear as defects, in the Knitted fabrics.

CAUSES:
y y y

y y

High Yarn Tension Yarn Overfeed or Underfeed High Fabric Take Down Tension Obstructions in the yarn passage, due to the clogging of eyelets, yarn guides & tension. Incorrect gap between the Dial & Cylinder rings.

REMEDIES:
y

y y y y

Rate of yarn feed should be strictly regulated, as per the required Stitch Length. The fabric tube should be just like a fully inflated balloon, not too tight or too slack. Eyelets & the Yarn Guides, should not have, any fibers, fluff & wax etc. stuck in them. The yarn being used, should have no imperfections, like; Slubs, Neps & big knots etc The gap between the Cylinder & the Dial should, be correctly adjusted, as per the knitted loop size

BARRINESS
Barriness defect appears in the Knitted fabric, in the form of horizontal stripes of uniform or variable width.

CAUSES:
y

y y

High Yarn Tension Count Variation Mixing of the yarn lots

REMEDIES:

y y y y

Ensure uniform Yarn Tension on all the feeders. The average Count variation in the lot, should not be more than + 0.3 Ensure that the yarn being used for Knitting is of the same Lot / Merge no. Ensure that the hardness of, all the yarn packages, is uniform, using a hardness tester.

STREAKINESS
Streaks in the Knitted fabrics appear as; feeble, irregularly spaced & sized, thin and thick places in the yarn horizontal lines.

CAUSES:
y y y y Yarn slippage on the IRO Pulley, due to the yarn slipping in & out from underneath the IRO Belt, due to a tilted IRO Pulley. Worn out IRO belts, yarn guides & eyelets etc Faulty winding of the yarn packages Yarn running out of the belt, on the IRO Pulley

REMEDIES:
y y y y Ensure very smooth, clean & obstruction free passage of the yarn, through the eyelets, yarn & tension discs etc. No cuts or rough surfaces, in the Porcelain Eyelets, Yarn Guides & the Yarn Feeder holes etc. Flawless winding of the, Yarn Package (The yarn coils should unwind smoothly, without any obstruction) The yarn should be running under the IRO belt, between the belt & around the IRO pulley

IMPERFECTIONS
Imperfections appear on the fabric surface, in the form of unevenly placed or randomly appearing, Knots, Slubs & Neps, Thick & Thin places in the yarn.

CAUSES:
y Big Knots, Slubs & Neps in the yarn, Thick & Thin yarn (Uneven USTER)

REMEDIES:

y y

Specify the quality parameters of the yarns, to be used for production, to the yarn supplier. Specify the number of acceptable Imperfections / Km. of the yarn & the USTER evenness %, while ordering the yarn.

SNARLS
Snarls appear on the fabric surface, in the form of big loops of yarn getting twisted, due to the high twist in the yarn (Unbalanced twist yarn).

CAUSES:
y y y High, twist in the, yarn. Hosiery yarns are soft twisted. High, twist in the yarn, is the cause of snarling. Snarls cause, fabric defects & needle breakages

REMEDIES:
y y y
y

Ensure using Hosiery Yarns, of the recommended T.P.M. only. (Hold a few inches of the yarn in both the hands, in the form of a U. The yarn has a balanced twist, if it doesnt tend to rotate or turn, in the form of a snarl. Such yarn can be used for Hosiery applications

CONTAMINATIONS
Contaminations appear, in the form of foreign matter, such as; dyed fibers, husk, dead fibers etc., in the staple spun yarn or embedded in the knitted fabric structure.

CAUSES:
y y y y Presence of dead fibers & other foreign materials, such as; dyed fibers, husk & synthetic fibers etc. Dead fibers do not pick up color during Dyeing. Presence of the foreign materials, in the, staple fiber mixing Dyed & other types of fibers flying from the adjacent Knitting machines cling, to the yarn being used for knitting & get, embedded in the Grey Fabric.

REMEDIES:
y Use rich fiber mixing for the yarns, to be used for Knitting, in order to have less dead fibers, appearing in the fabric.

y y

Rigid control measures in the Blow Room, to prevent the mixing of foreign matters in the Cotton mixing. Segregate the Spinning & Knitting Machines, with Plastic Curtains or Mosquito Nets, to prevent the fibers flying from the neighboring machines, from getting embedded in the yarn / fabric.

SPIRALITY
Spirality appears in the form of a twisted garment, after washing. The seams on both the sides of the garment displace, from their position & appear on the front & back of the garment.

CAUSES:
y y y y y High T.P.M. of the Hosiery Yarn (Spirality is caused, by the Twisting Torque as a result, of the high yarn T.P.M.) (Hosiery yarns are soft twisted, whereas the Warp yarns are hard twisted) Uneven Fabric Take down tension, on the Knitting machine. Unequal rate of Fabric feed on the Stenter, Calendar & Compactor machines.

REMEDIES:
y y y y Use the Hosiery yarns of the recommended TPM level for Knitting (Hosiery yarns are soft twisted, in comparison to the Warp yarns) Fabric pull or the Take Down tension, on both sides of the grey fabric tube, on the knitting machine, should be equal. Ensure uniform rate of feed of the dyed fabric, on both the edges, while feeding the fabric to the Calendar, Compactor or Stenter machines.

NEEDLE LINES
Needle lines are prominent, vertical lines, along the length of the fabric, which are easily visible in the grey as well as finished fabric.

CAUSES:
y y y Bent Latches, Needle Hooks & Needle stems Tight Needles in the grooves Wrong Needle selection (Wrong sequence of needles, put in the Cylinder or Dial)

REMEDIES:
y Inspect the grey fabric on the knitting machine for any Needle lines.

y y y y

Replace all the defective needles having, bent latches, hooks or stems. Remove the fibers accumulated in, the Needle tricks (grooves). Replace any bent Needles, running tight in the tricks. Check the Needle filling sequence in the Cylinder / Dial grooves (tricks).

BROKEN NEEDLES
Defects caused by the broken needles, show prominently, as vertical lines parallel to the Wales. There are no loops formed in the Wale, which has a broken needle.

CAUSES:
y y y High Yarn Tension Bad Setting of the Yarn Feeders Old & Worn out Needle set

REMEDIES:
y y
y

Ensure uniform & the right Yarn tension on all the feeders. Keep the recommended gap, between the Yarn Feeders & the Needles. Periodically change the complete set of needles.

SINKER LINES
Sinker lines are prominent or feeble vertical lines, appearing parallel to the Wales, along the length of the knitted fabric tube.

CAUSES:
y y Bent or Worn out Sinkers Sinkers being tight in, the Sinker Ring grooves

REMEDIES:
y y Replace, all the worn out or bent sinkers, causing Sinker lines in the fabric. Sinker lines are very fine & feeble vertical lines, appearing in the fabric.

Remove the fibers, clogging the Sinker tricks (Grooves)

OIL LINES
Oil lines are prominent vertical lines, which appear along the length of the knitted fabric tube. The lines become permanent, if the needle oil used is not washable & gets baked, due to the heat, during the finishing of the fabric.

CAUSES:
y y Fibers & fluff accumulated in the needle tricks, which remain soaked with oil. Excessive oiling of the, needle beds.

REMEDIES:
y y y y y Fibers, accumulated in the needle tricks, cause the oil to seep into the Fabric. Some lubricating oils are not washable & can not be removed during Scouring. Oil lines appear in the fabric, in the lengthwise direction, even after dyeing. Remove all the Needles & the Sinkers of the machine, periodically. Clean the grooves of the Cylinder & Dial of the machine thoroughly, with petrol.

BROKEN ENDS
Broken ends appear as equidistant, prominent horizontal lines, along the width of the fabric tube, when a yarn breaks or is exhausted.

CAUSES:
y y High Yarn Tension Yarn exhausted on the Cones.

REMEDIES:

y y y

Ensure correct yarn tension on all the feeders. Ensure that the Yarn detectors on all the feeders are working properly. Depute a skilled & alert machine operator, on the knitting machine.

FABRIC PRESS OFF


Fabric press off appears, as a big or small hole in the fabric, caused due to the interruption of the, loop forming process, as a result of the yarn breakage, or closed needle hooks.. At times, complete fabric tube can fall off the needles, if the needle detectors are not functioning, or are not properly set.

CAUSES:
y y End breakage on feeders, with all needles knitting. Yarn feeder remaining in lifted up position, due to which, the yarn doesnt get fed in the hooks of the needles.

REMEDIES:
y y Needle detectors, should be set precisely, to detect the closed needles & prevent the fabric tube from completely pressing off. Proper yarn tension should be maintained, on all the feeders.

SURFACE HAIRINESS
Surface hairiness appears in the form of excess superfluous fibers, on the surface of the knitted fabrics, which have either been reprocessed, or tumble dried. Pilling appears as, small fiber balls formed on the fabric surface, due to the entanglement of loose surface fibers.

CAUSES:
y y y Abrasion due to the contact with rough surfaces Excessive surface hairiness caused, due to the abrasive tumbling action Rough Dyeing process & abrasive machine surfaces (Soft Flow Machine tubes, Tumble Dryer drum etc.)

REMEDIES:
y Avoid using the Tumble Dryer.

y y y y y

(Control shrinkage by maximum fabric relaxation & over feed in the processing) Regularly inspect the fabric contact points on all the machines, for any rough & sharp surfaces. Rectify, if found rough Avoid repeated reprocessing of the fabrics. Use anti pilling chemical treatments for the fabrics, prone to pilling.

SNAGGING
Snagging appears on the knitted fabric surface, as a pulled up yarn float, showing up in the form of a large loop.

CAUSES:
y Caused by the pulling or the plucking of yarn from the, fabric surface, by sharp objects.

REMEDIES:
Inspect & rectify the fabric contact points on all the machines Soft Flow Dyeing, Tumble Dryer & Centrifuge etc, on which snagging is taking place

PRE-TREATMENT PROCESSES

OIL AND GREASE STAINS


CAUSES
Due to carelessness of the maintenance workers and the machine operatives, oil spills over parts which come in contact with the fabrics and stains are produced.

REMEDIES
Emulsifiers are used to remove oil and grease stains

SINGE MARKS
CAUSES
Blockage of some of the flame orifices and creases in the fabrics lead to non-uniform singeing and affected areas appear darker after dyeing or printing

REMEDIES
Colour should be stripped and the fabrics re-singed and redyed.

DRAFT STAINS
CAUSES

If wet cloth after bleaching is left for relatively longer period of time after bleaching, then after dyeing, printing or finishing it will exhibit stains of deeper colour.

REMEDIES
The cloth showing stains is acidified, washed and dried to remove the stains.

ROPE MARKS
CAUSES
When scouring and bleaching the cloth in rope form under high pressure during mangling, folds develop longitudinally

REMEDIES
In order to remove the folds, cloth is stentered and in case of severe folds it is mercerized.

TENDERED AREAS
CAUSES
Chemical degradation during bleaching produces tendered areas of faded color in dyed cloth.

REMEDIES
Minor tendering is curable by boiling the cloth in caustic soda solution and re dyeing. Acute tendering cannot be repair

DYEING
Dyeing is the application of colorant on a subsrate to improve its luster, make it more colorful and attractive Dyes are organic compounds that have affinity for the fibers of the materials it is used on ,dyeing some times cover up for the fault or defect present in a fabric in minor cases as any poor quality fabric may command a very high price and patronage in the market for its attractive physical appearance if well dyed Theory of dyeing Large scale dyeing is carried out with dyeing machines and this can be done in three substrate forms  Fibre  Yarn  Fabric In all this form of dyeing the material must come in contact with the dye liquor in the dye bath, the strength of attraction between the fibers and the dye deepens on the following  Hydrophobic/hydrophilic nature of the fibre  Hydrophobic/hydrophilic nature of the dye  Possibility of close packing between the dye and the fiber surface However for a dyed fabric to exhibit it value, some properties are desired such as Washing and light fastness and ability to withstand perspiration, friction and abrasion

DYEING FAULTS DYEING PATCHES


Dyeing patches appear, as random irregular patches on the surface of dyed fabrics.

CAUSES:
y y y y y (Scouring, Dyeing recipe, Dyeing Machine stoppage, Softener) Inadequate Scouring of the grey fabric is one of the primary causes of the dyeing patches. Improper leveling agent is also one of the causes of dyeing patches. Correct pH value not maintained. Dyeing machine stoppage, due to power failure, or the fabric entanglement, in the, dyeing machine are, a major cause of the dyeing patches.

REMEDIES:
y y y y Scour the grey fabric thoroughly, to remove all the impurities from the fabric, before dyeing. Use appropriate leveling agents, to prevent patchy dyeing. Maintain the correct pH value, during the course of dyeing. Use a power back up (Inverter) for the dyeing operation to be completed, uninterrupted.

SOFTENER MARKS
Softener marks appear as distinct irregular patches in the dried fabric, after the application of softener.

Causes:
y Softener not being uniformly dissolved in water

Remedies:
y Scour the grey fabric thoroughly, to remove all the impurities from the fabric, before dyeing.

y y y

Ensure that the softener is uniformly dissolved in the water & doesnt remain undissolved as, lumps or suspension. Use the right softener & the correct procedure for the application. Maintain the correct pH value of the softener, before application.

STAINS
Stains appear as spots or patches of grease, oil or dyes of different color, in a neat & clean finished fabric surface.

Causes:
y y y y y Dyeing Machine not cleaned thoroughly, after dyeing a lot. Grease & Oil stains from the unguarded moving machine parts, like; Gears, Shafts, Driving Pulleys & Trolley wheels etc. Fabric touching the floors & other soiled places, during transportation, in the trolleys. Handling of the fabric, with soiled hands & stepping onto the stored fabric with dirty feet or shoes on.

Remedies:
y y y y y Wash & clean the dyeing machine thoroughly, after dyeing every dye lot. Follow the dyeing cycle of Light- Medium- Dark shades & then the reverse the cycle, while dyeing the fabric. All the lubricated moving machine parts, should be protected, with safety guard Make sure that the fabric is neatly packed in or covered with Polythene sheets, while transporting or in storage. Handle the fabric carefully, with clean hands & do not let anyone step onto the stored fabric.

CREASE MARKS
Crease marks appear in the knitted fabric, as dark haphazard broken or continuous lines.

Causes:
y Damp fabric moving at high speed in twisted form, in the Hydro extractor (Centrifuge)

Remedies:

y y y

Use anti Crease, during the Scouring & the Dyeing process (The use of anti Crease, swells the Cellulose & prevents the formation of Crease marks) Spread the fabric in loose & open form & not in the rope form, in the Hydro Extractor.

COLOR FADING (POOR COLOR FASTNESS)


The color of the garment or the fabric appears, lighter & pale, in comparison to the original color of the product, after a few uses.

Causes:
y y y y y Dyeing recipe i.e. the poor fixing of the dyes is a major cause, of color fading. Using the wrong combination of colors in a, secondary or tertiary shade. Use of strong detergents & the quality of water are also the common causes for color fading. Prolonged exposure to strong light will, also cause the colors to fade. High level of acidity or alkalinity in the perspiration of individuals also, causes color fading.

Remedies
y y y y y Use the correct dyeing recipe i.e. the appropriate leveling, fixing agents & the correct combination of dyes. Dont soak the garments for more than 10- 15 minutes, in the detergent, prior to washing Turn the wet garments, inside out, while drying. Dry in shade & not in direct sunlight Protect the garments against prolonged direct exposure to strong lights (show rooms or exhibitions etc.).

SHADE VARIATION
Sometimes, there appears to be a difference in the depth of shade, between the roll to roll & from place to place, in the same roll. The defect will show up clearly, in the garments, manufactured from such fabric.

Causes:
y y y Shade variation can be as a result of mixing of the, fabrics of two different lots. Shade variation is also caused, by the variation in the process parameters i.e. Time, Temperature & Speed etc. from one fabric roll, to the other. Shade variation can appear to be, in fabrics with GSM variation, caused due to the uneven stretching, unequal fabric overfeed % etc.

Remedies:
y y Ensure that the grey fabric used for one shade, is knitted from the same lot of the yarn. Ensure that the same process parameters (Width, Overfeed, Temperature & Machine Speed etc.) are used, for each roll of a dye lot.

TONAL VARIATION
Roll to roll or within the same roll difference in the color perception i.e. Greenish, Bluish, Reddish or Yellowish etc., is attributed as tonal variation in the shade.

Causes:
y y y y y y y Wrong Dyeing recipe (Wrong leveling agent selection or wrong dyes combinations) Improper fabric Scouring (Impurities like, Oil & Wax etc. not being completely removed in Scouring) Level dyeing not being done, due to the inappropriate leveling agents. Variation in the process parameters, e.g. Temperature, Time & Speed etc (Tonal variation in the fabric is caused, due to the variations, in the fabric processing parameters i.e. Temperature, Time & Speed etc. of the Shrink Dryer & Stenter, especially if, the machine is repeatedly stopped.)

Remedies:
y y y Use appropriate leveling agents, to ensure uniform & level dyeing. Scour the grey fabric thoroughly, to ensure the removal of all the impurities. Ensure that the whole lot of the dyed fabric is processed, under uniform process parameters.

FOLDING MARKS
Fold marks appear as distinct pressure marks, along the length of the fabric

Causes
y y High pressure of the fabric Take Down rollers of the Knitting machine, on the grey fabric, is one of the main causes. Too much pressure of the feeding rolls of the Calendar & Compactor is, the primary cause of the folding marks, in the knitted fabric.

Remedies:
y Adjust the gap between the two rolls, as per the thickness of the fabric sheet (Pique, S.J. etc.)

Gap between the two Calendar rolls should be just enough, to let the rolls remove, the wrinkles in the fabric, but put no pressure on the fabric sheet, especially in the case of Pique & structured fabrics.

GSM VARIATION
The fabric will appear to have a visible variation in the density, from roll to roll or within the same roll of, the same dye lot.

Causes:
y Roll to roll variation in the, process parameters, of the fabric, like; Overfeed & Widthwise stretching of the dyed fabric, on the Stenter, Calendar & Compactor machines. Roll to roll variation in the fabric stitch length.

Remedies:
y y Make sure that all the fabric rolls in a lot, are processed under the same process parameters. The Knitting Machine settings, like; the Quality Pulley diameter etc. should never be disturbed.

CLOUDY DYEING
Colour or dye stuff smearing on fabric

CAUSES
y y y y y y Inadequate pretreatment Channeling due to irregular winding Wrong loading of the machine or bobbins(too much material, too tight winding, etc Poor circulation of the goods due to interruptions, knots, Too much foam in the dye bath Wrong dyeing programmed heating, pressure, speed

REMEDIES
y y y Select optimum conditions and chemicals Pay particular attention to winding of the material Adjust the machine more carefully

Use antifoamers, e.g. Anti-mussol brands optimum dyeing heat at the maximum rate to the threshold of the critical temperature range

process

PALE AREAS
CAUSES
y y y y y Air pockets in the material (e.g. Cheeses) Colored specks due to incorrect preparation of the pad liquor Alkali residues in the goods Poor penetration Severe migration

REMEDIES
y y y y y y Use special chemicals, e.g. Wetting agent / defoamer combinations, or greater pressure Add acetic acid to pad liquor for ph5-6 Follow instructions for preparing the pad liquor exactly, filter pad liquor before feeding into trough avoid drying out of liquid dyes due to incorrect storage avoid high turbulence in the padding trough, use low-foaming chemicals, if necessary add antifoamers Add a wetting agent to the pad liquor, change the pressure of the rollers, increase impregnation time Dry more slowly, use special migration inhibitor

PATCHY COLOUR
CAUSES
y y y y y y y Entanglement of fabric Fibers of different origins in the material Faulty injection of alkali Improper addition of colour Due to hardness of water Uneven heat in the machine Improper dissolving of dyes and chemicals

REMEDIES
y Ensuring proper dosing of dyes and chemicals

y y y

Proper salt addition Heating should be the same throughout the dye liquor By passing the dissolved dyestuff through a fine stainless steel mesh strainer , so that the undisclosed particles are removed

VARIATION AND DEVIATION OF SHADE


CAUSES
y y y y y y y Dye sensitivity to hydrolysis, reduction, electrolyte Improper dosing time of dyes and chemicals Dye sensitivity to metal ions in the dye bath Dye buildup affected by chemicals (retarding effect) Alkali residues Solvent residues from pretreatment Improper rell speed, pump speed, liquor ratio

REMEDIES
y Select dyes carefully, control ph exactly (buffer system),hardness of and sodium carbonate content of supply water must be checked daily Pay attention to stability of dye to electrolytes Maintain same dyeing circle - pay particular attention to selection of dyes and chemicals Pay attention to consistent dyeing conditions Pay attention to behavior of individual elements Stir before removal from container Adapt dye selection and process Neutralize the goods Scour and select finishing chemicals carefully Complete removal of solvent

y y y y y y y y y y

POOR LIGHT AND RUB FASTNESS


CAUSES
y y y y Carrier residues on fabric (inadequate thermo-fixation) Catalytic fading due to unsuitable dye combination Thermo-migration due to finishing and softening chemicals Inadequate dye fixation due to too short dyeing time or too low fixation temperature

REMEDIES y Repeat thermofixation (at higher temperature)


y y Adapt dyeing process, select appropriate dyes Optimize dyeing process, reduction clear

PRECIPITATES IN THE DYEBATH


CAUSES
y y y y y y Dye precipitates due to poor dispersion or dyes with poor dispersion stability Dye crystallization due to variations in temperature in the dye bath Colored spots due to dye deposits on the machine use of volatile carriers Silicones in the dye bath Oligomers in the dye bath

REMEDIES
y Pay special attention to dispersing instructions y Pay attention to dye selection (dispersion stability) y Use dispersants Pay attention to perfect liquor circulation Pay attention to cleanness in the machine Select suitable carriers, use overhead heating in the machine Use silicone-free defoamers Drop dye bath hot, shorter dyeing time, use special chemicals

y y y y y

CREASING
CAUSES
y y y y y y y Lengthwise distortion caused by dyeing machine Poor opening of the fabric rope Due to quality of goods (structure, e.g. Tightly woven fabric, weight) Too heavy batch of fabric Incorrect loading of machine Mechanical friction due to overloading Stationary material in the running machine (knots) y Shock cooling of synthetic material

REMEDIES
y y y y Adjust dyeing machine to material, select correct setting temperature, adjust stenter correctly Adjust temperature programme, add a lubricant, e.g. Imacol brand Reducing machine load Higher liquor ratio

THERMOSOL DYEING PROBLEMS


CAUSES
y y y y y y y One-sided liquor feed into the trough Different nip roller pressure Unlevel migration in intermediate drying uneven thermosolling or fixation of dyes due to temperature differences Uneven drying from side to side Deflecting roller stationary Fibre tips not dyed (e.g. Viscose)

REMEDIES
y y y y y y y Check injection pipe or mount a distribution plate Check rollers (pickup) regularly Check temperature and air current over the entire width in the drier; avoid migration by using lowest possible pickup and a suitable migration inhibitor. Select dyes with little tendency to migrate Check fixation units regularly with thermo paper or temperature sensors use more reliable dyes with as little sensitivity as possible to temperature deviations Add lyogen v change process, e.g. Wet steaming

DARK SELVEDGES AND BRONZING


Dark selvedges are caused by non-uniform winding of cloth during dyeing on jiggers. Bronzing effect also appears during dyeing in open jiggers with vat and sulphur dyes.

CAUSES
y y Dark selvedges are caused by non-uniform winding of cloth during dyeing on jiggers Bronzing effect also appears during dyeing in open jiggers with vat and sulphur dye

REMEDIES
y The defective cloth colour is stripped and it is redyed. During the process of redyeing beaming of cloth should be perfect .

COLOUR MIGRATION
CAUSES
y Colour intensity on one side of the fabric is different from that on the other side. The main cause is non- uniform drying of both faces of the fabric.

REMEDIES
y Colour should be stripped and fabric redyed.

SPECKY DYEING
CAUSES
y The use of dyestuff brands of big particle size especially in pigment and vat colour dyeing results in darker dyed spots on the fabric surface.

REMEDIES
y The cloth should be boiled and stripped of colour. Highly dispersed brands of vat colors should be used for re-dyeing of cloth.

DYE MOLTING
CAUSES y Erroneous recipe concentrations and dyeing methodology result in unlevel dyeing. y Unequal pressure on the dye mangle in continuous dyeing produces differences in
colour depth on sides.

REMEDIES
y y The dye must be stripped, reduced or reoxidised. Adjust the colour by shading method. The cloth should be stripped of colour and redyed with uniform pressure on the dye mangle.

PRINTING
Printing the process of imparting colour on textile materials by the application of dye stuff, pigment, thickener and colorant

PRINTING FAULTS SQUEEZE MARKS


CAUSES
y Pressure differences of the squeegees variations in colour intensity of printed fabric. Poor quality of thickener and rubber also causes this problem.

REMEDIES
y Squeegee pressure should be adjusted. Good quality thickener and rubber of suitable shore hardness should be used.

COLOUR STAINS ON UNPRINTED PARTS


CAUSES
y y Colour from a defective preceding screen is over printed in the main white grounds. This is due to wear of gelatin or ducco of the screen. Unequal feeding of printing paste of low viscosity causes stains in parts of the fabric not to be printed.

REMEDIES
y The defective screen must be repaired.

Print paste feed must be equal and uniform and its viscosity should be suitable.

WHITE OR COLOURED SPOTS AND COLOUR DEPTH DIFFERENCE


CAUSES
y Fabric areas differing in the colour depth than the surrounding areas or appearance of unprinted white spots caused by defective printing rollers

REMEDIES
y Eccentric printing or engraved rollers must be repaired and engraving depth should be increased

DOCTOR BLADE STREAKS


CAUSES
y Scratches in the printing rollers or dullness of the doctor blades can cause white wavery lines in warp direction.

REMEDIES
y Engraved printing rollers should be repaired. Doctor blades should be cleared and sharpened

MISALIGNMENT OR OVERLAPPING OF DESIGN


CAUSES
y Misalignment or overlapping of the printed design is caused by defective fitting of rollers or screens on the printing machine. It may also be due to errors in engraving or photographing of the design.

REMEDIES

Screens or rollers should be properly fitted on the printing machine. Errors in engraving or photographing of the design should be rectified.

WASHING
Washing process is to ensure the removal of unfixed dye and thickening agents still present in the printed area of a fabric. The condition used depend upon the dye, fibre and the wash-off equipments used, but a series of hot or cold rinse and a hot detergent treatment are usually required. This process is usually continuous either open width or in rope form after washing, the printed fabric is far less stiff and should possess the required dye fastness

WEAKER COLOUR
CAUSES y Low efficiency of color fixation process causes weaker or pale colour after washing. REMEDIES
y Colour of the dyed fabric should be developed with correct concentration

STAINS ON WHITE GROUNDS


CAUSES
y Saturation of the washing containers with dye-stuffs or contaminated water cause stain on white portions of the fabric.

REMEDIES
y Squeezing mangles of the washing machine should be cleaned. Washing liquor should be frequently renewed.

POOR WASHING FASTNESS


CAUSES
y y In complete removal of excess colour or low washing process efficiency causes poor washing fastness. Stains on the machine blanket can cause colour stains on the back of the printed cloth

REMEDIES y Temperature of the washing basins should be adjusted. y Soap or other chemicals which are are added should be removed y . Blanket as well as the drying oven should be cleaned.

STEAMING FAULTS COLOUR INTENSITY DIFFERENCES ON CLOTH SIDES.


CAUSES.
y Non-uniform temperature and steam distribution inside the steamer cause differences in colour intensities between cloth sides.

REMEDIES
y Uniformity of temperature and steam distribution in the steamer should be perfect.

WATER DROPS
CAUSES.
y Improper insulation and heat distribution causes dropping of condensed water on cloth during steaming.

REMEDIES
y Temperature during steaming should be evenly distributed and insulation of the steamer should be improved.

FINISHING FAULTS
Textile finishing are activities performed on materials before it reach the final customers, it may be temporary or permanent finishes This process is design to increase the attractiveness and serviceability of the end-product

STARTCH STAINS AND WHITE LINES ON FINISHED CLOTH


CAUSES
y Starch stains and white lines on the finished cloth are produced because of incomplete dissolution of the starch in the padding liqueur.

REMEDIES
y Fabric should be desized and re-starched.

LONGITUDINAL CREASES
CAUSES
y Longitudinal creases are produced if the cloth passes on non-uniform cylinders after starching.

REMEDIES
y The cloth should be padded in a solution of hot water and dried on an even surface

WRONG AND NARROW WIDTH


CAUSES

Frequent stoppages during mercerization or drying produce cloth with non-uniform width.

REMEDIES
y Cloth should be passed again through the Stenter to get the required width.

CALENDERING
Calendaring is the process of compressing the fabric between two heavy rollers to give a flattened, smooth appearance to the surface of the fabric. It is the modification of the surface of a fabric by the action of heat and pressure, the purpose of this is to increase the fabric luster (silk-like to high gloss finishes), closing the thread of a woven faric, increasing the opacity, increasing the handle of the fabric

POOR FINISH OF CLOTH


CAUSES
y If cloth with high starch content and high moisture regain is calendared, the finish of the cloth will be poor.

REMEDIES
y The cloth should be thoroughly dried and treated with suitable finishing recipe before calendaring.

POOR DEGREE WHITENESS


CAUSES
y Residual acidity in bleaching and mercerization processes, incomplete dissolution of the optical brightener and use of poor quality softeners can lead to poor degree of whiteness of the cloth.

REMEDIES
y Initial scouring and bleaching should be proper. Optical brightener should be properly dissolved. Bleached fabric PH should be adjusted and suitable softening agent should be used.

REFERENCE
WWW.INDIATEXTILEJORNAL.COM WWW.NATURE.COM MR.D. AKINDIYA ..ARTICLE .. JORNALS

...........LECTURE NOTE 2011

WWW.FACEBOOK.COM TEXTILE ENGINEERS WWW.MYTEXTILENOTES.BLOGSPOT.COM .ARTICLE MR. ICHETANOYE ..LECTURE NOTE 2011